Docstoc

amc omc 6287 vhf hndbk2

Document Sample
amc omc 6287 vhf hndbk2 Powered By Docstoc
					  FOREwORd
This	handbook	is	intended	for	the	guidance	of	radio	operators:
    	
    O
(a)		 n	 Australian	 vessels	 which	 are	 voluntarily	 fitted	 with	 marine	 VHF	 radiotelephony	 and	 marine	 VHF	
    radiotelephony	with	digital	Selective	Calling	(dSC)	capability.
    	
    O
(b)		 n	 Australian	 vessels	 which	 are	 compulsorily	 fitted	 with	 marine	 VHF	 radiotelephony	 and	 marine	 VHF	
    radiotelephony	with	digital	Selective	Calling	(dSC)	capability.
It	 is	 the	 recommended	 textbook	 for	 candidates	 undertaking	 the	 Marine	 Radio	 Operators	 VHF	 Certificate	 of	
Proficiency	(MROVCP)	examination.
Procedures	 and	 requirements	 outlined	 in	 the	 handbook	 are	 based	 on	 the	 International	 Radio	 Regulations	
formulated	 by	 the	 International	 Telecommunication	 Union	 (ITU),	 on	 provisions	 governing	 the	 use	 of	 radio	
transmitters	in	Australia	laid	down	in	the	Radiocommunications Act 1992,	and	on	radiocommunications	station	
licence	conditions	set	by	the	Australian	Communications	and	Media	Authority	(ACMA).
Careful	 observance	 of	 the	 procedures	 covered	 by	 this	 handbook	 is	 essential	 for	 the	 efficient	 exchange	 of	
communications	 in	 the	 marine	 radiocommunications	 service,	 particularly	 when	 the	 safety	 of	 life	 at	 sea	 is	
concerned.	Special	attention	should	be	given	to	those	sections	dealing	with	distress,	urgency	and	safety.	
It	 should	 be	 noted	 that	 no	 provision	 of	 this	 handbook,	 the	 International	 Radio	 Regulations,	 or	 the	
                                                                                                                 	
Radiocommunications Act 1992,	 prevents	 the	 use	 by	 a	 vessel	 in	 distress	 of	 any	 means	 at	 its	 disposal	
to	attract	attention,	make	known	its	position	and	obtain	help.
Similarly,	no	provision	of	this	handbook,	the	International	Radio	Regulations,	or	the	Radiocommunications Act
1992,	prevents	the	use	by	vessels	engaged	in	search	and	rescue	operations	of	any	means	at	their	disposal	to	
assist	a	vessel	in	distress.		
This	 booklet	 is	 based	 on	 extracts	 from	 the	 Marine	 Radio	 Operators	 Handbook	 2008	 and	 reflects	 the	 new	
arrangements	for	maritime	communication	stations	from	1	July	2002.		These	arrangements	include	substantial	
changes	to	the	frequencies	monitored	by	these	stations	for	distress	and	safety,	and	changed	requirements	for	
ships	wishing	to	participate	in	the	AUSREP	reporting	system.
It	 also	 contains	 information	 about	 the	 Global	 Maritime	 distress	 and	 Safety	 System	 (GMdSS)	 marine	
communications	techniques	which	are	available	for	use	by	small	vessels	in	Australia.			The	system	uses	advanced	
technology	 and	 automation	 to	 ensure	 that	 search	 and	 rescue	 authorities,	 as	 well	 as	 ships	 in	 the	 vicinity	 of	
an	emergency,	are	alerted	reliably	and	rapidly.		Both	satellite	and	terrestrial	communications	form	essential	
components	of	the	GMdSS.
The	Australian	Maritime	College	(AMC)	acknowledges	the	contribution	of	ACMA,	the	Australian	Maritime	Safety	
Authority	(AMSA),	the	Bureau	of	Meteorology,	Telstra,	and	the	Governments	of	the	States	and	the	Northern	
Territory	in	the	preparation	of	this	Handbook.




                      	                                                               AUSTRALIAN	MARITME	COLLEGE		              1
     CONTENTS
     	 	          	 	                                                                                       page          	 revision	Questions	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     IntroductIon	to	MarIne	VHF	                                                                                          callIng	ProcedureS
     	 operator	requirements	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4                               	 routine	calling	Procedures	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     	 	          Radio	Licence	Information	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4                                	 	         Routine	Calling	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     	 	          Operator	Qualifications	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4                          	 	         Replying	to	Calls	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     	 Marine	VHF	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4            	 	         Repeating	Calls 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     	 	          General	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4    	 	         d
                                                                                                                                      	 ifficulties	in	establishing	contact		. . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     	 Frequency	of	Marine	VHF	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4                                 	 distress	calling	Procedures 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 	          Frequency	Spectrum	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4                         	 	         Responsibility 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 	          Range	of	VHF	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5            	 	         Authority	to	Transmit	a	distress	Call		
     	 	          Typical	VHF	Ranges.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	. 5                     	 	         and	Message 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 VHF	Marine	radio	equipment	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6                                       	 	         Channel	for	distress	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 	          Principle	of	Operation 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6                       	 	         distress	Alert	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 the	Major	Parts	of	radio	equipment 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6                                                	 	         The	distress	Signal	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 	          General	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6   	 	         The	distress	Call 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 	          Transceiver	controls	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6                    	 	         The	distress	Message	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     	 	          General	Care	and	Maintenance 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7                                       	 	         distress	Position	information 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     	 VHF	Marine	repeaters	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7                           	 	         distress	Traffic 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     	 	          Principle	of	Operations 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7                        	 	         	 cceptance	of	distress	Calls	and	Messages		. 15
                                                                                                                                      A
     	 	          Repeater	Channels 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8                    	 	         Authority	to	Transmit	a	distress		
     	 	          Use	of	VHF	Marine	Repeaters 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8                                    	 	         Acknowledgement	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15		
     	 Stations	for	Marine	communications 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8                                                  	 	 Obligation	to	Acknowledge	Receipt	of	a		
                                                                                                                          	 	         distress	Message 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     	 	          Limited	Coast	Stations	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
                                                                                                                          	 	         Acknowledgement	of	Receipt		. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
     	 	          Station	Identification 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
                                                                                                                          	 	         Control	of	distress	Traffic 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
     	 operating	Procedures 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                                                                                          	 	         Resumption	of	Restricted	working	. . . . . . . . . . . .17
     	 	          Authority	of	the	Master 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                                                                                          	 	         R
                                                                                                                                      	 esumption	of	Normal	working 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
     	 	          Priority	of	Communications 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                                                                                          	 	         T
                                                                                                                                      	 ransmission	of	distress	Relay	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
     	 	          Protection	of	Channels 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
                                                                                                                          	 	         The	Urgency	Signal	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
     	 	          Secrecy	of	Communications	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
                                                                                                                          	 	         The	Safety	Signal 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     	 	          watch	keeping	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
                                                                                                                          	 revision	Questions	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     	 	          Silence	Periods	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
     	 	          Unnecessary	Communications	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10                                          	dIgItal	SelectIVe	callIng	(dSc)
     	 	          Test	Transmissions 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10                     	 	         General	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     	 	          Log	keeping 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10            	 	         dSC	Capable	Equipment	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     	 	          Phonetic	Alphabet	and	Figure	Code 	. . . . . . . . . .10                                                	 	         Station	Identity	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     	 	          Control	of	Communications 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10                                    	 	         Transmission	of	a	dSC	alert	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23	


	2        MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
	 	 Information	Contained	in	a	dSC	Alert 	. . . . . . . 23                                                        Power	SuPPlIeS
	 	         dSC	Alert	Formats	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23                    	 	          The	Marine	Battery	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
	 	         distress	Alert	Procedures 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23                             	 	          Battery	Construction	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
	 	         distress	Position	Information 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23                                   	 	          Cell	Voltage	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
	 	         dSC	Alert	Information 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23                         	 	          Cell	Capacity	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
	 	         Transmission	of	a	dSC	distress	Alert	. . . . . . . . . 24                                             	 	          Battery	Connection 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
	 	         Repetition	of	distress	Alerts	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .	24                                	 	          Battery	Hazards	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
	 	         Acknowledgement	of	a	VHF	dSC	                                                                         	 	          Essential	Battery	Maintenance	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
	 	         distress	Alert	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24           	 	          Battery	Cleanliness	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
	 	         Cancellation	of	an	inadvertent		                                                                      	 	          Electrolyte	Level	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
	 	         distress	Alert	 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24           	 	          Correct	Charging.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	.	34
	 revision	Questions	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25                     	 	          Measuring	the	Specific	Gravity 	. . . . . . . . . . .34
SurVIVal	craFt	eQuIPMent                                                                                          	 	          Measuring	the	On-Load	Terminal	Voltage 	. . 35
	 emergency	Position	Indicating		                                                                                 	 	          Loss	of	Capacity	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
	 radio	Beacons	(ePIrBs) 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26                            	 	          Maintenance	Free	Batteries 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
	 	         General	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26    	 	          Connection	of	batteries	during	
	 	         Local	User	Terminals	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26	                      	 	          emergencies	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
	 	         Type	of	EPIRB	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26	           	 revision	Questions	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
	 	 Identification	of	a	406	MHz	EPIRB	. . . . . . . . . . . . 26                                                  MIScellaneouS
	 	         The	COSPAS-SARSAT	International	System 	. 26                                                          	 Suggested	format	for	a	radio		
	 Methods	of	detection	and	location	 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27                                                	 logbook	Page	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
	 	         The	406	MHz	EPIRB	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27                        	 table	of	transmitting	Frequencies	in	the		
	 	         detection	by	Satellite	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27                       	 VHF	Maritime	Mobile	Band	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
	 activation	oF	tHe	406	MHz	ePIrB 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28                                             	 Marine	VHF	channels	for	use	by		
                                                                                                                  	 Ship	Stations	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
	 	         General	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
                                                                                                                  	 	          Table	1	Professional	Fishing	Vessel		
	 	         Accidental	activation	of	an	EPIRB 	. . . . . . . . . . . . 28                                         	 	          Channels 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
	 	         Servicing	of	EPIRBs	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28                    	 	          Table	2	Commercial	Vessel	Channels	. . . . . . . . . 41
	 	         Stowage	of		EPIRBs	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28                     	 	          Table	3	Yachts	and	Pleasure	Craft 	. . . . . . . . . . . . 41
	 revision	Questions	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29                     	 	          Table	4	Port	Operations 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
	 Search	and	rescue	transponders 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30                                            	 	          Table	5	Public	Correspondence	Channels 	. . . 42
	 	         General	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30	   	 	          Table	6	VHF	Marine	Repeater	Channels 	. . . . . 42
	 	         Positioning	of	the	SART 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
                                                                                                                  	 Phonetic	alphabet	and	Figure	code	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
	 	         SART	Operations	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30		
                                                                                                                  	 Standard	Marine	communication	Phrases 	. . . . . . 44
	 	         Location	distances 	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
                                                                                                                  	 Internet	websites	of	Marine	Interest	. . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
	 revision	Questions	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
                                                                                                                  	 contact	details	. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47



                                        	                                                                                                                 AUSTRALIAN	MARITME	COLLEGE		                                            3
     IntroductIon	to	MarIne	VHF

     OPERATOR	REQUIREMENTS
     radIo	lIcence	InForMatIon
     Under	the	Radiocommunications Act 1992,	the	installation	and	operation	of	marine	radio	equipment	aboard	any	
     Australian	vessel	must	be	authorised	by	a	licence.		In	the	case	of	marine	VHF	equipment	on	board	an	Australian	
     vessel	this	is	authorised	by	a	maritime	ship	station	class	licence.		A	copy	of	this	class	licence	is	available	from	
     ACMA.		Radio	call	signs	are	no	longer	issued	by	ACMA	for	marine	VHF.		However	existing	radio	call	signs	may	
     still	be	used.
     The	 class	 licence	 does	 not	 authorize	 the	 operation	 of	 a	 ‘home	 base’.	 	 Except	 in	 special	 cases,	 marine	 radio	
     equipment	in	private	residences	will	not	be	authorised	by	ACMA.

     oPeratorS	QualIFIcatIonS
     As	 a	 minimum,	 under	 the	 above	 licence	 conditions,	 all	 operators	 of	 marine	 VHF	 equipment	 are	 required	 to	
     posses	the	Marine	Radio	Operators	VHF	Certificate	of	Proficiency	(MROVCP)	as	issued	by	the	Office	of	Maritime	
     Communications	(OMC),	a	branch	of	the	AMC,	on	behalf	of	ACMA.



     MARINE	VHF
     general
     National	 and	 International	 systems	 exist	 to	
     provide	 prompt	 and	 effective	 search	 and	
     rescue	 assistance	 to	 ships	 in	 distress.	 	 By	
     complying	with	the	following	procedures,	ship	
     station	operators	can	ensure	that	these	systems	
     continue	to	work	effectively	for	the	benefit	of	all	mariners.
                                                                                                     Fig.	1		transceiver
     The	transmission	of	false	or	deceptive	distress,	urgency	or	safety	messages	
     is	strictly	forbidden.		Extremely	severe	penalties,	including	imprisonment	exist,	under	the	Radiocommunications
     Act 1992,	for	any	person	found	guilty	of	making	such	a	transmission.
                                                                                                                          	
     All	 radiotelephony	 distress,	 urgency	 and	 safety	 calls	 and	 messages	 should	 be	 spoken	 slowly	 and	 clearly.	
     The	phonetic	alphabet	and	figure	code	should	be	used	if	necessary.		Use	of	the	standard	marine	vocabulary	is	
     recommended	in	the	case	of	language	difficulties.



     FREQUENCY	OF	MARINE	VHF
     FreQuency	SPectruM
     The	International	Telecommunication	Union	(ITU)	has	allocated	various	bands	of	frequencies	throughout	the	
     frequency	spectrum	for	maritime	use.		The	frequency	spectrum	is	divided	into	eight	bands,	of	which	frequencies	
     for	maritime	VHF	use	fall	between	30	to	300	megahertz	(MHz).		
     The	VHF	channel	plan,	as	described	in	the	International	Radio	Regulations,	shows	a	total	of	59	VHF	channels	are	
     available	for	marine	use;	(See	Table	of	Transmitting	Frequencies	in	the	VHF	Maritime	Mobile	Band,)

	4     MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
	    5
     	 6	(48	duplex	channels,	and	8	simplex	channels)	for	radiotelephone;	
	        (
     1	 	 Channel	70)	is	for	digital	Selective	Calling	(dSC);	and	
	        (
     2	 	 Channel	87B,	AIS1,	and	88B,	AIS2)	are	exclusively	for	Automatic	Identification	Systems	(AIS).

range	oF	VHF
due	to	the	propagation	conditions	at	VHF	that	part	of	the	radio	wave	emitted	from	the	transmitter	(surface	or	
ground	wave)	only	follows	the	curvature	of	the	earth’s	surface	for	a	limited	distance.		Range	at	VHF	is	therefore	
considered	as	‘short’	and	dependent	on	the	combined	height	of	the	transmitting	and	receiving	antennas.		
Generally	 speaking	 range	 at	 VHF	 is	 slightly	 greater	 than	 the	 visual	 line	 of	 sight	 of	 the	 combined	 antennas,	
the	higher	the	antenna	the	greater	the	ranges.		during	certain	atmospheric	conditions,	particularly	during	the	
summer	months,	the	‘ground	wave’,	may	be	refracted	round	the	earth’s	surface	for	a	far	greater	range	than	
would	 normally	 be	 expected	 at	 VHF.	 	 This	 phenomenon	 is	 known	 as	 ‘ducting’	 and	 should	 not	 be	 regarded	      	
as	normal.

tyPIcal	VHF	rangeS
                 Small	craft	with	                  Approx.	5	nautical	miles                  Small	craft	with	
1.               handheld	VHF                                                                 handheld	VHF




                                                    Approx.	10	nautical	miles                  Yacht	with	mast	aerial		
                 Small	craft	with	                                                             30	ft	(9m)	above	sea	level
                 handheld	VHF
2.



                                                    Approx.	35	nautical	miles

3.
                                                                        Approx.	15	nautical	miles


     Yacht	with	mast	aerial		                                                                                     Coast	Station
     30	ft	(9m)	above	sea	level
                                                    Approx.	60	nautical	miles

4.


Large	Vessel                                                                                                      Coast	Station


                                                                Repeater

5.

                      	                                                                INTROdUCTION	TO	MARINE	VHF		

                                                                                                                  Coast	Station Fig.	2

                      	                                                                INTROdUCTION	TO	MARINE	VHF		                5
     VHF	MARINE	RAdIO	EQUIPMENT
     PrIncIPle	oF	oPeratIon
     VHF	marine	equipment	offers	a	communications	range	between	vessels	of	up	to	20	km	(10.8	nautical	miles)	and	
     between	vessel	and	shore	of	50	km	(27	nautical	miles),	and	possibly	significantly	greater;		
         a
     >>	 	 	safety	service	provided	by	limited	coast	stations	operated	by	marine	rescue	and	other	organisations;
         t
     >>			 he	advantages	of	being	relatively	inexpensive,	of	providing	the	highest	quality	signal,	of	suffering	least	from	
         interference	caused	by	atmospheric	or	ignition	sources,	and	of	providing	access	to	a	radiotelephone	service	
         (not	available	in	Australia);	but
         t
         	
     >>			 he	disadvantage	of	suffering	blind	spots	behind	cliffs,	sand	hills	and	heavy	vegetation.
     VHF	marine	equipment	is	suitable	for	small	vessels	remaining	relatively	close	to	the	coast	and	within	range	of	
     limited	coast	stations	operating	on	VHF	channels.
     VHF	marine	equipment	fitted	with	digital	Selective	Calling	facilities	may	offer	a	single	button	distress	facility	
     and	automatic	watch	keeping.



     THE	MAJOR	PARTS	OF	RAdIO	EQUIPMENT
     general
     Marine	radio	equipment	operating	in	the	VHF	band	is	made	up	of	three	major	parts:
     >>		the	power	supply;
     >>		the	transceiver;	and		
         t
     >>			 he	antenna	or	aerial.
                                                                                                                               	
     Each	 part	 is	 dependent	 on	 the	 other.	 	 A	 fault	 in	 any	 one	 of	 the	 parts	 will	 not	 allow	 the	 equipment	 to	
     function	correctly.
     The	 power	 to	operate	the	radio	equipment	may	be	supplied	by	the	 vessels	engine	 or	 from	 an	 independent	
     battery.
                                                                                                                	
     The	transmitter	and	receiver	are	combined	into	a	single	unit	and	commonly	referred	to	as	the	‘Transceiver’.	
     The	digital	Selective	Calling	(dSC)	unit	may	be	further	integrated	with	the	transceiver.
     The	antenna	for	a	marine	VHF	transceiver	should	be	mounted	as	high	as	possible,	preferably	at	the	top	of	a	
     mast,	in	order	to	give	greater	range,	and	is	described	as	‘A	short	vertical	whip	or	rod	antenna’.		Ultra-violet	
     radiation	will	cause	fibre	glassed	whip	antennas	to	deteriorate	after	many	years	of	service	to	a	point	where	
     moisture	can	penetrate	the	layers	of	insulation.		This	will	seriously	affect	radiation	efficiency	and	replacement	
     or	re-fibreglassing	will	be	necessary.	

     tranSceIVer	controlS
     This	 section	 details	 the	 functions	 of	 important	 operator	 controls	 which	 may	 be	 found	 on	 marine	 VHF	 radio	
     equipment.	Not	all	will	be	found	on	each	brand	of	equipment.	Transceiver	controls	may	be	identified	differently	
     by	individual	manufacturers	but	will	have	the	same	purpose:	
     on/oFF	and	VoluMe	control.	Often	these	functions	are	combined	into	a	single	control.		It	is	used	to	turn	the	
     equipment	on	or	off,	and	to	adjust	the	level	of	signals	coming	from	the	loudspeaker.



	6     MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
SQuelcH	control.	This	control	allows	the	operator	to	stop	the	constant	and	annoying,	internally	generated,	
background	roar	from	the	receiver	in	the	absence	of	an	incoming	signal.		On	VHF	marine	equipment,	it	is	usually	
an	adjustable	control.		
The	correct	setting	is	such	that	the	roar	just	cannot	be	heard.	Further	operation	of	the	control	is	undesirable	as	
this	will	progressively	desensitise	the	receiver	and	may	prevent	reception	of	weak	signals.
cHannel	Selector.	This	control	is	used	to	select	the	channel	on	which	transmission	or	reception	is	required.	
dual	watcH	(dw).	This	control	will	be	found	on	the	majority	of	VHF	equipment.		In	operation	it	will	permit	
the	operator	to	keep	a	listening	watch	on	a	working	channel	and	Channel	16.	This	is	NOT	to	be	confused	with	
scanning	desirable	or	selected	VHF	channels.
Scan.	This	control	may	be	available	on	some	brands	of	marine	VHF	equipment.		Not	to	be	confused	with	the	
dual	watch	control.		This	control	may	offer	the	operator	the	choice	of	scanning	all	the	marine	VHF	channels,	or	
selected	channels.
Power	Selector.	This	control	varies	the	power	of	the	transmitted	signal.		International	regulations	restrict	the	
output	power	of	Marine	VHF	to	25	watt	maximum.		On	VHF	marine	equipment	it	may	be	marked	‘25w/1w’	(25	
watts	or	1	watt)	or	‘high/low’.		The	use	of	more	power	than	is	required	to	communicate	satisfactorily	is	a	breach	
of	the	International	Radio	Regulations,	may	cause	unnecessary	interference,	and	drains	the	battery	supplying	
the	equipment	at	a	faster	rate.	Correct	transmit	power	setting	is	generally	referred	to	as	“Minimum	power	to	
maintain	reliable	communication”.
InternatIonal/uSa	control.	This	control	may	be	found	on	some	VHF	marine	equipment.		It	is	provided	by	the	
manufacturer	to	permit	communications	with	stations	in	the	USA	which	do	not	conform	to	the	International	VHF	
channel	plan.		It	is	important	that	this	control	is	kept	in	the	‘International’	position	at	all	times	unless	in	the	coastal	waters	
of	the	USA.		Some	manufacturers	of	marine	VHF	supplied	to	Australian	operators	may	have	‘International’	substituted	              	
by	‘Aus’.

general	care	and	MaIntenance
Vessel	 owners	 should	 be	 aware	 that,	 on	 occasions,	 a	 power	 supply	 fuse	 will	 blow	 when	 the	 transceiver	 is	
malfunctioning	and	for	no	apparent	reason.		It	is	recommended	that	a	supply	of	fuses	of	the	manufacturer’s	
recommended	value	be	carried	on	board.		For	safe	keeping	spare	fuses	could	be	contained	in	an	old	plastic	              	
film	container.




   VHF	MARINE	REPEATERS
PrIncIPle	oF	oPeratIon
VHF	communication	range	depends	mainly	on	the	height	of	the	antennas	of	the	transmitting	and	receiving	
stations.		By	using	VHF	marine	repeater	stations,	the	range	of	ship	to	ship,	ship	to	shore	and	shore	to	ship	
communications	can	be	significantly	increased.
                                                                                                                	
VHF	 marine	 repeaters	 are	 unmanned	 shore	 installations	 usually	 located	 at	 geographically	 high	 points.	
They	are	designed	to	transmit	and	receive	simultaneously	and	will	retransmit	or	‘repeat’	all	signals	received.	 	
Retransmitted	signals	can	be	received	by	any	station	listening	on	the	repeater	channel.
Limited	 coast	 stations	 operated	 by	 marine	 rescue	 organisations	 routinely	 monitor	 VHF	 repeater	 channels	
operating	in	their	area.
Not	all	coastal	areas	of	Australia	are	served	by	VHF	marine	repeaters.




                       	                                                                   INTROdUCTION	TO	MARINE	VHF		               7
     	 HF	MarIne	rePeater	cHannelS
     V
     VHF	marine	repeaters	operate	in	the	duPleX	mode	on	channels	21,	22,	80,	81	or	82.
     For	their	own	safety,	boat	owners	should	ensure	that	they	are	familiar	with	the	location	and	operating	channel	
     of	their	local	repeater.
     digital	 Selective	 Calling	 alerts	 using	 VHF	 must	 be	 confined	 to	 channel	 70	 and	 will	 not	 operate	 through	
     repeaters.

     uSe	oF	VHF	MarIne	rePeaterS
     In	most	cases	VHF	marine	repeaters	are	installed	and	maintained	by	marine	rescue	organisations	as	a	service	to	
     mariners	and	are	available	for	use	by	all	licensed	VHF	ship	stations.		However,	in	order	to	minimise	congestion,	
     if	direct	ship	to	ship	or	ship	to	shore	communications	are	possible	on	a	non-repeater	channel,	this	must	be	used	
     in	preference.
     Repeater	 channels	 must	 not	 be	 used	 as	 ‘chatter	 channels’.	 	 Communications	 must	 be	 restricted	 to	 those	
     concerning	the	movements	of	vessels	and	safety	of	vessels	and	persons.		To	discourage	lengthy	conversations,	
     repeaters	will	incorporate	an	automatic	time	restriction	of	approximately	thirty	seconds.
     If	 not	 apparent	 by	 monitoring,	 a	 ship	 station	 can	 gain	 an	 indication	 of	 its	 ability	 to	 access	 a	 repeater	 by	
     momentarily	depressing	the	microphone	button.		If	a	brief	(approximately	one	second)	burst	or	‘tail’	of	noise	is	
     heard	from	the	loudspeaker	when	the	button	is	released,	then	the	vessel	is	activating	the	repeater.		If	a	‘tail’	is	
     not	heard,	it	is	probable	that	the	vessel	is	out	of	range	of	the	repeater.
     Operators	using	VHF	equipment	equipped	with	an	‘International’	or	‘Aus’	channel	switch	should	note	that	it	is	
     essential	that	the	switch	be	in	the	‘International’	or	‘Aus’	position	to	access	repeaters.




     STATIONS	FOR	MARINE	COMMUNICATIONS
     lIMIted	coaSt	StatIonS
     Limited	coast	stations	are	stations	on	land	established	for	the	purpose	of	communicating	with	vessels	at	sea.	 	
     These	stations	are	primarily	responsible	for	the	safety	of	movement	and	operation	of	vessels	within	their	local	
     area.		These	stations	are	not	licensed	to	handle	public	correspondence.		
     There	 are	 no	 fixed	 hours	 for	 the	 radio	 service	 provided	 by	 limited	 coast	 stations	 and	 many	 do	 not	 offer	
     a	 continuous	 service.	 	 Hours	 of	 service	 are	 determined	 by	 local	 requirements	 or,	 in	 some	 cases,	 by	 State	
     Government	legislation.
     In	the	interest	of	safety	boat	operators	should	familiarize	themselves	with	services	available	to	their	area	of	
     operations.		Limited	coast	stations	generally	fall	into	the	category	of	marine	rescue	units,	yacht	clubs	or	fishing	
     cooperatives.

     	StatIon	IdentIFIcatIon
      	 ransmission	without	identification	is	forbidden.		All	transmissions	should	be	identified	by	the	vessel’s	name,	
      T
     any	other	identity	(if	available)	or	by	other	means,	such	as	the	Maritime	Mobile	Service	Identity	(MMSI)	issued	
      to	a	vessel’s	digital	Selective	Calling	(dSC)	unit.




	8     MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
   OPERATING	PROCEdURES
National	and	International	systems	exist	to	provide	prompt	and	effective	search	and	rescue	assistance	to	ships	
in	distress.		By	complying	with	procedures	in	this	chapter,	ship	station	operators	can	ensure	that	these	systems	
continue	to	work	effectively	for	the	benefit	of	all	mariners.
                                                                                                                     	
All	 radiotelephony	 distress,	 urgency	 and	 safety	 calls	 and	 messages	 should	 be	 spoken	 slowly	 and	 clearly.	
The	phonetic	alphabet	and	figure	code	should	be	used	if	necessary.		Use	of	the	standard	marine	vocabulary	is	
recommended	in	the	case	of	language	difficulties.

autHorIty	oF	tHe	MaSter
                                                                                                                        	
A	 ship	 radio	 station	 and	 the	 service	 it	 provides	 are	 placed	 under	 the	 authority	 of	 the	 master,	 skipper,	
or	the	person	responsible	for	the	safety	of	the	vessel.

PrIorIty	oF	coMMunIcatIonS
All	radiotelephony	communications	have	been	prioritised	as	follows:
> d
	 >	 	 IStreSS	callS,	messages	and	traffic	are	broadcast	to	all	stations	on	distress	channels;
>>	 	 rgency	 callS,	 messages	 and	 traffic	 may	 be	 broadcast	 to	 all	 stations	 or	 transmitted	 to	 an	 individual	
    u
    station	on	channels	allocated	for	distress	communications	or	on	a	working	channel	if	the	message	is	of	an	
    urgent	medical	request	or	repetition	of	an	overdue	vessel	report.
                                                                                                                       	
>>	 	 aFety	 callS	 and	 messages	 may	 be	 broadcast	 to	 all	 stations	 or	 transmitted	 to	 an	 individual	 station.	
    S
    The	safety	message	will	always	be	transmitted	on	a	working	channel.		An	acknowledgment	is	not	expected	
    for	a	safety	broadcast.
>>	 	 eneral	or	routIne	communications	will	always	be	transmitted	to	an	individual	station	on	a	working	
    g
    channel.
radIotelePHony	callIng	&	workIng	cHannelS	Channels	allocated	to	ship	and	limited	coast	stations	are	
categorised	as	either	calling	or	working	channels:
    C
>>	 	 alling	channels	are	for	establishing	the	initial	contact	with	other	stations;	and
    w
>>	 	 orking	 channels	 are	 for	 the	 exchange	 of	 messages	 or	 conducting	 public	 correspondence	 by	
    radiotelephone.
 Common	       Channels				 Communication	with                 Purpose
 Channel	      MHz
 Ch	77         156.875	     Ship	stations                      General	or	routine	communications
 Ch	73	        156.750	     Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	   Calling	and	working
                            (Yacht	&	Pleasure	craft)
 Ch	72	        156.625      Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	   Calling	and	working
 Ch	71	        156.575      Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	   Calling	and	working
                            (Professional	Fishing	vessels)
 Ch	70         156.525      All	stations                       dSC	distress,	urgency,	safety	and	routine	alerting
 Ch	67         156.375      All	stations                       distress,	urgency	and	safety	calling	(supp.	to	Ch	16)	
 Ch	16         156.800      All	stations                       International	Radiotelephony	distress,	urgency,	safety	
                                                               and	calling	channel
 Ch	13         156.650      Ship	stations                      Intership	Maritime	Safety	Information.		
                                                               May	be	used	by	Port	Authorities	for	vessel	harbour	
                                                               movements	communications.
 Ch		6         156.300	     Ship	and	aircraft                  Co-ordinated	Search	and	Rescue	(SAR).		
                                                               May	be	used	by	Port	Authorities	for	tug	to	ship	
                                                               berthing	communications

                     	                                                               INTROdUCTION	TO	MARINE	VHF		           9
     ProtectIon	oF	cHannelS
     It	is	important	that	channels	are	used	only	for	the	purpose	for	which	they	have	been	assigned,	e.g.	channels	
     authorised	for	calling	are	not	used	as	working	channels.		Channels	authorised	for	calling	coast	stations	are	not	
     used	for	calling	ship	stations.

     Secrecy	oF	coMMunIcatIonS	
     Article	17	of	the	ITU	Radio	Regulations	prohibits	the	unauthorised	interception	of	Radio	Communications	not	
     intended	for	the	general	use	of	the	public.			
     Secrecy	of	communications	does	not	apply	to	the	broadcast	of	distress,	urgency	or	safety	traffic	addressed	to	
     all	stations.

     watcH	keePIng
     whilst	at	sea	it	is	a	requirement	for	small	craft	to	maintain	a	listening	watch	on	Channel	16.	Commercial	vessels	
     are	currently	required	to	maintain	a	continuous	listening	watch	on	Channel	16.

     SIlence	PerIodS
     The	 International	 regulations	 no	 longer	 require	 silence	 periods	 to	 be	 observed	 on	 the	 distress	 and	 calling	
     frequencies.		Silence	Periods	for	radiotelephony	are	from	the	hour	and	half	hour	for	a	period	of	three	minutes.	         	
                                                                                                                              	
     It	 is	 the	 practice	 in	 all	 Australian	 waters	 to	 observe	 silence	 periods	 on	 the	 radiotelephony	 distress	 VHF	
     Channel	16.
     during	 communications	 difficulties	 the	 recommended	 time	 for	 the	 transmission	 of	 distress	 traffic	 is	 during	
     a	 silence	 period.	 	 Those	 vessels	 that	 come	 under	 the	 Safety	 of	 Life	 at	 Sea	 (SOLAS)	 regulations	 maintain	 a	
     continuous	watch	on	VHF	dSC	channel	70	and	a	listening	watch	on	channel	16.

     unneceSSary	coMMunIcatIonS
     Transmission	should	be	as	brief	as	possible,	non	essential	remarks,	bad	language	and	unnecessary	conversations	
     should	be	avoided.		It	is	an	offence	under	the	Radiocommunications Act 1992,	to	use	a	transmitter	in	a	manner	
     that	may	cause	a	reasonable	person	to	feel	threatened	or	harassed.

     teSt	tranSMISSIonS
     Test	transmissions	should	be	made	on	a	working	channel	and	kept	to	a	minimum	or	avoided	altogether	on	
     distress,	urgency,	or	safety	channels.		If,	after	technical	maintenance,	or	prior	to	departing	port,	it	is	necessary	
     to	test	the	radio	equipment,	approval	from	the	nearest	coast	or	limited	coast	station	may	be	required.		

     log	keePIng
     Operators	should	keep	a	record	of	all	distress	alerts	and	messages	transmitted	or	received.		Particulars	should	
     include	the	station	or	stations	with	which	the	messages	were	exchanged,	the	channels	used	and	the	date	and	
     times	of	the	transmission	and	reception.		without	an	official	log	book	an	exercise	book	could	be	drawn	up.	(see	
     page	34).

     PHonetIc	alPHaBet	and	FIgure	code
     when	 experiencing	 difficulties	 with	 the	 exchange	 of	 radio	 communications,	 i.e.	 language	 difficulties,	 it	 may	
     be	 necessary	 to	 exchange	 communications	 by	 the	 use	 of	 the	 Phonetic	 Alphabet,	 especially	 during	 distress	
     communications	situations.	(see	page	40).

     control	oF	coMMunIcatIonS
     during	routine	communications	between	ship	to	shore	and	ship	to	ship	the	station	being	called	‘controls’	the	
     communication	process.		In	order	that	communications	may	be	conducted	efficiently,	and	with	the	minimum	of	
     delay,	instructions	issued	by	coast	or	limited	coast	stations	should	be	conducted	without	delay.



10
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
REVISION	QUESTIONS
1	]	 	s	a	Radio	Licence	required	for	the	operation	of	
     I                                                    18	]	 	 hat	services	do	Limited	Coast	Radio		
                                                                w
     Marine	VHF	transmitters?                                   Stations	provide?
2	]	 	s	a	Radio	Operators	Certificate	required	for	the	
     I                                                    19	]	 	 hat	do	you	understand	about	‘Station	
                                                                w
     operation	of	Marine	VHF?                                   Identification’	during	transmission?
3	]	 	 hat	part	of	the	VHF	radio	wave	is	used	for	
     w                                                    20	]	 How	are	radio	transmissions	identified?
     communications	purposes?
                                                          21	]	 	 hose	authority	is	the	vessel’s	radio	station	
                                                                w
4	]	 	 enerally	speaking	what	range	does	the	VHF	
     G                                                          placed	under?
     have?		Short,	medium	or	long	range?
                                                          22	]	 	 hat	is	the	order	of	priority	of	marine	
                                                                w
5	]	 	 enerally	speaking	what	determines	the	range	
     G                                                          communications	traffic:
     of	marine	VHF?
                                                          23	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	is	used	for	distress	
                                                                w
6	]	 where	would	you	mount	the	VHF	antenna?                     calling	and	messages
7	]	 what	is	the	purpose	of	the	‘Squelch’	control?        24	]	 	 hat	is	the	supplementary	channel	for		
                                                                w
                                                                channel	16?
8]	 	 hat	channels	are	monitored	with	the	‘dual	
    w
    watch’	control’	activated?                            25	]	 	 hat	is	the	SIMPLEX	mode	of	transmission?
                                                                w
9	]	 	 hat	is	the	maximum	transmit	power	allowed	
     w                                                    26	]	 	 hen	would	the	dUPLEX	mode	of	transmission	
                                                                w
     for	marine	VHF?                                            be	used?
10	]	 	 hat	is	the	minimum	power	permitted	for	
      w                                                   27	]	 	 hat	do	you	understand	about	‘Confidentiality	
                                                                w
      marine	VHF	transmissions?                                 or	Secrecy	of	transmission’?
11	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	is	dedicated	for	
      w                                                   28	]	 	 hat	is	a	calling	channel?
                                                                w
      	VHF	dSC?
                                                          29	]	 	 hat	is	a	working	channel?
                                                                w
12	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	is	reserved	for	
      w
                                                          30	]	 	 hat	type	of	channel	would	a	Maritime	Safety	
                                                                w
      the	exchange	of	ship	to	ship	marine	safety	
                                                                Information	message	be	broadcast	on?
      information?
                                                          31	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	should	a	listening	
                                                                w
13	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	may	be	used	for	ship	
      w
                                                                watch	be	maintained	on	whilst	at	sea?
      to	aircraft	coordinating	search	and	rescue?
                                                          32	]	 	 hen	are	the	Silence	Periods	on	marine	
                                                                w
14	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	is	reserved	for	ship	to	
      w
                                                                radiotelephony	channels?
      ship	general	communications?
                                                          33	]	 	 hat	information	is	required	to	be	entered	into	
                                                                w
15	]	 	 hat	is	the	required	power	setting	should	you	
      w
                                                                the	radio	log	book?
      require	operating	on	VHF	Ch	15	or	17?
                                                          34	]	 	 hat	is	the	correct	phonetic	spelling	of	the	word	
                                                                w
16	]	 what	is	a	marine	VHF	Relay	station?
                                                                ‘MAGNILOQUENT’?
17	]	 	 hat	is	the	purpose	of	a	Limited	Coast		
      w
                                                          35	]	 	 enerally	speaking	what	type	of	station	controls	
                                                                G
      Radio	Station?
                                                                the	communication	process?




                     	                                                          INTROdUCTION	TO	MARINE	VHF		          11
     callIng	ProcedureS

     ROUTINE	CALLING	PROCEdURES
     routIne	callIng	
     Before	transmitting,	the	operator	should	listen	for	a	period	long	enough	to	be	satisfied	that	harmful	interference	
     will	not	be	caused	to	communications	already	in	place.
     Marine	 VHF	 Channels	 established	 for	 calling	 purposes	 are	 not	 to	 be	 used	 for	 the	 exchange	 of	 routine	
     messages.
     when	using	radiotelephony	channels	in	the	VHF	marine	band	and	communications	are	good	the	initial	call	may	
     be	simplified	as	follows:
        T
     >>		 he	name	and/or	other	identifying	information	of	the	station	being	called	once	only;
     >>	The	words	THIS	IS;
        T
     >>		 he	name	and/or	other	identifying	information	of	the	station	calling,	spoken	twice;
     >>	The	purpose	of	the	call;	
        T
     >>		 he	suggested	working	channel	for	the	exchange	of	messages;	followed	by
     >>	The	word	OVER.	(The	invitation	to	reply)


       an	eXaMPle	For	a	routIne	SHIP	to	SHore	InItIal	call	on	cHannel	16:
       Station	called		             ………………Coast	Guard
       The	words	“this	is”	         THIS	IS
       The	station	calling	(x2)		 Cyclopse	Cyclopse	503000100
       	 	                          On	Ch	16,	Position	report,	suggest	Channel	73		            	
       	 	                          OVER


     rePlyIng	to	callS
     The	Limited	coast	station	reply	could	be	abbreviated	in	a	similar	manner	to	the	call:

       an	eXaMPle	For	a	routIne	SHore	to	SHIP	rePly:
       Station	called		             Cyclopse	503000100
       The	words	“this	is”	         THIS	IS
       The	station	calling	(x2)			 	………………..Coast	Guard,	…………………Coast	Guard
       	 	                          Romeo	change	to	Channel	73	
       	 	                          OVER

                                                                                                                         	
     At	 this	 point	 both	 stations	 change	 to	 the	 suggested	 working	 VHF	 channel	 and	 the	 vessel	 initiates	 the	
     call	again.
     Transmission	without	station	identification	is	forbidden.		Once	contact	has	been	established	station	identification	
     may	be	shortened	to	just	the	station	name:


12
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
  an	eXaMPle	For	a	routIne	SHIP	to	SHore	InItIal	call	on	tHe	agreed	workIng	
  cHannel:
  Station	called		            ………………Coast	Guard
  The	words	“this	is”	        THIS	IS
  The	station	calling	(x2)		 Cyclopse	Cyclopse	503000100
  	 	                         On	Ch	73	How	do	you	read	me?		(what	is	my	readability?)		
  	 	                         OVER


  an	eXaMPle	For	a	routIne	SHore	to	SHIP	rePly	:
  The	words	“this	is”	        THIS	IS
  The	station	calling		       ………………..Coast	Guard
  	 	                         Readability	loud	and	clear	(five	by	five)	go	ahead	with	your	position	report
  	 	                         OVER


  tHe	VeSSel	contInueS:
  The	words	“this	is”	        THIS	IS
  The	station	calling		       Cyclopse
  Sending	Position	           Position	report	Cyclopes	503000100	anchored	in	position	
  											                 ……………….etc.		No	further	traffic
  	 	                         OVER

The	limited	coast	station	receives	and	acknowledges	the	position	report:

  tHe	lIMIted	coaSt	StatIon	acknowledgeS	receIPt	oF	tHe	MeSSage:
  The	words	“this	is”	      THIS	IS
  The	station	calling		     ……………..Coast	Guard
  Acknowledgement	          	 omeo,	your	position	report	received,	No	traffic	for	your	vessel,		
                            R                                                                             	           	
                            returning	to	Channel	16	and	standing	by,
  	             	           ………………….Coast	Guard	
  	             	           OUT	(indicating	the	end	of	communications	between	the	two	stations)

At	this	point	both	stations	return	to	monitoring	Channel	16.

rePeatIng	callS
If	no	immediate	reply	is	received	to	the	initial	call,	wait	two	minutes	and	repeat	the	call.		After	two	calls	wait	
a	further	three	minutes	before	calling	again.		At	this	point	it	may	be	necessary	to	call	another	station	or	to	
consider	whether	the	required	station	is	in	range.	Restrictions	with	regard	to	repetition	of	calls	do	not	apply	to	
distress	or	urgency	calls.

dIFFIcultIeS	In	eStaBlISHIng	contact	wItH	otHer	StatIonS
	
when	a	station	receives	a	call	and	is	not	certain	for	whom	the	call	was	intended,	it	should	not	reply,	instead	wait	
for	a	repetition	of	the	call.		when	a	station	receives	a	call	which	is	intended	for	it,	but	is	uncertain	of	the	caller,	
then	the	called	station	may	reply	requesting	identity	of	the	calling	station.


                      	                                                                      CALLING	PROCEdURES		          13
     dISTRESS	CALLING	PROCEdURES
     reSPonSIBIlIty
                                                                                                                             	
     State	 and	 Territory	 police	 forces,	 using	 the	 resources	 of	 recognized	 volunteer	 marine	 rescue	 organizations,	
     as	well	as	their	own	water	Police,	co-ordinate	most	inshore	boating	emergencies.

     autHorIty	to	tranSMIt	a	dIStreSS	call	and	MeSSage
     A	distress	priority	message	may	only	be	sent	on	the	authority	of	the	master,	skipper,	or	the	person	responsible	
     for	the	safety	of	the	vessel.

     cHannel	For	dIStreSS
     The	International	Marine	VHF	channel	for	distress	radiotelephony	communication	is	Channel	16.		In	Australian	
     waters	VHF	Channel	67	is	the	supplementary	to	Channel	16.

     d
     	 IStreSS	alert
     If	the	equipment	is	installed	onboard,	priority	should	be	given	to	transmitting	a	dSC	distress	Alert	on	VHF	Ch	70	
     followed	by	the	distress	call	and	message	on	VHF	Ch	16.

     	 He	dIStreSS	SIgnal
     t
                                                                                                                                 	
     The	 distress	 signal	 is	 the	 word	 MAYdAY.	 	 The	 transmission	 of	 the	 distress	 signal	 indicates	 that	 the	 vessel,	
     or	persons	onboard	that	vessel,	are	in	GRAVE	ANd	IMMINENT	dANGER	and	require	immediate	assistance.

     	tHe	dIStreSS	call
                                                                                                                     	
      The	 distress	 call	 and	 message	 is	 broadcast	 to	 ALL	 STATIONS,	 in	 the	 SIMPLEX	 mode	 of	 transmission.	
     The	radiotelephony	distress	call	consists	of:		
        t
        	
     >>		 he	distress	signal	MAYdAY,	spoken	three	times;
        	
        t
     >>		 he	words	THIS	IS;
        t
     >>		 he	name	and	any	other	identity	of	the	vessel	in	distress,	spoken	three	times.

     tHe	dIStreSS	MeSSage
     The	radiotelephony	distress	message	consists	of:
        	
     >>		the	distress	signal	MAYdAY;
         t
     >>	 	 he	name	and	any	other	identity	of	the	vessel	in	distress;
     >>		particulars	of	its	position;
         t
         	
     >>			 he	nature	of	the	distress,	the	kind	of	assistance	desired;
         a
     >>	 	 ny	other	information	which	may	facilitate	rescue;	followed	by
        	t
     >>			 he	word	OVER,	the	invitation	to	respond.		
     The	distress	call	and	message	may	be	repeated	as	often	as	necessary,	especially	during	silence	periods,	until	an	
     answer	is	received.
     If	no	answer	is	received	on	distress	channels,	the	message	should	be	repeated	on	any	other	available	channel	
     where	attention	might	be	attracted.	




14
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
  eXaMPle	oF	a	coMPlete	dIStreSS	call	and	MeSSage:
  The	VHF	dSC	distress	Alert,	if	facility	fitted,	followed	by:
  distress	call
  distress	signal	(x3)	       Mayday,	Mayday,	Mayday
  words	“this	is”	            THIS	IS	
  Station	calling	(x3)	       S
                              	 CAMP	SCAMP	SCAMP	503000123	                   	
                              (For	vessels	equipped	only	with	VHF	a	ship	station	licence	is	not	required	and		
                              therefore	a	radio	call	sign	will	not	have	been	allocated).
  distress	message
  distress	signal	            Mayday
  Name/MMSI	                  SCAMP	503000123
  Position	                   50	NAUTICAL	MILES	dUE	EAST	FROM	POINT	dANGER
  Nature	of	distress	         	 INKING	AFTER	STRIKING	SUBMERGEd	OBJECT.
                              S
  Other	information	          ESTIMATE	FURTHER	15	MINUTES	AFLOAT.		20	METRE	MOTOR	CRUISER	REd	HULL
  (If	time	permits)	          wHITE	SUPERSTRUCTURE	4	PERSONS	ONBOARd	EPIRB	ACTIVATEd
  	 	                         oVer		

dIStreSS	PoSItIon	InForMatIon
	
Preference	 should	 be	 given	 to	 indicating	 the	 position	 by	 latitude	 and	 longitude	 (degrees	 and	 minutes	 and	
decimal	points	of	a	minute	if	necessary,	North	or	South,	East	or	west);	or	true	bearing	and	distance	(the	unit	
of	distance	should	always	be	specified,	for	example,	nautical	miles	or	kilometres)	from	a	known	geographical	
point	(for	example	045	degrees	true	from	Point	danger,	24	nautical	miles);	or	a	precise	geographical	location	
(for	example,	in	the	case	of	a	vessel	running	aground).	where	latitude	and	longitude	are	not	used,	care	must	be	
taken	to	ensure	that	the	position	given	cannot	be	confused	with	any	other	place	or	geographical	point.	
If	afloat	and	drifting,	the	rate	and	direction	of	drift	could	be	stated	in	the	distress	message.

	dIStreSS	traFFIc	
 All	communications	relating	to	the	immediate	assistance	required	by	the	vessel	in	distress,	including	search	and	
 rescue	and	on-scene	should	use	the	distress	signal	Mayday	to	precede	each	call	and	message.

accePtance	oF	dIStreSS	callS	and	MeSSageS	
	
The	obligation	to	accept	distress	calls	is	absolute	and	must	be	given	priority	over	all	other	communications.		

a
	 utHorIty	to	tranSMIt	a	dIStreSS	acknowledgeMent
A	distress	acknowledgement	may	only	be	sent	on	the	authority	of	the	master,	skipper,	or	the	person	responsible	
for	the	safety	of	the	vessel.

oBlIgatIon	to	acknowledge	receIPt	oF	a	dIStreSS	MeSSage	
                                                                                                                     	
Ship	 stations	 that	 receive	 a	 distress	 message	 from	 another	 vessel	 which	 is,	 beyond	 any	 possible	 doubt,	
in	their	vicinity,	should	immediately	acknowledge	receipt.	However,	in	areas	where	reliable	communications	
with	a	limited	coast	station	is	practicable,	ship	stations	should	defer	this	acknowledgment	for	a	short	interval	to	
allow	the	limited	coast	station	to	acknowledge	receipt.
Ship	stations	which	receive	a	distress	message	from	another	vessel	which,	beyond	any	possible	doubt,	is	not	in	
their	vicinity	should	defer	their	acknowledgment	to	allow	vessels	nearer	to	the	distressed	vessel	to	acknowledge	
without	interference.


                     	                                                                       CALLING	PROCEdURES			         15
     Ship	stations	which	receive	a	distress	message	from	another	vessel	which,	beyond	any	possible	doubt,	is	a	long	
     distance	away,	need	not	acknowledge	receipt	unless	this	distress	message	has	not	been	acknowledged	by	any	
     other	station.
     when	a	ship	station	hears	a	distress	message	which	has	not	been	acknowledged	by	other	stations,	but	is	not	
     itself	 in	 a	 position	 to	 provide	 assistance,	 it	 should	 acknowledge	 the	 call	 and	 then	 take	 steps	 to	 attract	 the	
     attention	of	a	limited	coast	radio	station	or	vessels	which	might	be	able	to	assist.	

     acknowledgMent	oF	receIPt	oF	a	dIStreSS	MeSSage
     Acknowledgment	of	receipt	of	a	distress	message	by	a	vessel,	limited	coast	radio	station	should	be	made	in	the	
     following	way:
     >>		The	distress	signal	Mayday;
         	
         T
     >>			 he	name	and	any	other	identity	of	the	station	sending	the	distress	message,	spoken	three	times
         T
     >>			 he	words	THIS	IS	
         T
         	
     >>			 he	name	and	any	other	identity		of	the	station	acknowledging	receipt,	spoken	three	times;
         T
     >>			 he	word	receIVed;
         T
     >>			 he	distress	signal	Mayday.
     >>		OVER

       eXaMPle	oF	an	acknowledgMent	or	receIPt	oF	a	dIStreSS	MeSSage	By		
       a	SHIP	StatIon	
       distress	traffic	                 Mayday
       distress	vessel	(x3)	             	............................................................................................
       The	words	“this	is”	              THIS	IS
       Station	calling	(x3)															............................................................................................
       the	acknowledgement	 receIVed	Mayday
       	 	                               oVer

     As	soon	as	possible	after	this	acknowledgment	a	ship	station	should	transmit	the	following	information:
        i
     >>		ts	position;	
        t
     >>		 he	speed	at	which	it	is	proceeding;	and		
        	
        t
     >>		 he	approximate	time	it	will	take	to	reach	the	distress	scene.

     control	oF	dIStreSS	traFFIc
     The	control	of	distress	traffic	is	the	responsibility	of	the	vessel	in	distress.		However,	this	station	may	delegate	
     the	control	of	distress	traffic	to	another	vessel,	or	limited	coast	radio	station.
     The	 vessel	 in	 distress	 or	 the	 station	 in	 control	 of	 distress	 traffic	 may	 impose	 silence	 on	 any	 or	 all	 stations	
     interfering	with	distress	traffic	by	sending	the	instruction	Seelonce	Mayday.		This	instruction	must	not	be	
     used	by	any	station	other	than	the	vessel	in	distress,	or	the	station	controlling	distress	traffic.

       eXaMPle	oF	a	MeSSage	By	tHe	dIStreSS	VeSSel	or	tHe	control	StatIon		
       IMPoSIng	SIlence:
       distress	traffic:	                         Mayday
       Addressed	to:	(x3)	                        All	stations,	all	stations,	all	stations
       The	words	“this	is”	                       THIS	IS
       Station	calling	(x3)	                      (Name	of	calling	station)
       The	signal:	                               Seelonce	Mayday


16
	       MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
                                                                                                                              	
If	 another	 station	 near	 the	 distressed	 vessel	 believes	 that	 silence	 is	 necessary	 it	 should	 use	 the	 instruction	
Seelonce	dIStreSS.

  eXaMPle	oF	a	MeSSage	By	StatIon	near	tHe	dIStreSS	VeSSel	IMPoSIng	SIlence:
  distress	traffic:	            Mayday
  Addressed	to:	(x3)	           All	stations,	all	stations,	all	stations
  The	words	“this	is”	          THIS	IS
  Station	calling	(x	3)	        (Name	of	calling	station)
  The	signal:	                  	 eelonce	dIStreSS
                                S

Any	station	which	has	knowledge	of	distress	traffic	and	cannot	provide	assistance	should	continue	to	monitor	
the	traffic	until	such	time	that	it	is	obvious	assistance	is	being	provided.
Any	station	which	is	aware	of	distress	traffic,	and	is	not	taking	part	in	it,	is	forbidden	to	transmit	on	any	channel	
which	is	being	used	for	that	traffic.
Ship	stations	not	involved	in	the	exchange	of	distress	traffic	may,	while	continuing	to	monitor	the	situation,	
resume	normal	radio	service	when	distress	traffic	is	well	established	and	on	the	conditions	that	distress	traffic	
channels	are	not	used	and	no	interference	is	caused	to	distress	traffic.

	reSuMPtIon	oF	reStrIcted	workIng
Should	 the	 station	 controlling	 distress	 traffic	 consider	 that	 complete	 silence	 is	 no	 longer	 required	 on	 the	
distress	channel,	the	station	should	transmit	on	that	channel	a	message	addressed	to	all	stations	indicating	
that	restricted	working	may	be	resumed.		Ship	stations	may	then	resume	use	of	the	distress	channel	for	normal	
purposes,	but	in	a	cautious	manner	and	being	aware	that	the	channel	may	still	be	required	for	distress	traffic.
The	message	to	announce	resumption	of	restricted	working	should	take	the	following	form:
>>		the	distress	signal	MAYdAY;
    t
>>	 	 he	call	ALL	STATIONS,	spoken	three	times;
    t
>>			 he	words	THIS	IS;
    t
>>	 	 he	name	and	any	other	identity	of	the	station	sending	the	message;
    t
>>	 	 he	time	the	message	originated;
    t
>>	 	 he	name	and	any	other	identity	of	the	vessel	in	distress
>>	 the	word	Pru-donce.

  eXaMPle	oF	tHe	dIStreSS	VeSSel	or	tHe	control	StatIon	IMPoSIng		
  ‘reStrIcted	workIng‘	on	tHe	dIStreSS	cHannel:
  	distress	traffic:	           Mayday
  	Addressed	to:	(x3)	          All	stations,	all	stations,	all	stations
  	The	words	“this	is”	         THIS	IS
  	The	station	calling	(x3)					(Name	of	calling	station)
  	Time	of	the	message	         …...	gMt	*
  	The	identity	of	the		        (Name	of	distress	vessel)	
  	distress	vessel:	
  	The	signal:	                 Pru-donce
  		*	greenwich	Mean	time	(gMt)	may	be	in	local	time.


                        	                                                                         CALLING	PROCEdURES			           17
     reSuMPtIon	oF	norMal	workIng	
     when	distress	traffic	has	ceased	on	a	channel	that	has	been	used	for	distress	traffic,	the	station	that	has	been	
     controlling	that	traffic	should	transmit	a	message	addressed	to	all	stations	indicating	that	normal	working	may	
     be	resumed.	The	message	announcing	resumption	of	normal	working	should	take	the	following	form:
     >
     	 >	the	distress	signal	MAYdAY;
        t
        	
     >>		 he	call	ALL	STATIONS,	spoken	three	times;
        t
     >>		 he	words	THIS	IS;
        t
     >>		 he	name	and	any	other	identity	of	the	station	sending	the	message;
     >>	the	time	the	message	originated;
        t
     >>		 he	name	and	any	other	identity	of	the	vessel	which	was	in	distress;
     >>	the	words	Seelonce	Feenee.

       eXaMPle	oF	tHe	dIStreSS	VeSSel	or	tHe	control	StatIon	adVISIng	reSuMPtIon	
       oF	‘norMal		workIng‘	on	tHe	dIStreSS	cHannel:
       distress	traffic:	          Mayday
       Addressed	to:	(x3)	         All	stations,	all	stations,	all	stations
       The	words	“this	is”	        THIS	IS
       The	station	calling	(x3)				 (Name	of	calling	station)
       Time	of	the	message	        …...	gMt*
       The	identity	of	the		       (Name	of	distress	vessel)	
       distress	vessel:	
       The	signal:	                Seelonce	Feenee
       *	greenwich	Mean	time	(gMt)	may	be	in	local	time.

     tranSMISSIon	oF	a	dIStreSS	MeSSage	By	a	StatIon	not	ItSelF	In	dIStreSS
     A	ship	or	limited	coast	station	which	learns	of	a	vessel	in	distress	may	transmit	a	distress	message	on	behalf	of	
     that	vessel	when:
         T
     >>	 	 he	distress	vessel	can	not	transmit	a	distress	message;	or
         A
     >>	 	 lthough	not	in	a	position	to	assist,	a	vessel	in	the	vicinity	has	not	heard	an	acknowledgement;	or
         T
     >>	 	 he	 Master,	 Skipper,	 or	 the	 person	 responsible	 for	 distress	 communications,	 a	 maritime	 communication	
         station	or	a	limited	coast	station	considers	that	further	assistance	is	necessary.


       eXaMPle		oF	a	dIStreSS	MeSSage	receIVed	and	tHen	relayed	By	anotHer	StatIon	
       VHF	dSc	dIStreSS	relay	alert	followed	by	spoken	message.		
       Mayday	relay	call	(x3)	         Mayday	relay,	Mayday	relay,	Mayday	relay
       The	words	“this	is”	            THIS	IS
       Station	calling	(x3)	           (Name	of		relay	station)		……………..........................………………
       the	Mayday	message	             (Repeat	of	original	Mayday	message)………………………………..
       	 	                             oVer




18
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
  eXaMPle	oF	a	dIStreSS	MeSSage	created	and	BroadcaSt	By	a	StatIon	on		
  BeHalF	oF	a	SHIP	StatIon	
  VHF	dSc	dIStreSS	relay	alert	followed	by	spoken	message.
  Mayday	relay	signal	(x3)	       Mayday	relay,	Mayday	relay,	Mayday	relay
  The	words	“this	is”	            THIS	IS
  Calling	Station	(x3)	           (Name	of		Coast	Station)		………………….....................……………	
  the	Mayday	relay		message	 	 ayday	relay,	name	of	vessel	in	distress,	position,	nature	of	distress	and		
                             M
                             any	other	information	(persons	onboard)	
  	 	                             oVer	


tHe	urgency	SIgnal
The	 urgency	 signal	 consists	 of	 the	 words	 PAN	 PAN,	 and	 indicates	 that	 the	 caller	 has	 an	 urgent	 message	 to	
transmit	concerning	the	safety	of	the	vessel,	aircraft	or	person.		It	has	priority	over	all	other	communications	
except	distress.		
The	urgency	signal	may	be	used	to	precede	a	message	concerning	a	‘man	overboard’	where	urgent	assistance	
is	required	to	locate	that	person.
The	urgency	message	may	only	be	sent	on	the	authority	of	the	Master,	Skipper	or	person	responsible	for	the	
safety	of	the	vessel.		The	urgency	message	may	be	broadcast	to	all	stations	on	the	distress,	urgency	or	safety	
channel	(Ch16)	or	to	an	individual	station	on	a	working	channel	after	the	announcement	on	Ch16.		
A	lengthy	urgency	message	requesting	medical	advice	or	assistance,	or	repetition	of	a	message	relating	to	a	
vessel	overdue	would	also	be	transmitted	on	a	working	channel.		The	caller	may	request	an	acknowledgement	
for	the	reception	of	such	a	message.	

  eXaMPle	oF	tHe	BroadcaSt	oF	an	urgency	call:	
  Urgency	signal	(x3)	            Pan	Pan,	Pan	Pan,	Pan	Pan
  Addressed	to:	(x3)	             ………………Coast	Guard
  The	words	“this	is”	            THIS	IS
  The	station	calling	(x3)			     (Name	of	calling	station)
  Urgency	message	                R
                                  	 equest	urgent	medical	assistance,	crew	member	sustained	a		             	
                                  broken	leg,	suggest	change	to	channel	67
  	 	                             oVer


  eXaMPle	oF	tHe	BroadcaSt	oF	an	urgency	call:
  Urgency	signal	(x3)	            Pan	Pan,	Pan	Pan,	Pan	Pan
  Addressed	to:	(x3)	             All	stations,	all	stations,	all	stations
  The	words	“this	is”	            THIS	IS
  The	station	calling	(x3)				    (Name	of	calling	station)
  Urgency	message	                	n	position	…………………..	broken	rudder,	no	steerage	request	tow	to	shore
                                  I
  	 	                             oVer

The	urgency	situation	should	be	cancelled	by	the	station	of	origin	once	the	urgency	situation	is	finalised.


                      	                                                                        CALLING	PROCEdURES		           19
     t
     	 He	SaFety	SIgnal
     The	safety	signal	consist	of	the	word	SECURITE	(pronounced	SAY-CURE-E-TAY),	and	indicates	that	the	caller	is	
     about	to	broadcast	a	message	concerning	an	important	navigational	or	weather	warning.		It	has	priority	over	all	
     other	messages	except	distress	or	urgency	messages.
     The	safety	warning	is	announced	on	the	distress,	urgency	or	safety	channel	(Ch	16)	with	the	safety	message	
     being	broadcast	on	a	working	channel.		An	acknowledgement	is	not	required.


       eXaMPle	For	tHe	BroadcaSt	oF	SaFety	call	FroM	a	VeSSel:
       Safety	signal	(x3)	            SecurIte,	SecurIte,	SecurIte
       Addressed	to:	(x3)	            All	stations,	all	stations,	all	stations
       The	words	“this	is”	           THIS	IS
       The	station	calling	(x3)				   (Name	of	calling	station)
       Safety	alert	                  Navigation	warning	listen	on	Channel	13



       eXaMPle	For	tHe	BroadcaSt	oF	SaFety	call	FroM	a	coaSt	StatIon:
       Safety	signal	(x3)	            SecurIte,	SecurIte,	SecurIte
       Addressed	to:	(x3)	            All	stations,	all	stations,	all	stations
       The	words	“this	is”	           THIS	IS
       The	station	calling	(x3)				   (Name	of	calling	station)
       Safety	alert	                  Navigation	warning	listen	on	Channel	67




20
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
REVISION	QUESTIONS
36	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	may	be	used	for	
      w                                                    58	]	 	 hose	authority	is	required	before	
                                                                 w
      routine	or	general	communications?                         acknowledging	a	distress	alert?
37	]	 	 hat	should	the	caller	do	prior	to	transmission?
      w                                                    59]	 	 hat	is	the	expression	used	to	acknowledge	a	
                                                                w
38]	 	 hat	should	you	do	next	if	you	are	unsure	of	the	         distress	call	and	message	by	radio	telephone?
     w
     identity	of	the	calling	station?                      60	]	 	 hat	word	is	used	to	precede	all	radiotelephony	
                                                                 w
39	]	 	 hat	should	you	do	next	if	you	are	unsure	of	the	         distress	traffic?
      w
      identity	of	the	station	being	called?                61	]	 	 hat	station	controls	radiotelephony	distress	
                                                                 w
40	]		 hat	does	the	word	‘ROMEO’	indicate	during	                traffic?
     w
     radio	telephony	communications?                       62	]	 	 hat	expression	should	be	used,	by	the	station	
                                                                 w
41	]	 	 hat	does	the	word	‘OVER’	indicate	during	radio	          in	control	of	distress	traffic,	to	impose	silence	on	
      w
                                                                 the	distress	channel?
      telephony	communications?
                                                           63	]	 	 hat	expression	should	be	used,	by	a	station	
                                                                 w
42	]		 hat	does	the	word	‘OUT’	indicate	during	radio	
     w
                                                                 not	in	control	of	the	distress	situation,	to	impose	
     telephony	communications?
                                                                 silence	on	other	stations	operating	during	
43	]	 	 hat	should	you	do	next	if	your	routine	call	has	
      w                                                          distress	communications?	
      not	been	replied	to?
                                                           64	]	 	 hat	expression	should	be	used	by,	the	station	
                                                                 w
44	]		 hat	should	you	do	next	if	your	distress	call	and	
     w                                                           in	control	of	distress	traffic,	to	advise	all	stations	
     message	have	not	been	acknowledged?                         that	restricted	communications	may	take	place	
45	]	 	 o	whom	is	a	routine	or	general	message	
      T                                                          on	the	distress	channel?
      addressed?                                           65	]	 	 hat	expression	is	used,	by	the	station	in	
                                                                 w
46	]	 	 hat	type	of	channel	should	be	used	for	the	
      w                                                          control	of	distress	traffic,	to	advise	that	normal	
      exchange	of	routine	or	general	messages?                   traffic	may	now	continue	on	the	distress	
                                                                 channel?
47	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	is	used	for	radio	
      w
      telephony	distress	communications?                   66	]	 	 hat	is	the	radiotelephony	urgency	priority	
                                                                 w
                                                                 signal?
48	]		 hat	is	the	radio	telephony	distress	signal?
     w
                                                           67]	 	 hat	is	the	definition	of	the	urgency	priority	
                                                                w
49	]		 hat	is	the	definition	of	the	distress	signal?
     w                                                          signal?
50	]	 	 hose	authority	is	required	before	using	the	
      w                                                    68]	 	 hat	type	of	message	is	preceded	by	the	
                                                                w
      distress	signal?                                          urgency	signal?
51]	 	 o	whom	is	the	distress	broadcast	addressed?
     T                                                     69]	 	 hat	channel	is	used	for	the	transmission	of	an	
                                                                w
52	]	 	 hat	transmission	mode	is	used	for	a	distress	
      w                                                         urgency	message?
      broadcast?                                           70]	 	 o	whom	is	the	urgency	message	addressed?
                                                                T
53	]	 	 hat	is	the	sequence	for	a	distress	call?
      w                                                    71	]	 	 hat	is	the	radiotelephony	safety	signal?
                                                                 w
54]	 	 hat	is	the	first	word	of	a	distress	message?
     w                                                     72	]	 	 hat	is	the	definition	of	the	safety	priority	
                                                                 w
55	]	 	 hat	is	the	correct	sequence	for	a	distress	
      w                                                          signal?
      message?                                             73	]	 	 hat	type	of	message	is	preceded	by	the		
                                                                 w
56	]	 	 hat	is	your	obligation	with	respect	to	
      w                                                          safety	signal?
      accepting	distress	traffic?                          74	]	 	 hat	channel	is	used	for	the	transmission	of	a	
                                                                 w
57	]	 	 hat	should	you	do	next	on	hearing,	or	
      w                                                          safety	message?
      receiving,	a	distress	alert?                         75	]	 	s	an	acknowledgement	expected	for	a	safety	
                                                                 I
                                                                 broadcast?

                     	                                                                      CALLING	PROCEdURES		           21
     dIgItal	SelectIVe	callIng	(dSc)
     general
     digital	 Selective	 Calling	 (dSC)	 was	 first	 introduced	 to	 mariners	 with	 the	 commencement	 of	 the	 Global	
     Maritime	distress	and	Safety	System	(GMdSS),	primarily	for	vessels	compulsorily	equipped	with	marine	radio	
     communications	equipment.
     Marine	VHF	dSC	operates	on	Channel	70.		The	dSC	alert	is	transmitted	via	the	VHF	unit	on	Channel	70,	and	is	
     comparable	to	a	telephone	paging	system.		The	dSC	is	designed,	in	many	ways,	to	replicate	what	an	operator	
     may	say	when	operating	radiotelephony	equipment.		dSC	is	also	designed	to	take	the	place	of	an	operator	
     continuously	monitoring	the	International	distress	channel	16.		However,	regulatory	authorities	have	decided	
     that	operators	of	marine	VHF	should,	when	at	sea,	continue	to	monitor	Channel	16	indefinitely.




                                  gPS                       dSc                      VHF




                                                      Power	Supply                                                        	
                                                                                                                    Fig.	3	
                                                                                                       dSc	Block	diagram
     dSc-caPaBle	eQuIPMent
     VHF	transceivers	with	dSC	facilities	are	available	for	small	vessels.		Many	marine	VHF	units	have	the	dSC	facility	
     inbuilt	with	the	ability	to	interface	a	Global	Position	System	(GPS)	receiver,	to	the	dSC,	in	order	to	ensure	accurate	
     and	up	to	date	position	information	that	will	be	automatically	included	in	a	distress	alert.		dSC	equipment	may	
     also	offer	the	operator	the	facility	to	manually	update	vessel	position	information.						

     StatIon	IdentIty
     	
     In	order	to	use	dSC	techniques	the	VHF	dSC	controller	must	be	permanently	programmed	with	a	unique	nine	
     digit	identification	number	known	as	a	Maritime	Mobile	Service	Identity	(MMSI).		The	MMSI	is	issued	by	AMSA	
     upon	request.		See www.amsa.gov.au/AUSSAR/AMSA89.pdf
     The	first	three	digits,	known	as	the	Maritime	Identity	digits	(MId)	of	the	MMSI	indicate	the	country	of	registry.		
     The	MId	for	Australian	vessels	is	503	followed	by	six	digits	uniquely	identifying	the	vessel	itself.
     Coast	stations	are	identified	by	the	first	two	digits	of	the	MMSI	as	two	zeros	i.e.	00	followed	by	the	MId,	followed	
     by	four	digits	identifying	the	station	itself:	00503xxxx
     Recently	a	new	series	of	MMSI	No’s	have	been	issued	to;	Specialist	Search	and	Rescue	Aircraft	commencing	
     with111,	followed	by	the	MId	and	a	further	three	digits.		whilst	Aids	to	Navigation,	e.g.	Lightships	have	an	MMSI	
     of	99	followed	by	the	MId	and	a	further	four	digits:
     	    >>			Vessel	              503xxxxxx;
     	    >>			Group	               0503xxxxx;
     	    >>			Coast	Station	       00503xxxx;
     	    >>			SAR	Aircraft	        111503xxx;	and
     	         A
          >>				 ids	to	Navigation	 99503xxxx.	         (Lightships	etc)

22
	        MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
tranSMISSIon	oF	a	dSc	alert	
                                                                                                                          	
The	 dSC	 transmission,	 on	 Channel	 70,	 is	 a	 brief	 burst	 of	 digital	 data,	 typically	 0.5	 seconds	 in	 duration.	
This	channel	is	protected	and	should	not	be	used	for	any	other	type	of	transmission.	
dSC	is	a	semi-automated	method	of	establishing	the	initial	contact	between	stations.		Once	the	initial	contact	
has	been	made	subsequent	radiotelephone	communications	should	continue	on	any	one	of	the	marine	VHF	
channels,	depending	on	the	priority	of	the	service	required.

InForMatIon	contaIned	In	a	dSc	alert
VHF	marine	radio	equipment	fitted	with	digital	Selective	Calling	may	offer	a	single-button	distress	facility	and	
automated	watch	keeping.		The	dSC	Alert	contains	the	following	information	as	digitised	data:
    T
>>			 he	identity	of	the	transmitting	station	(MMSI);
    	
    T
>>			 he	priority	of	the	alert	(distress,	urgency,	safety	or	routine);	and
    	
    S
>>			 tations	being	called	(all	stations	or	an	individual	station).

dSc	alert	ForMatS	
The	International	dSC	system	provides	for	the	following	types	of	alerts:
    d
>>	 	 istress	alerts	–	implicitly	addressed	to	All	Stations
    d                                                                                                                    	
>>	 	 istress	 alert	 acknowledgement	 –	 normally	 transmitted	 by	 coast	 stations	 or	 limited	 coast	 stations	 only.	
    May	be	used	by	ship	stations	under	specific	circumstances.
    d
>>	 	 istress	alert	relay	–	normally	transmitted	by	coast	stations	or	limited	coast	stations	only.		May	be	used	by	
    ship	stations	under	specific	circumstances.
    A
>>	 	 ll	stations	–	used	to	alert	all	stations	that	a	distress,	urgency	or	safety	alert	is	about	to	follow.
    S                                                                                                             	
>>	 	 elective	or	single	station	–	used	to	alert	an	individual	station	that	an	urgency,	safety	or	routine	alert	is	
    to	follow.	

	dSc	dIStreSS	alert	ProcedureS
 As	with	a	radiotelephony	distress	call,	the	dSC	distress	alert	may	only	be	sent	on	the	authority	of	the	Master,	
Skipper	or	person	responsible	for	the	safety	of	the	vessel.		The	dSC	distress	alert	also	indicates	that	the	vessel	or	
 persons	onboard	that	vessel	is	in	grave	and	immanent	danger	and	request	immediate	assistance.		
All	stations	receiving	a	dSC	distress	alert	must	immediately	cease	all	transmission	capable	of	interfering	with	
distress	communications.

dIStreSS	PoSItIon	InForMatIon
	
with	 GPS	 interfacing	 position	 information	 will	 automatically	 be	 inserted	 into	 the	 distress	 alert	 and	 give	 an	
indication	of	when	that	position	was	last	updated.	
Following	 the	 International	 Telecommunications	 Union	 (Radio	 Regulations)	 ITU(RR):	 If	 the	 position	 is	 not	
updated	 within	 23.5	 hours	 the	 section	 indicating	 Latitude	 will	 show	 five	 9s	 and	 the	 section	 indicating	
Longitude	 will	 show	 five	 9s.	 	 The	 section	 indicating	 the	 time	 of	 the	 position	 will	 show	 four	 8s.	 	 Some	
manufacturers	 will	 insert	 a	 series	 of	 asterisks	 (*)	 to	 replace	 the	 digits	 of	 position	 and	 time	 information	
if	 the	 position	 has	 not	 been	 updated.	 	 On	 vessels	 compulsorily	 fitted	 with	 dSC	 it	 may	 be	 necessary	 to	
update	 the	 position	 information	 no	 later	 than	 four	 hours,	 with	 a	 warning	 system	 to	 indicate	 that	 the	
position	 requires	 updating.	 therefore	 the	 position	 and	 time	 at	 which	 it	 was	 last	 updated	 will	 always	      	
be	indicated.

dSc	alert	InForMatIon
A	dSC	Alert	may	contain	all	or	some	of	the	following	information	as	digitised	data:
   t
>>		 he	identity	of	the	calling	station	(MMSI);


                      	                                                             dIGITAL	SELECTIVE	CALLING	(dSC)		          23
        	
        t
     >>		 he	station	being	called	(a	specific	station	or	all	stations);	
        	
        t
     >>		 he	priority	of	the	alert	-	distress,	urgency,	safety	or	routine;	and
        	
        t
     >>		 he	position	of	the	calling	station	and	an	indication	of	when	the	position	was	last	updated.	

     t
     	 ranSMISSIon	oF	a	dSc	dIStreSS	alert
     Operators	of	VHF	dSC	may	have	the	option	to	transmit	the	distress	alert	by:
         A
         	
     >>			 	dedicated	distress	Alert	Button;
         	
         E
     >>			 diting	of	the	distress	Alert	menu;	or
         S
     >>			 election	of	the	distress	priority	from	a	standard	menu,	if	provided.
     Some	dSCs	may	offer	the	operator	the	option	of	selecting	the	distress	priority	from	a	transmission	menu	with	a	
     further	option	of	editing	the	distress	alert	by	selecting	and	transmitting	the	nature	of	the	distress	situation	e.g.	
     ‘on	fire’,	’collision’	or	‘abandoning	ship’.
     However,	the	primary	function	of	a	distress	alert	is	to	advise	All	Stations	of	the	distress	situation	and	the	location	
     of	the	distress	vessel.

     rePetItIon	oF	dIStreSS	alertS
     	
                                                                                                                             	
     The	 acknowledgement	 of	 a	 VHF	 distress	 alert	 should	 be	 anticipated	 from	 a	 coast	 or	 limited	 coast	 station.	
     However,	if	an	acknowledgement	is	not	received	for	the	dSC	distress	alert	then	it	will	automatically	be	repeated	
     at	approximately	four	minute	intervals	for	five	transmissions.

     acknowledgeMent	oF	a	VHF	dSc	dIStreSS	alert
     Ship	stations	receiving	a	distress	alert	from	another	vessel	should	take	note	of	the	contents	and	immediately	
     listen	on	Channel	16	for	any	radiotelephony	MAYdAY	traffic	that	should	follow.
     If	 a	 MAYdAY	 is	 received	 on	 VHF	 Channel	 16	 it	 should	 be	 acknowledged	 using	 the	 standard	 radiotelephony	
     procedure.		Once	the	dSC	distress	acknowledgement	is	received	the	repeat	dSC	distress	alert	is	cancelled.
     An	acknowledgement	is	not	required	if	the	receiving	vessel	is	unable	to	assist.		Ship	stations	receiving	a	dSC	
     distress	alert	from	another	vessel	may	acknowledge	by	dSC	if:
         M
     >>	 	 ayday	traffic	has	not	been	heard	on	Channel	16	within	5	minutes
         N
     >>	 	 o	other	stations	have	been	heard	communicating	with	the	vessel	in	distress;	and
         T
     >>	 	 he	dSC	distress	alert	is	repeated.

     cancellatIon	oF	an	InadVertent	dSc	dIStreSS	alert
     In	the	event	of	an	accidental	transmission	of	a	dSC	distress	alert	the	transmitting	station	should	immediately:
         S
     >>	 	 witch	off	the	VHF	transceiver	(this	will	block	any	transmission	repeats	of	the	dSC	alert	which	would	continue	
         until	an	acknowledgement	is	received);
         S
     >>	 	 witch	on	the	VHF	transceiver	and	select	Channel	16;	and	then
         B
     >>	 	 roadcast	 an	 ‘All	 stations’	 call,	 indicating	 the	 vessel’s	 name,	 MMSI,	 time	 of	 the	 accidental	 alert	 and	 an	
         expression	of	cancellation	of	the	distress	alert.




24
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
REVISION	QUESTIONS
76	]	 	 hat	information	is	included	in	all	VHF		
      w                                                    84	]	 	 hat	should	you	do	next	after	receiving	a	VHF	
                                                                 w
      dSC	alerts?                                                dSC	distress	alert?
77	]	 	 ow	is	a	VHF	dSC	receiver	controller	identified?
      H                                                    85	]	 	 ow	would	you	acknowledge	a	VHF	dSC		
                                                                 H
                                                                 distress	alert?
78	]	 	 hat	Australian	organisation	issues	VHF	dSC	
      w
      identity	numbers?                                    86	]	 	 hat	information	is	included	in	all	VHF	dSC	
                                                                 w
                                                                 distress	alerts?
79	]	 	 hat	do	the	first	three	digits	of	a	vessel’s		
      w
      MMSI	indicate?                                       87	]	 	 n	receiving	a	VHF	dSC	distress	alert,	should	
                                                                 O
                                                                 you	acknowledge	by	dSC?
80	]	 	 hat	type	of	station	will	be	issued	with	an	MMSI	
      w
      commencing	with	0?                                   88	]	 	 hat	happens	if	a	dSC	distress	alert	is	not	
                                                                 w
                                                                 acknowledged	immediately?
81	]	 	 hat	type	of	station	will	be	issued	with	an	MMSI	
      w
      commencing	with	00?                                  89]	 To	whom	is	a	routine	priority	alert	addressed?
82	]	 	 hat	other	navigational	equipment	is	highly	
      w                                                    90	]	 	 hat	information	is	required	in	order	to	
                                                                 w
      recommended	to	be	interfaced	with	the		                    transmit	a	routine	priority	alert	to	another	
      dSC	unit?                                                  vessel?
83	]	 	 hat	marine	VHF	channel	is	used	for	dSC	
      w                                                    91	]	 	 hat	should	the	operator	do	next	if	a	dSC	
                                                                 w
      distress	alerting?                                         distress	alert	has	been	accidentally	transmitted?




                      	                                                        dIGITAL	SELECTIVE	CALLING	(dSC)		     25
     SurVIVal	craFt	eQuIPMent

     EMERGENCY	POSITION	INdICATING	RAdIO		
     BEACONS,	EPIRBS
     general
     	 PIRBs	are	authorized	under	a	class	licence	and	as	such	do	not	require	an	individual	radio	communications	
     E
     licence.	 	 An	 EPIRB	 is	 described	 as	 a	 small,	 self-contained,	 battery-operated	 radio	 transmitter	 which	 is	 both	
     watertight	and	buoyant.
     The	essential	purpose	of	an	EPIRB	is	to	assist	in	determining	the	position	of	survivors	in	search	and	rescue	
     operations.		The	EPIRB	should	not	be	considered	as	an	alternative	to	an	approved	marine	radio	transceiver.
     Operation	of	the	EPIRB	should	be	a	simple	two	step	action,	and	once	switched	on	or	activated,	should	not	be	
     switched	off	until	rescue	has	been	completed.		International	Radio	Regulations	state	that	the	EPIRB	battery	
     should	be	capable	of	supplying	power	to	the	ePIrB	for	a	minimum	of	48	hours.

     local	uSer	terMInalS
     Stations	established	on	land	for	the	purpose	of	receiving	signals	from	the	Cospas-Sarsat	satellites	are	known	as	
     known	as	Local	User	Terminals	(LUTs).		
     There	 are	 two	 LUTs	 in	 Australia,	 one	 located	 at	 Albany,	 in	 western	 Australia,	 and	 another	 at	 Bundaberg,	
     Queensland,	both	of	which	are	linked	to	the	Rescue	Coordination	Centre	(RCC)	Canberra.		Another	LUT	located	
     at	wellington,	New	Zealand,	is	also	linked	to	RCC	Canberra.

     tyPe	oF	ePIrB
     There	is	currently	only	one	type	of	EPIRB	available	for	all	craft:
        T
        	
     >>		 he	EPIRB	operating	on	UHF	frequencies	of	406.025	MHz,	406.028	MHz	and	406.037	MHz	has	recently	been	
        made	available.		Each	commonly	referred	to	as	the	406	MHz	EPIRB.

     	IdentIFIcatIon	oF	a	406	MHz	ePIrB
      Purchasers	 of	 a	 406	 MHz	 EPIRB	 are	 required	 to	 complete	 a	 registration	 form	 which	 in	 turn	 is	 lodged	 with	
      the	Australian	Maritime	Safety	Authority	Canberra.		The	406	MHz	EPIRB	has	a	unique	identity	code	which	is	
      transmitted	as	part	of	its	digitised	signal	and	indicates	its	country	of	registration.		RCCs	around	the	world	can	
      therefore	identify	the	vessel	to	which	an	activated	EPIRB	belongs.

     t
     	 He	coSPaS-SarSat	InternatIonal	SatellIte	SySteM
     The	COSPAS-SARSAT	satellite	system	is	an	International	consortium	of	The	United	States	of	America,	Canada,	
     France	and	Russia	designed	to	locate	an	activated	EPIRB	operating	on	a	406.	MHz	frequency.		The	system	uses	
     four	low	earth	orbiting	satellites,	LEOS,	each	making	a	complete	low	earth	Polar	orBIt,	at	between	700	and	
     1000	km	altitude,	in	approximately	100	minutes.		At	least	one	of	these	orbiting	satellites	is	in	‘line	of	sight’	of	
     any	point	on	the	earth’s	surface		at	a	maximum	interval	of	no	longer	than	three	hours.	Orbiting	satellites	in	the	
     COSPAS-SARSAT	system	have	a	viewing	range,	or	footprint,	approximately	2000	km	either	side	of	its	track	across	
     the	surface	of	the	earth.		
                                                                                                                           	
     The	 system	 also	 uses	 five	 satellites	 that	 are	 geo	 StatIonary,	 in	 fixed	 positions,	 some	 36,000	 km	 above	
     the	equator.	
     		



26
	         MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
   METHOdS	OF	dETECTION	ANd	LOCATION	
tHe	406	MHz		ePIrB
The	 406	 MHz	 EPIRB	 transmits	 a	 short	 burst	 of	 digital	 data	 on	 the	
frequencies	of	406.025	MHz,	406.028	MHz	and	406.037	MHz.		This	burst	
                                                                                    	
of	 data	 is	 typically	 a	 5	 watt	 signal	 of	 0.5	 of	 a	 second	 duration	 every	
50	seconds.		
The	406	MHz	EPIRB	manufactured	to	Australian	specifications	also	transmits	
on	 121.5	 MHz	 for	 aircraft	 homing	 purposes.	 Transmission	 on	 121.5	 MHz	
simultaneously	radiates	a	continuous	series	of	distinctive	descending	tones	
which	contains	no	station	identification.
The	406	MHz	EPIRB	is	therefore	capable	of	being	detected	by:
    A
>>	 	 ircraft	within	range	ANd	monitoring	the	civil	aviation	frequency	of	121.5	MHz;	and
    S
>>	 	 atellites	operating	in	the	COSPAS-SARSAT	system.

detectIon	By	SatellIte
	
Satellites	monitoring	406.025	MHz	can	receive	the	digitised	burst	of	data	and	relay	the	signal	back	to	earth	in	
the	‘real	time’	mode,	as	long	as	the	EPIRB	and	LUT	are	in	the	satellite	footprint	at	the	same	time.
Because	signals	from	a	406	MHz	EPIRB	are	in	a	digitised	form,	they	can	also	be	stored	in	the	satellite’s	memory.	  	
As	the	satellite’s	path	brings	it	into	view	of	an	LUT,	information,	including	time	of	first	detection,	is	retrieved	
from	the	satellite’s	memory	and	relayed	down	to	the	LUT.		This	information	is	processed	and	passed	to	a	rescue	
co-ordination	centre,	providing	both	an	alert	and	a	position.	This	is	said	to	be	in	the	‘global’	mode.		Position	
accuracy	is	better	than	5	km	(2.7	nautical	miles).		
EPIRBs	 operating	 on	 406.028	 and	 406.037	 MHz	 operate	 in	 a	 similar	 manner	 to	 the	 406.025	 MHz	 EPIRB.	             	
However,	the	406.028	and	406.037	MHz	EPIRB	also	have	an	inbuilt	Global	Position	System	(GPS)	unit	installed.	                  	
Once	 activated	 the	 GPS	 unit	 can	 receive	 position	 information	 from	 GPS	 satellites	 and	 within	 5	 minutes	
                                                                                                                               	
include	 that	 information	 in	 the	 burst	 of	 data	 that	 is	 received	 by	 the	 LUT	 which	 is	 then	 relayed	 to	 the	 RCC.	
Position	accuracy	is	to	within	150	metres	of	the	activated	EPIRB.




       EPIRB                                                                                                    LUT
                                                                                                                       Fig.	4	
                                                                                                          Satellite	Footprint


                       	                                                                    SURVIVAL	CRAFT	EQUIPMENT		             27
     ACTIVATION	OF	THE	406	MHz	EPIRB
     general
     Two	types	of	406	MHz	EPIRBs	are	manufactured:
         T
     >>			 hose	requiring	manual	activation,	the	controls	of	which	may	simply	be	on	or	off;	and
         T
         	
     >>			 hose	that	can	be	activated	manually	in	addition	to	those	capable	of	being	kept	in	a	float	free	bracket	and	
         released	automatically	by	way	of	a	hydrostatic	release	system.		The	arming	of	this	type	may	also	offer	the	
         operator	the	choice	of	‘off’,	‘on’,	‘auto’	and	a	‘testing’	facility.

     accIdental	actIVatIon	oF	an	ePIrB
     The	RCC	should	immediately	be	advised	by	telephone,	1800	641	792	(24	hour	service)	or	if	at	sea,	via	a	coast	
     radio	station,	a	limited	coast	station	or	another	vessel	if	the	owners	of	an	EPIRB	discover	that	it	has	accidentally	
     been	activated.		There	are	no	penalties	for	advising	of	accidental	activation	of	an	EPIRB.

     SerVIcIng	oF	ePIrBS
     	
     An	EPIRB	must	not	be	tested	except	strictly	in	accordance	with	manufacturer’s	instructions.		Owners	of	EPIRBs	
     should	 refer	 to	 the	 relevant	 regulation	 concerning	 performance	 verification	 tests	 and	 the	 owner’s	 manual	
     concerning	servicing	and	recommended	battery	replacement	dates.		Hydrostatic	release	mechanisms	should	be	
     inspected	and	serviced	at	regular	intervals.

     Stowage	oF	ePIrBS
     	
     EPIRBs	should	be	stowed	in	a	safe	easily	accessible	position,	or	in	a	secure	‘float	free’	bracket.
     	




28
	        MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
REVISION	QUESTIONS
	 2	]	 	 hat	is	the	general	description	of	an	EPIRB?
9 w                                                      106	]	 	 hat	type	of	satellites	are	stationary	over	the	
                                                                w
                                                                equator?
93	]	 what	is	the	purpose	of	an	EPIRB?
                                                         107	]	 	 hat	type	of	satellites	are	in	orbit	around	the	
                                                                w
94	]	 	s	an	EPIRB	acceptable	as	an	alternative	to	a	
      I                                                         Earth’s	surface?
      radio	transceiver?
                                                         108	]	 	 hat	type	of	orbit	is	maintained	by	the	orbiting	
                                                                w
95	]	 	 or	how	long	should	the	EPIRB	operate	once	
      F                                                         satellites?
      switched	on?
                                                         109	]	 	 hat	is	the	approximate	duration	of	the	
                                                                w
96	]	 when	should	the	EPIRB	be	switched	off?
                                                                orbiting	satellites?
97	]	 	 hat	frequencies	does	the	small	inexpensive	
      w                                                  110	]	 	 hat	type	of	station	receives	EPIRB	information	
                                                                w
      EPIRB	operate	on?                                         from	the	satellite	system?
98	]	 How	is	this	small	EPIRB	detected?                  111	]	 	 here	are	the	land	stations	located	in	Australia	
                                                                w
99	]	 	 ith	what	organisation	should	the	purchasers	
      w                                                         that	receive	EPIRB	information	relayed	from	the	
      of	a	406	MHz	type	EPIRB	register	with?                    Satellite	system?
100	]	 	 hat	information	is	included	in	the	406	MHz	
       w                                                 112	]	 	 hat	are	the	limitations	of	a	121.5	MHz	EPIRB?
                                                                w
       EPIRB	transmission?                               113	]	 	 hat	are	the	advantages	of	the	406.025	MHz	
                                                                w
101	]	 	 hat	type	of	signal	is	transmitted	by	the	406	
       w                                                        EPIRB?
       MHz	EPIRB?                                        114	]	 	 hat	are	the	advantages	of	the	406.028	MHz	
                                                                w
102	]	 	 hat	type	of	signal	is	transmitted	on	the	
       w                                                        EPIRB?
       aviation	emergency	frequency	of	121.5	MHz?        115	]	 	 ow	should	an	EPIRB	be	tested?
                                                                H
103	]	 	 ow	is	the	406	MHz	EPIRB	detected?
       H                                                 116	]	 	 hat	must	you	do	if	you	accidentally	activate	
                                                                w
104	]		 hat	mode	does	the	406	MHz	EPIRB	operate?
      w                                                         an	EPIRB?
105	]	 	 hat	satellite	system	can	detect	or	receive	
       w
       EPIRB	signals?




                     	                                                           SURVIVAL	CRAFT	EQUIPMENT			         29
     SEARCH	ANd	RESCUE	TRANSPONdERS	
     general
     A	 Search	 and	 Rescue	 Transponder,	 or	 SART,	 is	 a	 battery-powered	 portable	 device,	 which	 may	 be	 used	 by	 a	
     survival	craft	to	indicate	its	position	to	searching	aircraft	and	vessels.
     The	SART	operates	in	the	9.3	to	9.5	GHz	band	and	will	respond	only	to	radar	equipment	operating	on	those	
     frequencies	 (X	 Band,	 3	 Centimetre	 radar).	 	 The	 SART	 will	 not	 respond	 to	 3	 GHz	 (S	 band,	 10	 Centimetre)	
     radar.		The	SART	should	operate	in	the	standby	mode	for	a	minimum	of	96	hours	with	a	further	eight	hours	              	
     of	transmission.			

     PoSItIonIng	oF	tHe	Sart
     Under	no	circumstances	should	the	SART	be	placed	in	the	water.		The	SART	should	be	mounted	at	least	one	
     metre	above	the	water	line.		when	in	the	survival	craft	survivors	should	position	the	SART	as	high	as	possible	
     with	the	aid	of	an	oar	or	the	lifeboat	mast.		Some	manufacturers	will	supply	the	SART	with	a	short	telescopic	type	
     mast	of	approximately	one	metre	in	length.	

     Sart	oPeratIon		
     O
     	 nce	 switched	 on	 the	 SART	 will	 scan	 the	 X	 Band	 of	 radar	 frequencies.	 	 when	 a	 searching	 radar	 is	 detected	
     the	 SART	 will	 lock	 onto	 that	 particular	 radar	 frequency	 and	 commence	 to	 transmit	 on	 the	 entire	 X	 Band,	    	
     thus	enabling	all	vessels	in	the	vicinity	to	receive	an	indication	of	the	SART	transmission.
     On	detecting	signals	from	distant	radar	equipment,	an	activated	SART	will	generate	a	series	of	response	signals	
     of	twelve	blips	which	will	be	displayed	on	the	receiving	radar	screen,	extending	in	a	line,	approx	5	to	8	nautical	
     miles	in	length,	outward	from	the	SART	position,	along	its	line	of	bearing.		This	unique	radar	signal	is	easily	
     recognised	and	the	rescue	vessel	or	aircraft	can	locate	the	survivors.	(See	Fig.		5	&	6)
                                                                                                                             	
     An	 interrogated	 SART	 will	 provide	 proof	 to	 survivors	 of	 operations	 by	 means	 of	 an	 audible	 and/or	 visible	
     flashing	light.	

     locatIon	dIStanceS
     A                                                                                                                           	
     	 	 SART	 should	 respond	 to	 a	 ship’s	 radar	 with	 a	 scanner	 height	 of	 15	 metres	 at	 a	 distance	 of	 at	 least	 5	
     nautical	miles.	
     Once	locked	on	to	a	searching	radar	there	will	be	a	slight	delay	in	the	changeover	from	the	SART’s	standby	or	
     receive	mode	to	transmit	mode.		This	slight	delay	may	cause	a	small	position	error	up	to	150	metres	on	the	radar	
     screen	of	the	blip	associated	with	the	position	of	the	SART.		Subsequent	radar	sweeps	will	confirm	the	actual	
     location	of	the	SART.	
                      24	Mile	range                                          24	Mile	range
      Vessel heading                                                                                        Vessel altered
      due North                                                                                             course towards
                       Heading line                                                                         the SART




     Fig.	5	                                                        Fig.	6
     SART indication as seen on a marine radar on a                 Image on the radar once the vessel has altered
     bearing of 045°T. (Radar Display set to North Up)              course to head towards the SART position

30
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
REVISION	QUESTIONS
117	]	 	 hat	is	the	general	description	of	a	SART?
       w                                                 122	]	 	 ow	should	the	SART	be	positioned	for	survival	
                                                                H
                                                                operations?
118	]	 	 hat	type	of	marine	radar	is	capable	of	
       w
       detecting	an	activated	SART?                      123	]	 	 hat	is	the	recommended	height	for	
                                                                w
                                                                positioning	the	SART?
119	]	 	 nce	‘activated’	for	how	long	should	the	SART	
       O
       be	capable	of	transmitting?                       124	]	 	 ow	is	a	SART	transmission	identified?
                                                                H
120	]	 	 hen	switched	to	the	‘Standby’	mode,	what	
       w                                                 125	]	 	 ow	many	miles	does	the	SART	signal		
                                                                H
       band	of	frequencies	will	the	SART	scan?                  extend	to?
121	]	 	 hen	switched	on	to	the	‘Standby’	mode	
       w                                                 126	]	 	 ow	would	a	survivor	be	alerted	to	the	fact	that	
                                                                H
       for	how	long	should	the	SART	be	capable	of	              the	SART	has	been	activated?
       operating?




                     	                                                           SURVIVAL	CRAFT	EQUIPMENT			         31
         Power	SuPPlIeS

         tHe	MarIne	Battery
         Most	marine	batteries	used	on	boats	are	of	the	lead-acid	variety.		Lead-acid	cells	consist	of	a	combination	of	lead	
         and	lead	peroxide	plates.		These	plates	are	kept	in	a	solution	of	sulphuric	acid	and	water	(the	electrolyte)	which	
         produces	a	potential	difference	between	the	plates,	and	current	can	flow	when	a	load,	such	as	a	marine	radio	is	
         connected.		during	this	‘discharge’	cycle	the	sulphuric	acid	or	the	material	in	the	plates	is	used	up.		The	potential	
         difference	no	longer	exists	and	current	can	no	longer	flow.		This	process	is	reversed	by	passing	a	current	through	
         the	cell	in	the	opposite	direction	and	this	is	known	as	‘charging’.	

         Battery	conStructIon	(courtesy	of	Battery	Council	International)
         Batteries	are	made	of	five	basic	components:

                                                         1 A	resilient	Plastic	container.
                               5
                                                         2 Positive	and	negative	internal	plates	made	of	lead.

                                                         3 Plate	separators	made	of	porous	synthetic	material.
                                             1           4 Electrolyte,	a	dilute	solution	of	sulfuric	acid	and	
     4
                                                             water	better	known	as	battery	acid.
          3     2
                                                         5 Lead	terminals,	the	connection	point	between	the	
                                                             battery	and	whatever	it	powers.                                    	
                                                                                                                          Fig.	7	
                                                                                                           Battery	construction

         cell	Voltage
         Each	lead-acid	cell	has	a	nominal	voltage	of	2	volts.		A	physically	larger	cell	does	not	supply	a	higher	voltage	
         (Volts).	Cells	in	a	battery	are	combined	to	give	a	total	battery	voltage.		i.e.	three	cells	to	produce	a	6	Volt	battery,	
         or	six	cells	to	produce	a	12	Volt	battery.		Each	cell	will	have	a	filler	cap	to	enable	topping	up	of	the	electrolyte	by	
         distilled	or	demineralised	water.		Three	filler	caps	indicate	a	6	Volt	battery.

         cell	caPacIty
         	
         Electrical	current	is	measured	in	amperes	(amps).		Each	lead-acid	battery	has	the	capacity	to	supply	an	amount	
         of	current	over	a	specific	time	and	is	known	as	its	Ampere	Hour	Capacity	(AHC).		A	large	cell	has	the	ability	to	
         provide	a	higher	AHC	over	a	short	period	of	time	or	a	low	current	over	a	longer	period	of	time.		Manufacturers	
         will	specify	the	AHC	of	an	individual	battery	type.

         Battery	connectIon
         Batteries	can	be	connected	to	each	other,	in	order	to	provide	a	total	operating	voltage.
         	 erIeS	connections,	where	the	negative	terminal	of	one	battery	is	connected	to	the	positive	terminal	of	another	
         S
         battery.	i.e.	two	6	Volt	batteries	of	equal	AHC	connected	together	in	order	to	produce	a	12	Volt	operating	voltage	
         with	an		AHC	of	each	battery.
         Parallel	connections,	whereby	all	the	positive	terminals,	of	a	bank	of	batteries,	are	connected	together,	and	
         all	the	negative	terminals	are	connected	together.		In	the	following	Fig.	two	6	Volt	batteries	with	equal	AHC	
         connected	together	in	parallel	will	produce	a	total	of	6	Volt	with	an	AHC	of	the	sum	of	the	AHC	of	each	battery,	
         and	therefore	a	longer	period	overall	for	current	to	flow.




32
	          MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
Positive                                                                                                            negative
                                                   negative
                                                                 Positive




Fig.	8	                                                          Fig.	9	
Series	connection                                                Parallel	connection


Battery	HazardS
There	are	two	hazards	associated	with	lead-acid	batteries	that	ship	station	operators	should	be	aware	of:
>>		the	risk	of	explosion;	and
>>		the	risk	of	chemical	burns.	
As	a	result	of	the	chemical	process	occurring	within	the	cells	of	a	battery	during	charging,	Hydrogen	gas	is	
produced.		when	mixed	with	air,	this	can	form	a	highly	explosive	mixture	which	can	be	ignited	by	a	naked	flame,	
a	lighted	cigarette,	or	a	spark.		
The	spark	caused	by	making	or	breaking	an	electrical	connection	in	the	vicinity	of	the	charging	battery	may	be	
sufficient	to	ignite	the	hydrogen-air	mixture.		Batteries	should	be	located	as	close	to	the	radio	equipment	as	
possible,	and	placed	in	a	well	ventilated	container	or	locker.		If	using	metal	tools,	to	work	on	battery	connections,	
extreme	care	must	be	taken	to	ensure	that	terminals	are	not	short-circuited.
The	electrolyte	in	battery	cells	consists	of	a	mixture	of	water	and	Sulphuric	acid.		It	is	sufficiently	concentrated,	
particularly	 after	 charging,	 to	 damage	 eyes,	 skin	 or	 clothes	 if	 spilt	 or	 splashed.	 	 Immediate	 and	 prolonged	
application	of	running	water	is	recommended	to	minimise	its	effect.
It	 is	 recommended	 that	 eye	 protection,	 gloves,	 etc	 be	 worn	 when	 a	 person	 is	 carrying	 out	 maintenance	 on	
batteries.		Batteries	should	not	be	topped-up	whilst	on	charge.	

e
	 SSentIal	Battery	MaIntenance
The	functioning	of	radio	equipment	is	dependent	on	power	supplied	by	the	battery.		If	it	is	to	provide	adequate	
performance	in	the	event	of	an	emergency,	regular	and	careful	maintenance	is	required.
A	battery’s	service	life	also	depends	on	the	manner	in	which	it	is	treated.		To	ensure	the	best	performance	from	
a	battery	it	is	important	that	a	battery:
    i
>>	 	s	kept	clean,	dry	and	free	from	terminal	corrosion;
    h
>>			 as	the	electrolyte	kept	at	the	correct	level;	and
    i
>>			s	kept	correctly	charged.

Battery	cleanlIneSS
A	battery	top	should	be	kept	clean.		A	dirty	battery	top	may	hold	spilt	electrolyte	on	its	surface	thereby	providing	
a	path	for	the	electrical	current	to	leak	away.		It	is	important	to	keep	the	outside	surfaces	of	a	battery	dry	and	
free	of	contamination.
Corrosion	forming	on	terminal	clamps	may	seriously	affect,	or	even	prevent,	the	ability	of	the	battery	to	supply	
current.		Corrosion	will	be	evident	by	the	formation	of	a	white-green	powder	between	the	battery	terminals	
and	the	terminal	clamps.		In	this	situation,	the	terminal	clamp	should	be	removed	and	both	it	and	the	terminal	
post	cleaned.

                      	                                                                              POwER	SUPPLIES	           33
     To	minimise	the	likelihood	of	corrosion,	terminal	posts	and	clamps	should	be	lightly	smeared	with	Vaseline™	
     or	petroleum	jelly.	
     A	 battery	 which	 is	 near	 flat,	 defective	 or	 have	 corrosion	 of	 battery	 terminals	 may	 be	 able	 to	 provide	
     sufficient	 current	 to	 operate	 the	 receiver,	 but	 not	 the	 transmitter.	 	 Should	 the	 transmitter	 fail	 to	 operate	
     and	 dial	 lights	 or	 channel	 display	 dim	 significantly	 when	 the	 button	 is	 operated,	 the	 battery	 should	        	
     be	suspected.		

     e
     	 lectrolyte	leVel
     The	level	of	electrolyte	inside	a	battery	is	important.		As	a	result	of	the	chemical	action	inside	a	battery,	water	is	
     lost.		This	should	be	replaced	with	distilled	or	demineralised	water.
     Seawater	 must	 not	 be	 used	 under	 any	 circumstances.		 The	 level	 of	 the	 electrolyte	should	 be	 maintained	 at	
     approximately	10	mm	above	the	plates	unless	otherwise	specified	by	the	manufacturer.		If	the	electrolyte	level	
     is	too	high,	it	may	overflow	during	charging	providing	an	unwanted	discharge	path.		If	the	electrolyte	is	too	low,	
     the	plates	are	exposed	to	the	air	and	permanent	damage	and	loss	of	capacity	may	result.
     It	may	be	noticed	that	a	battery	that	is	nearing	the	end	of	its	useful	life	will	require	more	frequent	topping-
     up	 than	 has	 been	 previously	 necessary.	 	 Low-maintenance	 batteries	 will	 require	 infrequent	 topping-up.	
     Maintenance-free	batteries	may	require	none	at	all.

     	correct	cHargIng
      To	provide	the	best	service,	a	battery	must	be	correctly	charged.		Both	overcharging	and	undercharging	can	
     seriously	affect	its	performance.
     On	small	vessels	the	usual	means	of	charging	the	radio	battery	will	be	an	alternator	or	generator	attached	to	
     the	vessel’s	engine.		An	associated	regulator,	which	reduces	the	charging	current	as	necessary,	should	prevent	
     overcharging.
     Vessels	 that	 are	 used	 frequently	 (say,	 several	 times	 each	 week)	 should	 have	 no	 problem	 maintaining	 a	
     fully	 charged	 radio	 battery.	 	 However,	 on	 vessels	 that	 are	 used	 relatively	 infrequently	 (say,	 once	 every	 few	
                                                                                                                                   	
     weeks),	 it	 is	 likely	 that	 during	 storage	 even	 a	 battery	 that	 starts	 as	 fully	 charged,	 will	 self-discharge	 and	
     go	flat.
     For	safety	reasons,	it	is	important	that	a	small	boat	owner	is	able	to	determine	the	general	condition	of	a	battery	
     and	its	ability	to	supply	current	over	a	period	of	time	(its	capacity).		An	indication	of	the	level	of	charge	in	a	
     battery	may	be	obtained	by	either:
         m
     >>			 easuring	the	specific	gravity	of	the	electrolyte;	or
         m
     >>			 easuring	the	on-load	terminal	voltage.

     	MeaSurIng	tHe	SPecIFIc	graVIty
      The	 specific	 gravity,	 also	 called	 the	 relative	 density,	 of	 the	 electrolyte	 (the	 liquid	 inside	 the	 battery)	 varies	
      proportionally	with	the	amount	of	charge	in	the	battery.		It	is	highest	when	the	battery	is	fully	charged	and	lowest	
      when	the	battery	is	fully	discharged	or	flat.		It	follows	that	the	amount	of	charge	in	a	battery	can	be	determined	
     by	measuring	the	specific	gravity	of	the	electrolyte.		A	simple,	inexpensive	device	called	a	hydrometer	is	used	to	
     measure	specific	gravity.	
     In	 general,	 for	 a	 fully	 charged	 battery	 the	 specific	 gravity	 should	 measure	 about	 1.250.	 	 Half	 charge	 will	 be	
     indicated	by	a	reading	of	1.200	and	fully	discharged	by	1.150.		All	cells	in	a	battery	should	indicate	a	similar	
     specific	 gravity.	 	 A	 variation	 of	 more	 than	 about	 0.025	 will	 indicate	 a	 faulty	 cell	 and	 the	 battery	 should	  	
     be	replaced.
     Specific	gravity	readings	should	not	be	taken	immediately	after	topping-up	a	cell	as	the	added	water	will	float	
     towards	 the	 top	 of	 the	 cell	 and	 give	 a	 false	 reading.	 	 Charging	 for	 thirty	 minutes	 or	 more	 after	 topping-up	
     will	 mix	 the	 electrolyte	and	 allow	 accurate	readings.	 	Top	up	 the	 battery	before	 charging	 as	 the	 pouring	 of	


34
	       MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
cold	distilled	water	onto	hot	acid	in	the	battery	
will	cause	splatter.		Batteries	which	have	cells	
where	specific	gravity	readings	fail	to	rise,	or	
respond	poorly	to	adequate	charging,	should	
be	replaced.                                                                                            Rubber	Bulb

MeaSurIng	tHe	on-load	terMInal	
Voltage                                                                  R
                                                                         E
                                                                         C                  1.1
                                                                                                        Hollow	glass	float
                                                            1.150
Measurement	 of	 the	 terminal	 voltage	 when	                           H
                                                                         A
                                                                         R
a	battery	is	supplying	current	to	a	load,	such	             1.200
                                                                         G
                                                                         E                  1.2         Glass	Barrel
as	 a	 transmitting	 radio,	 will	 also	 provide	                        F
                                                                         A                              Scale
                                                                         I
an	 indication	 of	 the	 amount	 of	 charge	 in	 a	         1.250
                                                                         R                  1.3
                                                                         G                              Electrolyte	being		
battery.	 	 This	 measurement	 is	 known	 as	 the	                       O
                                                                         O                              measured
                                                                         D
on-load	terminal	voltage.                                   1.300                                       weight	to	hold		
                                                                                                        float	erect
For	 a	 12-volt	 battery,	 the	 on-load	 terminal	
voltage	 should	 not	 fall	 below	 approximately	                                                       Rubber	hose
11.4	 volts	 while	 transmitting.	 	 If	 the	
voltage	 does	 fall	 significantly	 below	 this	
figure,	 the	 battery	 requires	 charging.	             	
If	after	charging,	the	on-load	terminal	voltage	
still	 falls	 significantly	 below	 11.4	 volts,	 it	 is	                                                      Fig.	10	
an	 indication	 of	 a	 faulty	 cell	 and	 the	 battery	                                                   Hydrometer
should	be	replaced.
                                                                                                            	
Measurement	of	the	off-load	(when	the	battery	is	idle)	terminal	voltage	of	a	battery	is	a	poor	indication	of	
its	condition.

loSS	oF	caPacIty
	
A	battery	will	suffer	a	gradual	loss	of	capacity	during	its	life.		This	is	inevitable	and	the	battery	should	be	replaced	
when	the	capacity	loss	becomes	significant.		Many	lead-acid	batteries	have	a	commercial	life	of	only	two	to	three	
years.		However,	the	useful	life	of	a	battery	can	be	considerably	shortened	by:
    o
>>	 	 perating	a	battery	in	a	low	state	of	charge	for	long	periods;
    a
>>	 	 llowing	a	battery	to	stand	in	a	discharged	state	for	long	periods;
    l
>>	 	eaving	a	charged	battery	for	long	periods	without	periodic	charging;	and
>>	 overcharging.

MaIntenance	Free	BatterIeS
	
Maintenance	 free	 Lead	 –	 Acid	 or	 Gel	 type	 batteries	 are	 becoming	 increasingly	 more	 popular	 and	 available	
to	mariners.		Users	of	these	types	of	batteries	are	recommended	to	follow	the	manufacturer’s	guidelines	in	
ascertaining	the	condition	of	the	battery	regarding	replacement.		On	vessels	where	it	is	mandatory	to	carry	
an	 independent	 emergency	 means	 of	 electrical	 supply,	 for	 communications	 equipment,	 it	 may	 also	 be	 a	
requirement	to	replace	‘maintenance	free’	batteries	after	a	short	operational	period	of	1	year.

connectIon	oF	BatterIeS	durIng	eMergencIeS
For	a	vessel	with	more	than	a	single	bank	of	batteries	it	is	highly	recommended	to	connect	the	batteries	in	
parallel	during	emergency	situations.		The	battery	on/off	or	interchange	switch	will	indicate	if	this	is	possible.




                        	                                                                          POwER	SUPPLIES		           35
     REVISION	QUESTIONS
     127	]	 	 hat	is	the	most	common	type	of	battery	
            w                                                     138]	 	 hat	is	the	liquid,	in	a	lead	acid	battery,		
                                                                        w
            available	for	marine	use?                                   a	mixture	of?
     128	]	 	 hat	is	the	nominal	voltage	per	cell,	of	a	Lead	
            w                                                            w
                                                                  139	]	 	 hat	type	of	acid	is	contained	in	the	liquid	of	a	
            Acid	battery?                                                lead	acid	battery?
     129	]	 	 hat	is	a	batteries’	ability	to	produce	current	
            w                                                           A
                                                                  140	]		 t	what	level	should	the	liquid	in	the	lead	acid	
            known	as?                                                   battery	be	maintained?
     130]	 	 hat	is	the	total	voltage	of	two	6	Volt	batteries	
           w                                                             w
                                                                  141	]	 	 hat	should	the	electrolyte	be	topped	up	with?
           connected	in	series?
                                                                        H
                                                                  142	]		 ow	is	corrosion	on	a	lead	acid	battery	terminal	
     131	]	 	 hat	is	the	total	voltage	of	two	6	Volt	batteries	
            w                                                           minimised?
            connected	in	parallel?
                                                                        H
                                                                  143]	 	 ow	is	the	basic	maintenance	of	a	battery	
     132	]	 	 hat	is	the	total	voltage	of	two	12	Volt	
            w                                                           maintained?
            batteries	connected	in	series?
                                                                       w
                                                                  144]		 hat	is	the	basic	method	of	determining	the	
     133	]	 	 hat	is	the	total	voltage	of	two	12	Volt	
            w                                                          operating	condition	of	the	lead	acid	battery?
            batteries	connected	in	parallel?
                                                                        w
                                                                  145]	 	 hat	instrument	is	used	to	determine	the	
     134	]		 hat	is	the	total	AHC	for	two	batteries	
           w                                                            condition	of	a	lead	acid	battery?
           connected	in	series?
                                                                        w
                                                                  146]	 	 hat	is	the	specific	gravity	per	cell,	of	a	well	
     135	]	 	 hat	is	the	total	AHC	for	two	batteries	
            w                                                           maintained	lead	acid?
            connected	in	parallel?
                                                                        H
                                                                  147	]		 ow	is	it	recommended	to	connect	two	banks	
     136	]	 	 hat	type	of	gas	is	produced	by	a	lead	acid	
            w                                                           of	batteries	in	the	event	of	an	emergency?	
            battery	during	the	charging	process?
     137	]	 what	is	the	liquid	in	battery	known	as?




36
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
MIScellaneouS

SUGGESTEd	FORMAT	FOR	A	RAdIO	LOGBOOK	PAGE
                                                                             																																			any	other	identity:
name	of	Vessel:																																																											
                                                                             																																			MMSI:	

date	and	Time             Station/MMSI	from               Station/MMSI	to    details	of	Calls,	Signals	&	distress	working             Frequency/Channel




                                         	                                                                                            MISCELLANEOUS		     37
     TABLE	OF	TRANSMITTING	FREQUENCIES	IN	
     THE	VHF	MARITIME	MOBILE	BANd
     Extracted from Appendix 18 (WRC 2000) to the ITU Radio Regulations
     note:	The	channels	of	the	present	Appendix,	with	the	exception	of	channels	06,	13,	15,	16,	17,	70,	75	and	76,	may	also	be	
     used	for	high-speed	data	and	facsimile	transmissions,	subject	to	special	arrangement	between	interested	and	affected	
     administrations.
     The	channels	of	the	present	Appendix,	but	preferably	channel	28	and	with	the	exception	of	channels	06,	13,	15,	16,	17,	70,	
     75	and	76,	may	be	used	for	direct-printing	telegraphy	and	data	transmission,	subject	to	special	arrangement	between	
     interested	and	affected	administrations.
     The	frequencies	in	this	table	may	also	be	used	for	radiocommunications	on	inland	waterways	in	accordance	with	the	
     conditions	specified	in	No.	5.226
                                   transmitting	frequencies	                             Port	operations	and	ship	
       channel	                             (MHz)                                              movements                     Public	corres-
      designator      notes*                                       Inter-ship                                                  pondence
                                                                                          Single	          two	
                                 Ship	stations   coast	stations
                                                                                        frequency       frequency
                 60                 156.025         160.625                                                      X                      X
      01                            156.050         160.650                                                      X                      X
                 61    m),	o)       156.075         160.675                                  X                   X                      X
      02               m),	o)       156.100         160.700                                  X                   X                      X
                 62    m),	o)       156.125         160.725                                  X                   X                      X
      03               m),	o)       156.150         160.750                                  X                   X                      X
                 63    m),	o)       156.175         160.775                                  X                   X                      X
      04               m),	o)       156.200         160.800                                  X                   X                      X
                 64    m),	o)       156.225         160.825                                  X                   X                      X
      05               m),	o)       156.250         160.850                                  X                   X                      X
                 65    m),	o)       156.275         160.875                                  X                   X                      X
      06                f)          156.300                            X
                 66                 156.325         160.925                                                      X                      X
      07                            156.350         160.950                                                      X                      X
                 67     h)          156.375         156.375            X                     X
      08                            156.400                            X
                 68                 156.425         156.425                                  X
      09                 i)         156.450         156.450            X                     X
                 69                 156.475         156.475            X                     X
      10                h)          156.500         156.500            X                     X
                 70     j)          156.525         156.525                digital	selective	calling	for	distress,	safety	and	calling
      11                            156.550         156.550                                  X
                 71                 156.575         156.575                                  X
      12                            156.600         156.600                                  X
                 72     i)          156.625                            X
      13                k)          156.650         156.650            X                   X
                 73    h),	i)       156.675         156.675            X                   X
      14                            156.700         156.700                                X
                 74                 156.725         156.725                                X
      15                g)          156.750         156.750            X                   X
                 75     n)          156.775                                                X
      16                            156.800         156.800                           dISTRESS,	SAFETY	ANd	CALLING
                 76     n)          156.825                                                X
      17                g)          156.850         156.850            X                   X
                 77                 156.875                            X
      18                m)          156.900         161.500                                  X                   X                      X


38
	          MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
                              transmitting	frequencies	                     Port	operations	and	ship	
  channel	                             (MHz)                                      movements              Public	corres-
 designator     notes*                                       Inter-ship                                    pondence
                            Ship	stations   coast	stations                   Single	          two	
                                                                           frequency       frequency
          78                  156.925          161.525                                         X               X
 19                           156.950          161.550                                         X               X
          79                  156.975          161.575                                         X               X
 20                           157.000          161.600                                         X               X
          80                  157.025          161.625                                         X               X
 21                           157.050          161.650                                         X               X
          81                  157.075          161.675                                         X               X
 22               m)          157.100          161.700                          X              X               X
          82     m),	o)       157.125          161.725                          X              X               X
 23              m),	o)       157.150          161.750                          X              X               X
          83     m),	o)       157.175          161.775                          X              X               X
 24              m),	o)       157.200          161.800                          X              X               X
          84     m),	o)       157.225          161.825                          X              X               X
 25              m),	o)       157.250          161.850                          X              X               X
          85     m),	o)       157.275          161.875                          X              X               X
 26              m),	o)       157.300          161.900                          X              X               X
          86     m),	o)       157.325          161.925                          X              X               X
 27                           157.350          161.950                                         X               X
          87                  157.375                                           X
 28                           157.400          162.000                                         X               X
          88       h)         157.425                                           X
 AIS	1             l)         161.975          161.975
 AIS	2             l)         162.025          162.025


taBle	noteS:
   A
a)		 dministrations	may	designate	frequencies	in	the	intership,	port	operations	and	ship	movement	services	for	
   use	by	light	aircraft	and	helicopters	to	communicate	with	ships	participating	coast	stations	in	predominantly	
   maritime	support	operations.		However,	the	use	of	the	channels	which	are	shared	with	public	correspondence	
   shall	be	subject	to	prior	agreement	interested	and	affected	administrations.
   T
b)		 he	channels	of	the	present	Appendix,	with	the	exception	of	Channels	06,	13,	15,	16,	17,	70,	75	and	76,	may	
   also	be	used	for	high-speed	data	facsimile	transmissions,	subject	to	special	arrangement	between	interested	
   and	affected	administrations.
    T
c)	 	 he	channels	of	the	present	Appendix,	but	preferably	Channel	28	and	with	the	exception	of	Channels	06,	13,	
    15,	16,	17,	70,	75	and	76,	may	be	used	for	direct-printing	telegraphy	and	data	transmission,	subject	to	special	
    arrangement	between	interested	and	affected	administrations.
   T
d)		 he	frequencies	used	in	this	table	may	also	be	used	for	radiocommunications	on	inland	waterways.
   A
e)		 dministrations	having	an	urgent	need	to	reduce	local	congestion	may	apply	12.5	kHz	Channel	interleaving	
   on	a	non-interference	basis	to	25	kHz	channels,	provided:
       R
	 	 -			 ecommendation	ITU-R	M.1084-2	shall	be	taken	into	account	when	changing	to	12.5	kHz	Channels;
      i
	 	 -		t	shall	not	affect	the	25	kHz	Channels	of	the	Appendix	4	maritime	mobile	distress	and	safety	frequencies,	
      especially	 the	 Channels	 06,	 13,	 15,	 16,	 17,	 and	 70,	 nor	 the	 technical	 characteristics	 mentioned	 in	
      Recommendation	ITU-R	M.489-2	for	those	channels;
      i
	 	 -		mplementation	of	12.5	kHz	channel	interleaving	and	consequential	national	requirements	shall	be	subject	
      to	prior	agreement	between	the	implementing	administrations	and	administrations	whose	ship	stations	
      or	services	may	be	affected.

                        	                                                                          MISCELLANEOUS		         39
          T
     f	)	 	 he	frequency	156.300	MHz	(Channel	06)	may	also	be	used	for	communication	between	ship	stations	and	
          aircraft	stations	engaged	in	co-ordinated	search	and	rescue	operations.		Ship	stations	shall	avoid	harmful	
          interference	to	such	communications	on	Channel	06	as	well	as	to	communications	between	aircraft	stations,	
          ice-breakers	and	assisted	ships	during	ice	seasons.
         C
     g)	 	 hannels	15	and	17	may	also	be	used	for	on-board	communications	provided	the	effective	radiated	power	
         does	not	exceed	1	w,	and	subject	to	the	national	regulations	of	the	administration	concerned	when	these	
         channels	are	used	in	its	territorial	waters.
         w
     h)	 	 ithin	 the	 European	 Maritime	 Area	 and	 in	 Canada,	 these	 frequencies	 (Channels	 10,	 67,	 73)	 may	 also	 be	
         used,	if	so	required,	by	the	individual	administrations	concerned,	for	communication	between	ship	stations,	
         aircraft	stations	and	participating	land	stations	engaged	in	co-ordinated	search	and	rescue	and	anti-pollution	
         operations	in	local	areas.
          T
     i)		 	 he	preferred	first	three	frequencies	for	the	purpose	indicated	in	Note	a)	are	156.450	MHz	(channel	09),	
          156.625	MHz	(channel	72)	and	156.675	MHz	(channel	73).
         C
     j)	 	 hannel	70	is	to	be	used	exclusively	for	digital	Selective	Calling	for	distress,	safety	and	calling.
         C
     k)	 	 hannel	 13	 is	 designated	 for	 use	 on	 a	 worldwide	 basis	 as	 a	 navigation	 safety	 communication	 channel,	
         primarily	for	intership	navigation	safety	communications.		It	may	also	be	used	for	the	ship	movement	and	
         port	operations	service	subject	to	the	national	regulations	of	the	administrations	concerned.
         T
     l)	 	 hese	Channels	(AIS	1	and	AIS	2)	will	be	used	for	an	automatic	ship	identification	and	surveillance	system	
         capable	of	providing	worldwide	operation	on	high	seas,	unless	other	frequencies	are	designated	on	a	regional	
         basis	for	this	purpose.
        T
     m)		 hese	 Channels	 (18	 and	 82	 to	 86)	 may	 be	 operated	 as	 single	 frequency	 channels,	 subject	 to	 special	
        arrangement	between	interested	or	affected	administrations.
         T
     n)	 	 he	use	of	these	channels	(75	and	76)	should	be	restricted	to	navigation-related	communications	only	and	
         all	precautions	should	be	taken	to	avoid	harmful	interference	to	channel	16,	e.g.	by	limiting	the	output	power	
         to	1	w	or	by	means	of	geographical	separation.
         T
     o)	 	 hese	Channels	may	be	used	to	provide	bands	for	initial	testing	and	the	possible	future	introduction	of	new	
         technologies,	subject	to	special	arrangement	between	interested	or	affected	administrations.		Stations	using	
         these	channels	or	bands	for	the	testing	and	the	possible	future	introduction	of	new	technologies	shall	not	
         cause	harmful	interference	to,	and	shall	not	claim	protection	from,	other	stations	operating	in	accordance	
         with	ITU	Radio	Regulations	/	Volume	1	/	Chapter	S11	–	Frequencies	/	Article	S5	/	Frequency	allocations.




40
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
    MARINE	VHF	CHANNELS	FOR	USE	BY	SHIP		
    STATIONS (EXTRACT	FROM	THE	MARINE	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	(OMC	2006)
TABLE	1.		Professional	Fishing	Vessels	Frequencies

    Carrier	Frequency	(Tx/Rx)		
    &	Channel	No.                   Communicating	with                         Purpose

    156.575		MHz	(Ch	71)            Limited	coast	and	ship	stations            Calling	and	working
    156.625		MHz	(Ch	72)            Ship	Stations                              Calling	and	working
    156.875		MHz	(Ch	77)            Ship	Stations                              Calling	and	working


	
TABLE	2.		Commercial	Vessel	Frequencies

    Carrier	Frequency	(Tx/Rx)		
    &	Channel	No.                   Communicating	with                         Purpose

    156.300		MHz	(Ch	6)             Ship	Stations                              Calling	and	working
    156.400		MHz	(Ch	8)             Ship	Stations                              Calling	and	working
    156.625		MHz	(Ch	72)            Ship	Stations                              Calling	and	working
    156.725		MHz	(Ch	74)            Limited	coast	stations	and	ship	stations   Calling	and	working
    156.925/161.525		MHz	(Ch	78)    Limited	coast	stations                     Calling	and	working


	
TABLE	3.		Yachts	and	Pleasure	Vessels	Frequencies

    Carrier	Frequency	(Tx/Rx)		
    &	Channel	No.                   Communicating	with                         Purpose

    156.625		MHz	(Ch	72)            Ship	stations                              Calling	and	working
    156.675		MHz	(Ch	73)            Limited	coast	and	ship	stations            Calling	and	working
    156.875		MHz	(Ch	77)            Ship	stations                              Calling	and	working

	




                      	                                                                  MISCELLANEOUS		   41
     TABLE	4.		Port	Operations	Frequencies

      Carrier	Frequency	(Tx/Rx)			
      &	Channel	No.                        Communicating	with                                 Purpose

      156.300		MHz	(Ch	6)                  Ship	stations                                      Calling	and	working
      156.400		MHz	(Ch	8)                  Ship	stations                                      Calling	and	working
      156.425		MHz	(Ch	68)                 Limited	coast	stations                             Calling	and	working
      156.450		MHz	(Ch	9)                  Limited	coast	stations	and	ship	stations           Calling	and	working
      156.500		MHz	(Ch	10)                 Limited	coast	stations	and	ship	stations           Calling	and	working
      156.550		MHz	(Ch	11)                 Limited	coast	stations                             Calling	and	working
      156.600		MHz	(Ch	12)                 Limited	coast	stations                             Calling	and	working
      156.625		MHz	(Ch	72)                 Ship	stations                                      Calling	and	working
      156.650		MHz	(Ch	13)                 Limited	coast	stations	and	ship	stations           Calling	and	working
      156.700		MHz	(Ch	14)                 Limited	coast	stations                             Calling	and	working
      156.975/161.575		MHz	(Ch	79)         Limited	coast	stations                             Calling	and	working
      157.000/161.600	MHz	(Ch	20)          Limited	coast	stations                             Calling	and	working



     TABLE	5.		Public	Correspondence	Channels
     Ship	stations	may	use	those	VHF	frequencies	detailed	by	their	provider	for	public	correspondence.
     Subject	 to	 the	 International	 Radio	 Regulations,	 when	 operating	 outside	 Australian	 territorial	 waters,	 ship	
     stations	may	use	any	maritime	mobile	frequency	authorised	by	those	regulations.		details	may	be	found	in	the	
     Manual	for	Use	by	the	Maritime	Mobile	and	Maritime	Mobile-Satellite	Service,	published	by	the	International	
     Telecommunication	Union.

     TABLE	6.		VHF	Marine	Repeater	Channels

      Carrier	Frequency	(Tx/Rx)		
      &	Channel	No.                         Communicating	with                               Purpose

      157.050/161.650		MHz	(Ch	21)          Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	via	             Vessel	movements,	safety	
                                            repeaters                                        of	vessels	and	persons
      157.100/161.700		MHz	(Ch	22)          Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	via	             Vessel	movements,	safety	
                                            repeaters                                        of	vessels	and	persons
      157.025/161.625		MHz	(Ch	80)          Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	via	             Vessel	movements,	safety	
                                            repeaters                                        of	vessels	and	persons
      157.075/161.675		MHz	(Ch	81)          Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	via	             Vessel	movements,	safety	
                                            repeaters                                        of	vessels	and	persons
      157.125/161.725		MHz	(Ch	82)          Limited	coast	and	ship	stations	via	             Vessel	movements,	safety	
                                            repeaters	                                       of	vessels	and	persons




42
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
 PHONETIC	ALPHABET
when	spelling	is	necessary,	only	the	following	spelling	table	should	be	used:
 Letter	to	be	transmitted Code	word	to	be	used                      Spoken	as	*
 A                            Alfa                                  al	FAH
 B                            Bravo                                 BraH	VoH
 C                            Charlie                               cHar	LEE	or	SHAR	LEE
 d                            delta                                 dell	TAH
 E                            Echo                                  eck	OH
 F                            Foxtrot                               FokS	TROT
 G                            Golf                                  GOLF
 H                            Hotel                                 HOH	tell
 I                            India                                 In	dEE	AH
 J                            Juliet                                Jew	LEE	ETT
 K                            Kilo                                  key	LOH
 L                            Lima                                  lee	MAH
 M                            Mike                                  MIKE
 N                            November                              NO	VeM	BER
 O                            Oscar                                 oSS	CAH
 P                            Papa                                  PaH	PAH
 Q                            Quebec                                KEH	Beck
 R                            Romeo                                 row	ME	OH
 S                            Sierra                                SEE	aIr	RAH
 T                            Tango                                 tan	GO
 U                            Uniform                               you	nee	FORM	or	oo	nee	FORM
 V                            Victor                                VIk	TAH
 w                            whiskey                               wISS	KEY
 X                            X-ray                                 eckS	RAY
 Y                            Yankee                                yang	KEY
 Z                            Zulu                                  zoo	LOO

MIScellaneouS	
 Letter	to	be	transmitted       Code	word	to	be	used                Spoken	as	**
 R                              Your	message	is	received	and	       ROMEO
                                understood
 Over                           Invitation	to	reply                 OVER
 Out                            This	transmission	is	ended          OUT
 decimal	point                  decimal                             dAY-SEE-MAL
 Full	stop                      Stop                                STOP
 Comma                          Comma                               COMMA
 /                              Oblique	Stroke                      oBlIQue
  T
*		 he	syllables	to	be	emphasised	are	underlined.
   E
**	 ach	syllable	should	be	equally	emphasised.
                    	                                                                   MISCELLANEOUS		   43
     FIgure	code	
     A	few	digits	and	numbers	have	a	modified	pronunciation	compared	to	general	English:

      Letter	to	be	transmitted        Code	word	to	be	used                  Spoken	as	**
      0                               zero                                  zeerOH
      1                               one                                   wUN
      2                               two                                   TOO
      3                               three                                 tree
      4                               four                                  FowER
      5                               five                                  FIFe
      6                               six                                   SEKS
      7                               seven                                 SEVEN
      8                               eight                                 AIT
      9                               nine                                  nIner
      10                              One	zero                              wUNZEEROH
      1000                            thousand                              touSANd


     deFInItIon	
      SIMPLEX            Transmission	and	reception	taking	place	on	a	single	frequency

      dUPLEX             Simultaneous	transmission	and	reception	taking	place	on	separate	but	paired	frequencies




     STANdARd	MARINE	COMMUNICATION	PHRASES
     English	is	the	language	most	widely	used	at	sea.		To	facilitate	radiotelephony	communications,	the	International	
     Maritime	Organisation	has	compiled	a	vocabulary	of	frequently	used	words	and	phrases	in	a	book	entitled	IMO	
     Standard	Marine	Communication	Phrases	(SMCP)	2002.	The	complete	SMCP	is	also	available	at	the	IMO	website	
     at:	http://www.imo.org.
     In	the	interests	of	accuracy,	brevity	and	clarity	it	is	sound	practice	for	operators	to	use	the	standard	vocabulary	
     when	possible.
     A	selection	of	the	standard	vocabulary	is	contained	in	the	following	paragraphs.

     MeSSage	MarkerS
     If	necessary,	messages	passed	by	radiotelephony	may	be	preceded	by	the	following	message	markers:
                    I
     “Instruction”	 	ndicates	 that	 the	 following	 message	 implies	 the	 intention	 of	 the	 sender	 to	 influence	 the	
                    recipient(s)	by	a	regulation.		
     “Advice”	      	ndicates	 that	 the	 following	 message	 implies	 the	 intention	 of	 the	 sender	 to	 influence	 the	
                    I
                    recipient(s)	by	a	recommendation.
     “warning”	     I
                    	ndicates	that	the	following	message	informs	other	traffic	participants	about	dangers.
                    I
     “Information”	 	ndicates	that	the	following	message	is	restricted	to	observed	facts.

44
	      MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
“Question”	      I
                 	ndicates	the	following	message	is	of	interrogative	character.
“Answer”	        I
                 	ndicates	the	following	message	is	of	interrogative	character.
“Request”	       I                                                                                                     	
                 	ndicates	 that	 the	 content	 of	 the	 following	 message	 is	 asking	 for	 action	 with	 respect	 to	
                 the	ship.
“Intention”	     	ndicates	 that	 the	 following	 message	 informs	 others	 about	 immediate	 navigational	 actions	
                 I
                 intended	to	be	taken.
responses	       w
                 	 here	 the	 answer	 to	 a	 question	 is	 in	 the	 affirmative,	 say:	 “Yes”	 followed	 by	 the	 appropriate	
                 phrase	in	full.
	                w
                 	 here	the	answer	to	a	question	is	in	the	negative,	say:	“No”	followed	by	the	appropriate	phrase	
                 in	full.
	                	 here	the	information	is	not	immediately	available,	but	soon	will	be,	say:	“Stand	by”.
                 w
	                w
                 	 here	the	information	cannot	be	obtained,	say:	“No	information”.
	                	 here	a	message	is	not	properly	heard,	say:	“Say	again”.
                 w
	                w
                 	 here	a	message	is	not	understood,	say:	“Message	not	understood”.
Miscellaneous	Phrases	
	                	 hat	is	your	name	(and	any	other	identity)?
                 w
	                How	do	you	read	me	?
	                I	read	you.	.	.	
	                Bad/one	           w
                                    	 ith	signal	strength	one	(i.e	barely	perceptible)
	                Poor/two	          with	signal	strength	two	(i.e.	weak)
	                Fair/three	        with	signal	strength	three	(i.e.	fairly	good)
                                    	
	                           w
                 Good/four	 	 ith	signal	strength	four	(i.e.	good)
	             Excellent/five	       w
                                    	 ith	signal	strength	five	(i.e.	very	good)
Stand	by	on	VHF	channel....
Change	to	channel....	
	                I
                 		cannot	read	you	(pass	your	message	through..../Advise	try	channel....)
	                		 cannot	 understand	 you.	 	 Please	 use	 the	 Standard	 Marine	 Vocabulary/International	 Code	 of	
                 I
                 Signals.
Corrections	     w
                 	 hen	a	mistake	is	made	in	a	message,	say:
	                “Mistake….”			followed	by	the	word:
	                “
                 	 Correction…”		plus	the	corrected	part	of	the	message.
	                	 xample:	“My	present	speed	is	14	knots	–	mistake.
                 E
	                C
                 	 orrection,	my	present	speed	is	12	knots,	one-two	knots”
Readiness		      	 o	ahead,	I	am	ready/not	ready	to	receive	your	message
                 G
	                I
                 		do	not	have	channel....		Please	use	channel....
Repetition	      	f	any	parts	of	the	message	are	considered	sufficiently	important	to	need	particular	emphasis,	
                 I
                 use	the	word	“repeat”,	e.g.	“do	not	repeat	do	not	overtake”.


                       	                                                                               MISCELLANEOUS		           45
     Acknowledgement	         Romeo
     Position	      w
                    	 hen	 latitude	 and	 longitude	 are	 used,	 these	 should	 be	 expressed	 in	 degrees	 and	 minutes	
                    (and	 decimals	 of	 a	 minute,	 if	 necessary),	 north	 or	 south	 of	 the	 Equator	 and	 east	 or	 west	 of	
                    Greenwich.		
     	              	 hen	 the	 position	 is	 related	 to	 a	 mark,	 the	 mark	 shall	 be	 a	 well-defined	 charted	 object.	
                    w                                                                                                       	
                    The	bearing	shall	be	in	the	360-degree	notation	from	true	north	and	shall	be	that	of	the	position	
                    from	the	mark.
     Courses	       C
                    	 ourses	should	always	be	expressed	in	the	360-degree	notation	from	true	north	(unless	otherwise	
                    stated).		whether	this	is	to,	or	from,	a	mark	can	be	stated.
     Bearings	      T
                    	 he	bearing	of	the	mark	or	vessel	concerned	is	the	bearing	in	the	360-	degree	notation	from	true	
                    north	(unless	otherwise	stated),	except	in	the	case	of	relative	bearings.	Bearings	may	be	either	
                    from	the	mark	or	from		the	vessel.
     distances	     d
                    	 istances	should	be	expressed	in	nautical	miles	or	cables	(tenths	of	a	nautical	mile),	otherwise	in	
                    kilometres	or	metres.		The	unit	should	always	be	stated.
     Speed	         S
                    	 peed	 should	 be	 expressed	 in	 knots	 (without	 further	 notation	 meaning	 speed	 through	 the	
                    water).		“Ground	speed”	meaning	speed	over	the	ground.
     Numbers	       N                                                                                                       	
                    	 umbers	 should	 be	 transmitted	 by	 speaking	 each	 digit	 separately,	 for	 example	 one	 five	 zero	
                    for	150
     Geographical			Place	names	used	should	be	those	on	the	chart	or	Sailing	directions	in	use.			Should	these	not	be	
     Names		        understood,	latitude	and	longitude	should	be	used.
     Time	          T
                    	 ime	should	be	expressed	in	the	24-hour	notation	indicating	whether	UTC,	zone-time	or	local	
                    shore	time	is	being	used.



     INTERNET	wEBSITES	OF	MARINE	INTEREST
     www.acma.gov.au	                            Australian	Communications	&	Media	Authority
     www.amsa.gov.au	                            Australian	Maritime	Safety	Authority
     www.anta.gov.au	                            Australian	National	Training	Authority
     www.bom.gov.au	                             Bureau	of	Meteorology
     www.cospas-sarsat.com	                      Cospas	Sarsat	System
     www.gmdss.com.au	                           Global	Maritime	distress	and	Safety	System
     www.imo.org	                                International	Maritime	Organisation
     www.inmarsat.com	                           International	Maritime	Satellite	Service
     www.itu.int	                                International	Telecommunications	Union
     www.ntis.gov.au	                            National	Training	Information	Service	
     www.admiraltyleisure.co.uk	                 British	Admiralty/Products/Publications/Maritime	Communications



46
	        MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	
 CONTACT	dETAILS
Office	of	Maritime	                 Australian	Communications	&	
Communications		                    Media	Authority	(ACMA)
Australian	Maritime	College	(AMC)   Internet	
Internet	                           www.acma.gov.au
www.amcom.amc.edu.au                Central	Office	-	Canberra	
Central	Office	                     Purple	Building,	Benjamin	Offices	
Newnham	way	                        Belconnen	ACT	2617	
Newnham	7250	or	                    PO Box 78
Locked Bag 1394                     Belconnen ACT 2616
Launceston Tasmania 7250            Telephone	(02)	6219	5555	
Freecall						1300	365	262	         Facsimile	(02)	6219	5353
Telephone	(03)	6324	9869	           Outside	Sydney,	Brisbane,	Melbourne,		
Facsimile			(03)	6324	9885	         Perth	and	Cairns	areas	
Email:	amcom@amc.edu.au             (A	call	to	this	number	can	be	made	from	outside	
                                    the	listed	areas	and	will	be	charged	at	the	local	
Australian	Search	and	Rescue		      rate,	except	for	mobile	phones,	which	are	timed.)
                                    Telephone	1300	850	115
(a	division	of	the	Australian	
Maritime	Safety	Authority)
GPO Box 2181
                                    Bureau	of	Meteorology
Canberra ACT 2601                   Internet	
Email:	aussarquery@amsa.gov.au	     www.bom.gov.au

Emergency	Phone	Numbers:		          Head	Office	-	Melbourne	
1800	641	792	                       150	Lonsdale	St.	
1800	622	153                        Melbourne	Vic		
                                    PO Box 1289K
                                    Melbourne Vic 3001
                                    Telephone	(03)	9669	4000	
                                    Facsimile	(03)	9669	4699
                                    National	Communications	Manager	
                                    Telephone	(03)	9669	4224
                                    National	Marine	weather	Services	Manager	
                                    Telephone	(03)	9669	4510




                  	                                                  MISCELLANEOUS		     47
48
	    MARINE	VHF	RAdIO	OPERATORS	HANdBOOK	

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:4/24/2013
language:
pages:48