Early Childhood Social and Emotional Development

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					Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Early Childhood: Social and Emotional Development

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Early Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?
 Parents who are restrictive and demand mature behavior wind up with rebellious children, not mature children.



There is no point in trying to reason with a 4-year-old.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Early Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?
 Firstborn children are more highly motivated to achieve than later-born children.

 Children who are physically punished are more likely to be aggressive.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Early Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?
 Children who watch 2 to 4 hours of TV a day will see 8,000 murders and another 100,000 acts of violence by the time they have finished elementary school.



Children mechanically imitate the aggressive behavior they view in the media.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Early Childhood: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?
 The most common fear among preschoolers is fear of social disapproval.

 A 2 1/2-year-old may know that she is a girl but still think that she can grow up to be a daddy.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Influences on Development
Parents, Siblings, and Peers

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Are the Dimensions of Child Rearing?
• Warmth – Coldness
– Degree of affection and acceptance of child – Parental warmth relates to
• Development of moral conscience • Positive emotional and social well being

• Restrictiveness – Permissiveness
– Degree to which parents impose rules and control

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Techniques Do Parents Use to Restrict Their Children’s Behavior?
• Induction
– Reasoning – child will understand what to do in similar situation

• Power Assertion
– “Spare the rod, spoil the child”

• Withdrawal of Love
– Threats or isolation of child

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Are the Parenting Styles Involved in the Transmission of Values and Standards?
• Authoritative Parents
– High on Warmth, High on Restrictiveness – Self-reliance, independence, high self-esteem and social competence

• Authoritarian Parents
– Low on Warmth, High on Restrictiveness – Less socially competent, lower self-reliance and self-esteem

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Are the Parenting Styles Involved in the Transmission of Values and Standards?
• Permissive Parents
– Permissive – Indulgent
• High warmth, low restrictivenss • Less competent in school but fairly high in social competence and selfconfidence

– Permissive – neglecting
• Low warmth, low restrictiveness • Least competent, responsible and mature children

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Developing in a World of Diversity
Individualism, Collectivism, and Patterns of Child Rearing

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Figure 10.1 The Self in Relation to Others from the Individualist and Collectivist Perspectives

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Kinds of Influence Do Siblings Have on Social and Personal Development in Early Childhood?
• Positive Aspects
– Cooperation – Teaching – Nurturance

• Negative Aspects
– Conflict – Control – Competition

• Siblings imitate each other

• Conflict may enhance social competence and self-identity
• As siblings age, relationship becomes more egalitarian and conflict declines

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Kinds of Influence Do Siblings Have on Social and Personal Development in Early Childhood?
• Adjusting to Birth of Sibling
– Both positive and negative reaction to stress of new sibling
• regression • increased independence and maturity

• Preparation of child to new sibling shows less sibling rivalry

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Does the Research Say About the Effects of Being a First-born or an Only Child?
• First-born children
– More highly motivated to achieve, more cooperative, adult-oriented – Show greater anxiety, less self-reliant – More likely to have imaginary playmate

• Later-born children
– Tend to be more popular with peers – More rebellious, liberal and agreeable

• Parenting style may differ between first- and later-born children

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Is The Influence of Peers on Social and Personal Development in Early Childhood?
• By age 2, children
– Imitate another’s play – Engage in social games – Show a preference for playmates

• Preschool friendships
– Characterized by shared, positive experiences, feelings of attachment – Show higher levels of interaction, prosocial behavior, positive emotions – Based on experiences; shared toys, activities, and fun

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Developing in a World of Diversity
The Case of the (In)Visible Father

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Social Behaviors
In the World, Among Others

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Do Developmentalists Know About Child’s Play?
• Play based on cognitive development (Piaget, 1951, 1962)
– – – – Functional Play – repetitive motor activity Symbolic Play – pretend play Constructive Play – draw or make something Formal Games – games with rules

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Do Developmentalists Know About Child’s Play?
• Six types of play (Parten, 1932)
– Nonsocial (Children do not interact)
• Unoccupied Play • Solitary Play • Onlooker Play

– Social (Children influenced by others as they play)
• Parallel Play • Associative Play • Cooperative Play

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Are There Boys’ Toys and Girls’ Toys?
• By 18-months child shows more preference for genderstereotyped toys
– Girls are more likely to stray from stereotypes
• May represent social prestige of masculine in American culture

• Gender differences in play activities
– Boys prefer vigorous outdoor, rough and tumble play – Girls prefer arts and crafts, domestic play

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Why Do Children Show Early Gender Preferences in Choice of Toys and Activities?
• Biological factors
– Boys – slightly greater strength and activity level – Girls – slightly greater physical maturity and coordination

• Differences in treatment by adults • Children seek “appropriate” labels for toys and play
– Peer, parental, adult criticism

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Why Do Children Choose to Associate With Peers of Their Own Sex?
• Boys’ play - more oriented toward dominance, aggression and rough play
– Girls seek out other girls to protect against this behavior

• Boys are not responsive to girls’ suggestions
– Unpleasant to interact with unresponsive playmate

• Boys may view girls as inferior

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

How Does Prosocial Behavior Develop?
• Empathy - sensitivity to the feelings of others
– From infancy, babies cry when they hear other children cry
• May be reflexive or the start of empathy

– By second year, approach others in distress and try to help
• Unresponsive empathy – more aggressive behavior in school years

– Girls show more empathy than boys
• Social learning or genetic?

• Perspective-Taking

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Influences on Prosocial Behavior
• Reinforcement of behaviors
– More positive peer response

• Responsibility
– Household chores and caring for siblings

• Observation of behaviors of peers • Parental interactions • Parenting style

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

How Does Aggression Develop?
• Aggression in preschoolers
– Frequently instrumental or possession-oriented – Usually causes rejection by peers

• Aggression at 6- or 7-years
– Hostile and person-oriented

• Aggressive behavior appears to be stable over time

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Causes Aggression in Children?
• Evolutionary theory
– Struggle for survival

• Biological factors
– Genetic factors – Testosterone – Temperament

• Cognitive factors
– Inaccurate interpretation of others’ behavior – Lack of empathy and perspective-taking

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Causes Aggression in Children?
• Social Learning
– Reinforcement and Observational Learning

• Media Influences
– Classic study on influence of televised models of aggression – Television is a major source of informal observational learning

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

How Do Depictions of Violence Contribute to Aggression?
• • • • • Observational learning Disinhibition Increased arousal Priming of aggressive thoughts and memories Habituation

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Other Factors Related to Aggression
• Violent video games • Parental behavior
– Substance abuse – Paternal physical punishments – Single motherhood

• Absence of or rejection by parent

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Personality and Emotional Development

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

How Does the Self Develop During Early Childhood?
• Categorical Self – external traits
– Age groupings – Sex

• Self-Esteem
– High value attached to themselves
• Secure attachment and mothers sensitive to their needs

• By age 4, begin evaluative judgments
– Cognitive and physical competence – Social acceptance by peers and parents

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Erikson’s Initiative Versus Guilt
• Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development
– Strive to achieve independence from parents – Strive to master adult behaviors

• Children begin to internalize adult rules
– Fear of violating rules may cause guilt – Support to explore helps develop initiative

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Sorts of Fears Do Children Have in the Early Years?
• Number of fears peaks between 2 1/2 and 4 years • Decline in fears of
– loud noises, falling, sudden movement and strangers

• Most likely to have fears about
– animals, imaginary creatures, the dark and personal safety

• In middle childhood, fears become more realistic

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

A Closer Look
Helping Children Cope With Fears

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Are Stereotypes and Gender Roles?
• Behavioral expectations based on gender • In American culture
– Feminine gender roles- dependence, gentleness, helpfulness, warmth, emotionality, submissiveness, home-orientation – Masculine gender roles – aggressiveness, self-confidence, independence, competitiveness, competence in business, math and science

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

How Do Gender Roles Develop?
• Stages of development of gender roles
– 2 - 2 1/2 years – accurate identifying pictures of boys and girls – 3 years – display knowledge of gender stereotypes
• Traditional stereotypes about activities, occupations, personality traits • View their own gender more positive

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Are The Origins of Sex Differences in Behavior?
• Evolution and Heredity
– Sex differences are result of natural selection, adaptation – Survival set passed through genes (heredity) – Result – parental investment model

• Organization of the Brain
– Hippocampus and Navigation
• Males use both hemispheres and rely on geometry • Females use right hemisphere (with right prefrontal cortex) and rely on landmarks

– Right-brained or Left-brained
• Left and right hemispheres more specialized in men

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What Are The Origins of Sex Differences in Behavior?
• Sex Hormones
– Prenatal influence on behavioral influences

• Social Cognitive Theory
– Observational learning and socialization
• Parental influence

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Lessons in Observation: Gender
• When do children typically develop a sense of gender identity?
– Do the children depicted in the video give responses that you would expect from a preschool child in regard to gender identity and constancy? – Why or why not?

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Lessons in Observation: Gender

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Lessons in Observation: Gender
• Do the children in the video show stereotypic gender role expectations?
– Cite examples to support your answer. – How do children develop gender role stereotypes?

•

Are preschool children typically flexible or inflexible in their ideas, regarding gender typed behavior? Why?
– Give examples from the video that are consistent with your responses.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Kohlberg’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Of Gender Typing
Form concepts about gender and fit behavior to those concepts • Gender Identity
– Knowledge that one is male or female

• Gender Stability
– People retain their sex for life

• Gender Constancy
– Sex does not change, even if people modify behavior or dress
• Conservation of gender – related to development of conservation

Once child has achieved gender stability and constancy, they seek to behave in ways consistent with their sex

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

Bem’s Gender Schema Theory
Use sex as one way of organizing their perceptions of the world • Gender schema - cluster of concepts about male and female traits • Gender identity brings gender appropriate behavior
– Child acts in ways consistent with the gender schema

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
Chapter 10

What is Psychological Androgyny?
• • • • High in masculine traits only – masculine High in feminine traits only – feminine Neither strong masculine or feminine – undifferentiated High in both masculine and feminine – psychologically androgynous
– Better social relations, superior adjustment, greater creativity