AP Vocabulary - Litjunkies by okyestao

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									English 11 Vocabulary

Unit One Vocabulary

   1. genre: a style or category of art or literature
   2. rhetoric: writing or speaking that has a persuasive effect/purpose
   3. tone: the author’s voice expressing a feeling towards something
   4. theme: the position a work takes on a particular subject or topic
   5. archetype: very typical example
   6. thesis: a statement or theory put forward to be proved; the argument of an essay
   7. narration: spoken or written account of connected events; a story
   8. first person point of view: speaking or writing that is in the “I” perspective
   9. innuendo: an indirect or inexplicit remark, typically a suggestive one
   10. symbol: something that represents something else
   11. connotation: an idea or feeling which a word evokes additional to its literal
       meaning
   12. denotation: the literal meaning of a word (definition)
   13. context: the social and/or historical background of a text
   14. structure: a building or other object constructed from several parts
   15. figurative language: discourse which departs from a literal meaning of words;
       metaphorical
   16. literal language: discourse that means its exact meaning; doesn’t go outside of the
       obvious meaning
   17. obscure: uncertain or unclear
   18. inference: a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning
   19. proposition: a statement expressing a judgment or an opinion
   20. intrepid: fearless; adventurous

Unit Two Vocabulary
   1. acquisitive: able to get and retain ideas or information
   2. arrogate: to claim or take without right
   3. banal: trite; commonplace
   4. belabor: to work on excessively
   5. carping: tending to find fault, especially in a petty or nasty way
   6. coherent: holding or sticking together; making a logical whole
   7. congeal: to change from liquid to solid; thicken
   8. emulate: to imitate with the intent of equaling or surpassing the model
   9. encomium: formal expression of praise
   10. eschew: to avoid; shun; keep away
   11. germane: relevant; appropriate; fitting
   12. insatiable: so great or demanding as not to be satisfied
   13. intransigent: refusing to compromise
   14. invidious: offensive; hateful
   15. largesse: generosity in giving
   16. reconnaissance: any kind of preliminary inspection or examination
   17. substantiate: to establish by evidence; prove
18. taciturn: habitually silent or quiet; inclined to talk very little
19. temporize: to stall or act evasively in order to gain time/avoid a
    confrontation/postpone a decision
20. tenable: capable or being held of defended

Unit Three Vocabulary
1. accost: to approach and speak to first; to confront in a challenging or aggressive
    way
2. animadversion: a comment indicating strong criticism or disapproval
3. avid: desirous of something to the point of greed; intensely eager
4. brackish: having a salty taste and unpleasant to drink
5. celerity: swiftness, rapidity of motion or action
6. devious: straying or wandering from a straight or direct course; done or acting in a
    shifty or underhanded way
7. gambit: in chess, an opening move that involves risk or sacrifice of a minor piece
    in order to gain a later advantage; any opening move of this type
8. halcyon: a legendary bird identified with the kingfisher; calm, peaceful; happy,
    golden; prosperous; affluent
9. histrionic: pertinent to actors and their techniques; theatrical, artificial;
    melodramatic
10. incendiary: deliberately setting or causing fires; designed to start fires; tending to
    stir up strife or rebellion; one who deliberately sets fires, arsonist; one who casues
    strife
11. maelstrom: a whirlpool of great size and violence; a situation resembling a
    whirlpool in violence and destruction
12. myopic: nearsighted; lacking a broad, realistic view of a situation; lacking
    foresight or discernment
13. overt: open, not hidden, expressed or revealed in a way that is easily recognized
14. pejorative: tending to make worse; expressing disapproval or disparagement,
    derogatory, deprecatory, belittling
15. propriety: the state of being proper, appropriateness; standards of what is proper
    or socially acceptable
16. sacrilege: improper or disrespectful treatment of something held sacred
17. summarily: without delay or formality; briefly, concisely
18. suppliant: asking humbly and earnestly; one who makes a request humbly and
    earnestly, a petitioner, suitor
19. talisman: an object that serves as a charm or is believed to confer magical powers,
    an amulet, fetish
20. undulate: to move in waves or with a wavelike motion; to have a wavelike
    appearance or form

Unit Four Vocabulary
1. articulate: to pronounce distinctly
2. cavort: to romp or prance about exuberantly
3. credence: belief; mental acceptance
4. decry: to condemn; express strong disapproval
5. dissemble: to disguise or conceal; deliberately give a false impression
6. distraught: very much agitated or upset as a result of emotion or mental conflict
7. eulogy: a formal statement of commendation; high praise
8. evince: to display clearly/ make evident/ provoke
9. exhume: to remove form a grave; to bring to light
10. feckless: lacking in spirit and strength; ineffective/weak; irresponsible
11. murky: dark and gloomy; lacking in clarity and precision
12. nefarious: wicked/ devoid of moral standards
13. piquant: stimulating to the taste or mind; appealingly provocative
14. primordial: developed or created at the very beginning; going back to the most
    ancient or earliest stage; fundamental/basic
15. propinquity: nearness in place or time
16. unwonted: not usual or expected; not in character
17. utopian: founded upon or involving a visionary view of an ideal world
18. verbiage: language that is too wordy or inflated in proportion to the sense or
    content; wordiness
19. verdant: green in tint or color; immature in experience or judgment
20. viscous: having a gelatinous or gluey quality; lacing in easy movement or fluidity

Unit Five Vocabulary
1. atrophy: to waste away
2. bastion: a fortified place; a stronghold
3. concord: a statement of agreement or harmony
4. consummate: to bring to a state of completion or perfection
5. disarray: disorder; confusion
6. exigency: urgency; urgent demand; pressing need; an emergency
7. flotsam: floating debris; homeless or impoverished people
8. frenetic: frenzied; highly agitated
9. glean: to gather bit by bit
10. grouse: to complain
11. incarcerate: to imprison
12. incumbent: required
13. jocular: joking
14. ludicrous: ridiculous
15. mordant: sharply or bitterly harsh
16. nettle: to arouse displeasure/impatience/anger
17. pecuniary: of or related to money; financial
18. pusillanimous: contemptibly cowardly or mean-spirited
19. recumbent: lying down
20. stratagem: a scheme to out wit or deceive an opponent or to gain an end

Unit Six Vocabulary
1. acuity: sharpness in mind or senses
2. delineate: to portray/ sketch/ or describe in accurate and vivid details
3. depraved: marked by evil and corruption
4. enervate: to weaken or lessen the mental/ moral / physical vigor of
   5. esoteric: intended for or understood by only a select few
   6. fecund: fruitful in offspring or vegetation; intellectually productive
   7. fiat: a command or act of will or consciousness
   8. figment: a fabrication of the mind
   9. garner: to acquire as the result of effort
   10. hallow: to honor greatly
   11. idiosyncrasy: a peculiarity that serves to distinguish or identify
   12. ignominy: shame and disgrace
   13. mundane: concerned with what is ordinary
   14. nuance: a subtle or slight variation
   15. overweening: conceited
   16. penchant: a strong attraction or inclination
   17. reputed: having widespread acceptance and good reputation
   18. sophistry: reasoning that seems plausible but is actually unsound; a fallacy
   19. sumptuous: costly/ rich/ magnificent
   20. ubiquitous: present or existing everywhere

   Unit Seven Vocabulary
   1. abject: degraded
   2. agnostic: one who believes nothing can be known about God; a skeptic
   3. complicity: involvement in wrongdoing
   4. derelict: someone or something that is abandoned or neglected
   5. diatribe: a bitter and prolonged verbal attack
   6. effigy: a crude image of a despised person
   7. equity: the state or quality of being just/ fair/ or impartial
   8. inane: silly; empty of meaning or value
   9. indictment: the act of accusing; a formal accusation
   10. indubitable: certain; not to be doubted or denied
   11. intermittent: stopping and beginning again; sporadic
   12. moot: open to discussion and debate; unresolved
   13. motif: a repeated or dominant figure in a design
   14. neophyte: a new convert/beginner
   15. perspicacity: keenness in observing and understanding
   16. plenary: complete in all aspects or essentials
   17. surveillance: a watch kept over a person
   18. sylvan: pertaining to or characteristic of forests; woody
   19. testy: easily irritated
   20. travesty: a grotesque or grossly inferior imitation

Unit Eight Vocabulary
   1. allay: to calm or pacify
   2. bestial: brutal or beastlike
   3. convivial: festive; sociable; having fun together
   4. coterie: a circle of acquaintances
   5. counterpart: a person or thing closely resembling or corresponding to another
   6. demur: to object or take exception to
   7. effrontery: shameless boldness
   8. embellish: to decorate; touch up
   9. ephemeral: lasting only a short time
   10. felicitous: appropriate or well chosen
   11. furtive: done slyly or stealthily
   12. garish: tastelessly showy or over-decorated in a vulgar or offensive way
   13. illusory: misleading or deceptive
   14. indigent: needy; impoverished
   15. inordinate: far too great; exceeding reasonable limits
   16. jettison: get rid of as unnecessary or burdensome
   17. misanthrope: a person who hates/despises/or distrusts mankind
   18. pertinacious: very persistent
   19. picayune: of little value or importance
   20. raiment: clothing

   Unit Nine Vocabulary

   1.  allege- to asset without proof or confirmation
   2.  arrant- shameless
   3.  badinage: light and playful conversation
   4.  conciliate: to overcome the distrust of or win over
   5.  countermand: to cancel or reverse one order or command with another that is
       contrary to the first
   6. echelon: an organized military unit
   7. exacerbate: to make more violent or painful
   8. fatuous: stupid or foolish in a self-satisfied way
   9. irrefutable: impossible to disprove
   10. juggernaut: a massive and inescapable force or object that crushes whatever is in
       its path
   11. lackadaisical: lacking of spirit or interested
   12. litany: any repetitive chant
   13. macabre: horrible
   14. paucity: an inadequate quantity or scarcity
   15. portend: to give advance warning of
   16. raze: to tear down or destroy completely
   17. recant: to withdraw a statement which one has previously committed
   18. saturate: to soak thoroughly or fill to capacity
   19. saturnine: of a gloomy or surly disposition
   20. slough: to cast off or discard

Unit Ten Vocabulary
1. acclamation: a shout of welcome
2. bucolic: characteristic of the countryside; rural
3. calumniate: to accuse someone falsely and maliciously
4. chary: extremely cautious; slow; hesitant
5. collusion: secret agreement or cooperation
6. dilettante: superficial
7. imperturbable: emotionally steady; not easily excited
8. increment: an enlargement; increase; addition
9. mandate: to issue an order
10. paltry: insignificant; trifling
11. paroxysm: a sudden outburst
12. pedantry: overly rigid attention to rules and details
13. peregrination: the act of traveling
14. redolent: tending to arouse memories
15. refulgent: shining; radiant
16. shibboleth: a word/expression/or custom that distinguishes a particular group of
persons from all others
17. tyro: a beginner
18. unremitting: not stopping; maintained steadily; relentless
19. vacillate: to swing indecisively from one idea or course of action to another
20. vituperative: harshly abusive

Unit Eleven Vocabulary
   1. askance: with suspicion, distrust, or disapproval
   2. attenuate: to weaken or lessen in force, intensity, or value
   3. benign: having a favorable or beneficial effect
   4. cavil: to find fault in a petty way; carp
   5. charlatan: one who feigns knowledge or ability
   6. decimate: to kill or destroy a large part of
   7. foible: a weak point; failing; minor flaw
   8. forgo: to do without; abstain from; give up
   9. fraught: full or loaded with
   10. inure: to toughen; harden
   11. luminous: emitting or reflecting light; glowing
   12. obsequious: excessively submissive; often for purely self-interested reasons
   13. obtuse: slow or dull in understanding
   14. oscillate: to fluctuate or waver
   15. penitent: regretful for one’s sins or mistakes
   16. peremptory: determined; resolute
   17. rebuff: to snub; to repel; drive away
   18. reconnoiter: to a make a preliminary inspection
   19. shambles: a state of complete disorder and confusion; mess
   20. sporadic: occurring at irregular intervals; having no set plan or order

Unit Twelve Vocabulary
1. euphemism: an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered
offensive
2. infer: to figure out or come to a conclusion based on evidence and reasoning rather
than from explicit statements
3. onomatopoeia: the formation or use of words that imitate the sounds associated with
the objects or actions they refer to
4. antecedent: going before; preceding.
5. cynicism: an attitude of scornful or jaded negativity especially a general distrust of the
integrity or professed motives of others
6. nostalgia: longing for something past
7. oxymoron: conjoining contradictory terms
8. juxtapose: to place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
9. linguistic: consisting of or related to language
10. digression: a message that departs from the main subject
11. evocation: creation anew through the power of the memory or imagination
12. fable: a usually short narrative making an edifying or cautionary point and often
employing as characters animals that speak and act like humans
13. ambivalence: mixed feelings or emotions
14. ambiguous: open to more than one interpretation
15. ellipsis: a mark or series of marks used in writing or printing to indicate an omission
especially of letters or words
16. apostrophe: addressing something or someone absent, dead, or non-human as if they
were present and could answer
17. metonymy: replacing a word with another word related to it or describing it
18. false analogy: when a writer compares two situations to make a point, but the two
situations are not really parallel
19. abstract language: language describes ideas and qualities as opposed to specific,
observable people, places, or things
20. unity: a piece of literature is said to have unity if all of its parts are related to one
central idea or organizing principle

Unit Thirteen Vocabulary
   1. aesthetic: pertaining to beauty
   2. defunct: no longer in existence or functioning
   3. discomfit: to confuse/perplex/embarrass
   4. espouse: to take up and support
   5. fetish: an object of unreasoning devotion or reverence
   6. gregarious: sociable or seeking the company of others
   7. hapless: marked by a persistent absence of good luck
   8. impeccable: faultless; beyond criticism or blame
   9. importune: to beg for insistently
   10. interpolate: to present as an addition or correction
   11. irreparable: incapable of being repaired or rectified
   12. laconic: concise or using few words
   13. languish: to be depressed or dispirited
   14. mendacious: untrue
   15. nadir: the lowest point
   16. omnipresent: present in all places at all times
   17. perfunctory: without interest or enthusiasm
   18. plaintive: expressive of sorrow or woe
   19. requite: to make retaliation
   20. tantamount: having the same meaning/value/effect
   Unit Fourteen Vocabulary
   1. apostrophe: Addressing something or someone absent, dead, or non-human as if
       they were present and could answer.
   2. metonymy: Replacing a word with another word related to it or describing it.
   3. onomatopoeia: A word which imitates a sound.
   4. persona: When an author assumes a character’s role, that character is the author’s
       persona.
   5. synecdoche: Replacing something with part of that something.
   6. verbal irony: Saying the opposite of what you mean for emphasis.
   7. anaphora: Repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive
       sentences or paragraphs.
   8. inversion: A sentence which varies from the normal sentence pattern of noun-
       verb-complement by putting a verb or modifier first.
   9. periodic: A sentence that places the main idea at the end of the sentence after all
       introductory elements.
   10. freight-train: A sentence consisting of three or more very short independent
       clauses joined by conjunctions.
   11. non-sequitur: Latin for “it doesn’t follow.” A statement that is not logically
       connected to another. In modern terms “random.”
   12. red herring: When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention from the
       real issue.
   13. syllogism: The basic form of a deductive argument. Major Premise -Minor
       Premise - Conclusion.
   14. conventional: Following certain rules or traditional techniques of writing.
   15. deconstruction: A critical approach that attacks the idea that a piece of literature
       has a single meaning. Believes that the instability of language lads to multiple
       levels of meaning.
   16. prose: As opposed to poetry it is literature written in sentences and paragraphs.
   17. semantic: Having to do with semantics or the study of the meanings of words and
       the changing meaning of words.
   18. unity: A piece of literature is said to have unity if all of its parts are related to one
       central idea or organizing principle.
   19. abstract language: Language describes ideas and qualities as opposed to specific,
       observable people, places, or things.
   20. balance: When both side of a sentence are about the same length and importance.

Unit Fifteen Vocabulary
   1. abstruse: extremely difficult to understand
   2. affront: to insult someone to their face
   3. canard: a false rumor or fabricated story
   4. captious: excessively ready to find fault
   5. cognizant: aware; knowledgeable; informed
   6. contrite: regretful for some misdeed or sin
   7. cynosure: the center of attraction/attention/interest
   8. decorous: well behaved; dignified; socially proper
   9. deign: to think it appropriate or suitable to one’s dignity to do something
   10. desiccated: thoroughly dried out; divested of spirit or vitality
   11. efficacy: the power to produce a desired result
   12. engender: to bringing into existence; give rise to; produce
   13. ethereal: light; airy; delicate; highly refined
   14. facade: a surface appearance as opposed to what may lie behind it (unreal)
   15. ghoulish: revolting in an unnatural or morbid way
   16. incongruous: not in keeping; unsuitable; incompatible
   17. machination: a crafty; scheming; underhanded action designed to accomplish
       some (usually evil) end
   18. mesmerize: to hypnotize; entrance; to fascinate
   19. opprobrium: disgrace arising from shameful conduct
   20. putative: generally regarded as such; reputed; hypothesized; inferred

   Unit Sixteen Vocabulary
   1. beatific: blissful; rendering or making blessed
   2. behemoth: a creature of enormous size; power; or appearance
   3. blandishment: anything designed to flatter or coax; sweet talk
   4. cacophonous: harsh-sounding; raucous; discordant; dissonant
   5. chicanery: trickery; deceptive practices or tactics
   6. consign: to give to another’s care; charge; or control; to entrust or deliver
   7. coup: a highly successful stroke; plan; or stratagem; a sudden takeover of power
       or leadership
   8. euphemism: a mild or inoffensive expression used in place of a harsh or
       unpleasant one; a substitute
   9. febrile: feverish
   10. gainsay: to deny; contradict; oppose
   11. imminent: about to happen
   12. innate: natural; inborn; inherent
   13. loath: unwilling; reluctant; disinclined
   14. manifest: to show plainly; exhibit; evince
   15. minutiae: small or trivial details; trifling matters
   16. moratorium: a suspension of activity; an official waiting period
   17. nostrum: an alleged cure-all; a remedy or scheme of questionable effectiveness
   18. pariah: one who is rejected by a social group or organization; an outcast
   19. visionary: one given to far-fetched ideas; a dreamer or seers characterized by
       vision or foresight
   20. wizened: dry, shrunken, and wrinkled (often as the result of aging)

Unit Seventeen Vocabulary
   1. arbitration: mediating between disputing sides
   2. archaic: old-fashioned
   3. discernment: judgment
   4. disingenuous: not sincere
   5. enigmas: puzzles
   6. exonerated: proved not guilty
7. extirpation: destruction
8. fawning: groveling; ‘sucking up’ to people
9. husbandry: careful management of resources
10. ineptitude: lack of ability
11. insipid: flavorless; bland
12. invocation: prayer
13. lamentable: regrettable
14. notoriety: infamy
15. opulence: lavish display of wealth
16. pathos: sadness; stirring the emotions
17. reprimanded: scolded
18. rudimentary: fundamental or initial
19. stipulated: insisted
20. tenacity: firmness of purpose

								
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