Vocabulary

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English IV: Comp Review
Vocabulary A Fortiori – even more certainly A Priori – derived by reason Aberrant – abnormal Abjure – to reject by oath or abstain from Abnegation – self-denial Abrogate – to abolish or ignore Abstruse – complex Accede – to request or demand Acerbic – Sharp or bitter in tone Acrid – unpleasantly harsh or bitter Acrimony – harsh or bitter words Ad Hoc – used for a particular purpose Ad Hominem – attacking an opponent Adept – expert or highly skilled Adumbrate – to hint at Aegis – a shield Aeolian Harp – a wind chime Affinity – sympathy; attraction Amicable – friendly Anthropoid – a large, tailless ape Apollonian – rational; calm Arrogate – to seize without justification Artifice – clever skill or trick Attenuate – to make thinner Augean Stable – a place of high corruption Autodidact – self-taught Aver – to state as true or declare Calliope – instrument using compressed air Calypso – a West Indian folk song Cantata – 17th/18th century composition Capitulate – to give up or surrender Cicerone – tour guide Coeval – having the same age Codex – a manuscript in handwritten form Codicil – an amendment made to a will Collusion – secret agreement, conspiracy Commensurate – proportionate Commutation – the substitution of payment Compunction – anxiety caused by guilt Concordance – an index of important words Congenial – similar in temperament/taste Contentious – a tendency to pick fights Contretemps – an embarrassing situation Correlate – to connect in a systematic way Credence – mental acceptance of a belief Credulity – willingness to believe Croesus – a very wealthy person De Jure – by right of law Declaim – to speak in a formal manner Deferential – showing respect or esteem Demotic – popular or common Descant – melody above the first melody Detritus – debris Diaphanous – transparent or vague Distend – to stretch or swell Docile – obedient or easily taught Doctrinaire – no regard for practicality Dryad – a wood nymph Duplicity – acting against one‟s feelings Ectopic – occurring in an abnormal place Effluent – flowing waste and pollutants Egregious – standing ou in a bad way Ephemeral – lasting a short time Epiphyte – plant on another plant Equivocate – avoid giving a direct answer Ethos – the moral features of an institution Evince – to show or reveal Excise – to cut something out Explicate – to explain in detail Expunge – to remove Factotum – a person of many jobs Facile – easily accomplished Fractious – apt to cause trouble Fungible – having interchangeable parts Gravid – pregnant, enlarged Hematocrit – measures plasma in blood Hubris – unjustified self-confidence Impetus – a driving force or impulse Implacable – incapable of being pleased Implicit – absolutely understood Impute – to attribute Immutable – unchangeable Incipient – becoming evident Inept – foolish or incompetent Inimical – hostile Interdiction – edict forbidding some action

2 Junoesque – mature, dignified beauty Jurisprudence – the philosophy of law Legate – representative or ambassador Loquacious – excessively talkative Lucubration – a difficult study Lycanthropy – acting like a wolf Manumission – the act of freeing slaves Mellifluous – flowing like honey Nascent – coming into being Neologism – a new word/phrase or usage Nestor - expert Non Sequitur – a random statement Objurgate – to scold harshly Obsequious – excessively flattering Occlusion – an obstruction Oenophile – a wine connoisseur Onus – blame Opprobrium – disgrace Orthography – the study of spelling Panacea – a cure for all ills Panegyric – a formal speech of praise Paragon – model of excellence Parterre – a decorative garden Pedant – a formal, unimaginative teacher Peremptory – putting an end to something Perfunctory – routine, lacking enthusiasm Peripatetic – having to do with walking Pernicious – extremely harmful Perquisite – a bonus or exclusive right Phantasmagoria – collection of odd images Philatelist – stamp-collector Philter – a love potion Politic – cleverly tactful Populace – the common people Populous – densely populated Preclude – prevent Prelate – high-ranking church official Probity – absolute honesty Prodigious – arousing wonder; enormous Propensity – intense natural preference Prophylaxis – medical treatment Proliferate – to grow rapidly or multiply Propitious – promising success Proscribe – prohibit Protean – versatile Protracted – drawn out, extended Provenance – origin or source Putative – assumed to exist Quadrille – 18th/19th century square dance Quartile – one of four equal groups Rectitude – moral integrity Recumbent – lying down to rest Redound – to affect Relegate – to reassign to a lesser position Remittance – money sent in payment Repository – a storage container Reprobate – bad character Sacrosanct – most holy Servile – humbly submissive Sibyl – a female prophet or fortuneteller Signatory – one who signs an agreement Sine Qua Non – an essential part Sinecure – an easy/well paying job Solecism – grammar/etiquette mistake Subjugate – to conquer Subterfuge – a deceptive trick Superannuated – worn out; forced to retire Supplication – a request or prayer Suffuse – to fill Sybaritic – sensual way of life Tempera – a paint mixed with egg white Temporize – acting appropriately Tenacious – clinging to something Tendentious – biased Tort – a wrongful act Transient – short-lived Transmute – to change for the better Triptych – a work presented in three parts Tutelage – guardianship Umber – a dark brown material Umbrage – a feeling of resentment Usufruct – the right to use/enjoy something Utilitarian – for purpose, not beauty Verbiage – excessive words, little content Verbose – using more words than needed Verity – a fact or true statement Virago – a loud, ill-tempered woman Virility – energy; masculinity Vociferous – crying out noisily Voluble – talkative Zephyr – a gentle breeze

3 MLA Writing Techniques - Do not use a cover page or plastic cover - Do not number the works cited in the Works Cited Page - Do not use many sources from the internet - Taking information word for word from a source without quotation marks, even if a parenthetical note is included, is plagiarism - Not citing with a parenthetical note (page number only if author is cited in the sentence) a source from which you took information is plagiarism - Begin each work cited in the Works Cited Page at the left margin and indent all subsequent lines of the work - A long quotation (4 or more typed lines) should be put in Long Quote Format – introduced with a colon, started on a new line (each line indented 1 inch from the left margin), and using quotation marks - Correct Parenthetical Note: (Smith, 22) Incorrect Parenthetical Note: (Smith, R. p. 22) - Put page numbers flush with the right margin, ½ inch from the top, starting with the first page - Most internet sources do not undergo peer review - In Works Cited, indent all lines of a citation except the first line - A good place to start research in a library is the Reference Room Literary Techniques - Plot – what happens in the story - Setting – the time and place in which the story occurs - Tone – the mood made by the author‟s attitude toward the characters - Characterization – the method by which the author reveals the traits of a character o Direct – characterization in which the narrator describes the character o Indirect – characterization by what a character says or does - Point of View – the stance of the narrator o 1st Person – the story is told by one of the characters o 3rd Person Limited – the story is told by an outsider who knows only what the characters know o 3rd Person Omniscient – the story is told by an outsider who knows everything, including the thoughts of the characters - Irony o Dramatic Irony – a character is unaware of something the audience knows o Irony of Situation – the results of a situation are different from what was expected o Verbal Irony – using words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning - Metaphor – comparison of things in which the two things “are each other” etc. - Simile – comparison of two or more things using words such as “like” or “as” - Verisimilitude – the extent to which the characters exhibit realism in a literary work - Rhetoric – speech or writing for the purpose of persuasion - Hemingway Hero – a macho, yet sensitive, outdoorsman who lives for the present and shows grace under pressure - Tragic Hero – someone like us but somewhat more noble who suffers a reversal of fortune and move us to pity when he realizes the consequences of his actions - Catharsis – purging of emotions

4 Foil – a basis for comparison that uses a single character‟s actions to mimic the major action of the play Personification – giving human traits to inanimate objects

Short Stories The Garden Party - A criticism of the superficiality of the rich when compared to the greater dignity and humanity of the poor - A high-society girl faces the death of a poor man after throwing a lavished garden party - Laura Sheridan questions her frivolous life but fails to achieve any real insight or change - “It‟s so delicious to have an excuse to eat outside...” - “The very smoke coming out of their chimneys was poverty-stricken” - “People like that don‟t expect sacrifices from us. And it‟s not very sympathetic to spoil everyone‟s enjoyment as you‟re doing now” - “Let‟s send the poor creatures some of this perfectly good food. At any rate it will be the greatest treat for the children” The Three-Day Blow - Nick Wemidge and Bill drink and reflect on literature, hunting, baseball, and lost love in a hunting cabin near lake Michigan - Nick realizes that it is not too late to save his relationship - The storm symbolizes Nick‟s inner struggle - “I understand her mother is sore as hell. She told a lot of people you were engaged” - “Let‟s drink to fishing” The Standard of Living - Two secretaries, Annabel and Midge play their favorite game – what would you do if a kindly old man you never met left you $1 million but you had to spend it all on yourself – on their lunch break on Fifth Avenue in New York City - When they realize how ridiculously high the price of a necklace is, they almost gain insight, but instead, change the game to allow for $10 million - “They looked alike, though the resemblance did not lie in their features…” - “I take it back. I wouldn‟t get a mink coat first thing. Know what I‟d do? I‟d get a string of pearls. Real pearls” - “It was essential , of course, that be played in passionate seriousness. Each purchase must be carefully considered and, if necessary, supported by argument.” The Saint - A reminiscence of the loss of a man‟s religious faith - Discusses the Problem of Evil and criticizes “bizarre” religions - If God is good and the creator of everything, shouldn‟t everything be good? - The narrator‟s family converted to the Church of the Last Purification after a man helped his financially struggling uncle - When the narrator begins to question his faith, Herbert Timberlake comes to talk to him - Timberlake denies falling into the water and nearly drowning - Our family were the first Purifiers – as they were called – in town” - “We must not let the Error in” - “… such as one sees in the pictures of a beheaded saint”

5 “He was taking the line that nothing had happened… I knew something considerable had happened” - “The ape that had merely followed me was already inside Mr. Timberlake eating out his heart…” The Other Side of the Hedge - Humanity can be found in relaxation, personal relationships, and cooperation, but not in anxiety, technology, and competition - The road is bare and dirty with dried hedges on either side - On the road, people are unfriendly and compete with the vague goal of simply getting ahead of one another - The other side of the hedge has spectacular natural beauty and happy, friendly people - “My pedometer told me I was twenty-five” - “At first I thought I was going to be like my brother, whom I had had to leave by the roadside a year or two round the corner” - “I would have gone back, for in the passage all the things I was carrying were scraped off of me, and my clothes were torn” - “I might have been happy too, if I could have forgotten that this place led to nowhere” - “Suddenly a cold water closed around my head and I seemed to be sinking forever” - “The man whose beer I had stolen lowered me down gently to sleep off its effects, and, as he did so, I saw that he was my brother” The Jockey - The study of a defensive person with an inferiority complex - Bitsy Barlow, a jockey, vents his frustration and anxiety at the owner, the trainer, and the bookie in a high class restaurant in Saratoga - “The trainer and the bookie had finished eating, but there was food left on the serving dishes before their plates” - “You know you‟ve got to behave reasonable” - “It was what happened in Miami… A kid got hurt on the track. Broke a leg and a hip” - “He was wearing a suit of green Chinese silk that evening, tailored precisely and the size of the costume outfit for a child” The Shot - Shows how revenge can mature or consume a man - 1817 – At a faro game in barracks Silvio is called away for a second duel - 1811 – Silvio exchanges insults with a Count at a ball and during a duel the Count misses but Silvio refuses to kill him and rather “owes him a shot” - 1822 – The narrator meets the Count and hears the story of the 2 nd duel in which Silvio made the Count fire a shot into a painting on the wall - The narrator tells the Count of Silvio‟s death at Skulyain in 1821 - “But after this unlucky evening, the thought that his honor had been tarnished... I was ashamed to look at him” - “Gentlemen, circumstances demand my immediate departure. I leave tonight” - “You do not recognize me, Count?” - “we already looked on our comrade as a dead man” The Graven Image - An undersecretary in a ba in Washington D.C. considers giving a job to an old associate until the associate brings up the rejection of the undersecretary by a his college fraternity -

6 - “What‟s your hurry, Joe?” - “Are you sore at the Pork? Do you think you‟d have enjoyed being a member of it?” - “That‟s right Browning, you‟ve said exactly the wrong thing” Only the Dead Know Brooklyn - Written in dialect; a local color story - A Brooklyn native gives directions to a clueless visitor - The sarcastic and vulgar narrator rebukes the ignorant visitor for wandering aimlessly through the bad neighborhoods of Brooklyn - “An‟ even den, yuh wouldn‟t know it all” - “A map! Red Hook! Jesus!” The Lottery - A horror story meant to criticize foolish traditions - Townspeople gather for the drawing of the annual lottery in which the winner is killed - Set during the Harvest season without any reference to year - “There was a great deal of fussing to be done… there were lists to make up…” - “The stood together, away from the pile of stones in the corner” - “Next thing you know they‟ll be wanting to go back to live in caves…” - “It‟s Tessie. Show us her paper, Bill” - “Mrs. Delacroix selected a stone so large she had to pick it up with both hands and turned to Mrs. Dunbar. „Come on,‟ she said „hurry up.‟” The Man Higher Up - A con artist, Jeff Peters, recalls the time he fell into bad company after being run out of a town he had previously swindled - The three criminals, Jeff Peters, Bill Bassett, and Alfred E. Ricks, call themselves the Synod of Sharks - They each believe themselves to be the man higher up as the most important or moral of the three criminals - Bassett robs the town‟s bank for $5,000 and decides to open a poker room in another town; Peters cleverly marks all of Bassett‟s playing cards and wins $5000 from him - Peters tell the narrator that he invested the money in Gold Mining Stock only to realize that he had been swindled by Ricks - “There are two types of graft...that oughta be wiped out by law. I mean Wall Street speculation and burglary” The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse - Aram Garoghlanian‟s family (Armenian) is famous for its honesty and integrity - Aram‟s cousin Mourad “finds” a white horse and the young boys ride it for several early mornings in the summer before the horse‟s owner, John Byro, spots them on it - Byro allows the boys to give back the horse in order to keep their family‟s reputation - “Every family has a crazy streak in it...” Theft - A woman realizes that her purse has been stolen and she decided to confront the thief - She has a drink with a friend who asks her not to make him give her the money they had both earned and she lets him keep it all - She nearly lets the woman keep her purse after talking to her friend but finally gets it - “Do me a favor... have another drink and forget about it” - “Keep it if you want it so much”

7 A Good Man is Hard to Find - On a trip to Florida, a family encounters “The Misfit” – a murderer on the loose whom the family‟s grandmother had warned them about – and the grandmother shows her true religious colors before meeting her demise - “I just know you‟re a good man” - “There never was a body that give the undertaker a tip” The Man of the House - A young boy‟s mother becomes ill and he is sent to a brewery in another town - The boy makes the long journey and meets a girl while waiting for his medicine - She convinces him to let her have a taste and the two pilfer the entire bottle of medicine - The boy returns home crying and empty-handed and the mother comforts him - “It‟s a funny thing about women, the way they‟ll take orders from anything in trousers, even if it‟s only ten” The Man Who Shot Snapping Turtles - Asa M. Stryker loved the ducks on his pond and loathed the snapping turtles who attacked them; he went to extremes to try to exterminate the turtles and, in doing so, began to drive away the ducks - Clarence Latouche convinces Stryker to turn them into a booming turtle soup company with Latouche as the head advertiser - When Stryker and Latouche‟s business deals turn argumentative, Latouche shoots Stryker Ivy Day in the Committee Room - On Ivy Day, a group of politicians discuss nominations for the next mayoral election including a promising local pub owner running in the Nationalist party, though some suspect him of being loyal to the British - The men also mourn the anniversary of the death of Parnell - The story ends with a recitation of a poem, “The Death of Parnell” The Chrysanthemums - Thirty five year-old Elisa Allen works in the garden planting chrysanthemums when the Tinker rides up asking for directions back to the highway and manipulates her into giving him some business as well as a few of her chrysanthemums - She later realizes that the Tinker was a phony when, on the way into town for dinner with her husband Henry, she sees the flowers on the side of the road but notices that the Tinker kept the pot she had put them in - She almost strengthens herself by asking to go to see the fights with her husband but quickly turns back toward the window “crying weakly – like an old woman” - “Elisa bought him a fifty-cent piece from the house and dropped it in his hand. You might be surprised and have a rival sometime. I can sharpen scissors too.” The Door - A crazy lab rat in a maze story that abstractly describing modern life in the city - “...the changing of the card...” An Upheaval - Mashenka Pavletsky, the young governess of the Kushkins, is deeply upset to find her room being searched for a stolen brooch - After she resolves to leave because of the great insult of being considered a suspect, Nikolay Sergeitch, the man of the house – though very submissive, especially to his wife

8 – confides in her that he was the culprit because his wife wouldn‟t lend him any of his own money and that he is madly in love with Mashenka and begs her not to leave - Mashenka leaves - “it‟s vile... it‟s insulting” - “If you go, there wont be a human face left in the house” The Catbird Seat - Mr. Martins, a man who never drinks anything but milk and ginger ale, never smokes, and has worked for his firm for twenty-two years, plots to “rub out” Mrs. Ulgine Barrows - Mrs. Barrows has a “quaking voice and braying laugh” and the habit of using colorful phrases she hears on the radio, most from the Dodger‟s announcer Red Barber, but Martins tries to contemplate her offenses objectively - She was hired as a consultant, thought she has no skill and is actually destroying the firm, by the firm‟s drunken President who seems to be infatuated with her - Martin goes to her apartment one night, smokes, drinks, and tells her that he is going to kill his boss while high on heroin; she tells the boss the following morning and he believes her to be having a mental breakdown and thus fires her - “...„sitting in the catbird seat‟ meant sitting pretty, like a batter with three balls and no strikes on him” - “It was just a week to the day since Mr. Martin had decided to rub out Mrs. Barrows.” The Schartz-Metterklum Method - Lady Carlotta misses her train while defending a horse from its owner and is mistaken for Miss Hope, the Quabarl family‟s new governess - She teaches the children use the made-up Shartz-Metterklum Method o The method involves the children in the lesson, often by acting out the studies - When Mrs. Quabarl finds hr children acting out the rape of the Sabine women, she fires Lady Carlotta who meets the real Miss Hope on her way out - “I shall talk French four days of the week and Russian in the remaining three” - … “not at all tiresome – for me” The Law - The Law of Averages is thrown out of whack o The Triborough Bridge is packed with cars late on a Wednesday night o People would all order the same menu item for lunch o Places would be full of people one moment and deserted the next - Senator J Wing Slooper proposes a system of “reeducation” and laws that allow only certain people to do certain things at certain times - The Law of Diminishing returns goes awry at the end of the story after the Law of Averages crisis had been solved The Golden Honeymoon - Charley and Lucy Tate take a trip to Florida for their 50 th anniversary - On a stroll the two pass a tent city filled with members of the “Tin Canners” - Lucy spots her boyfriend from before they were married, Frank Hartsell, and Charley becomes increasingly jealous even though Frank is married - Charley tries to prove himself better by beating his wife‟s ex-suitor in various contests including cards and horseshoes - Charley and Lucy have a fight but reconcile before the end of their vacation - “You can‟t get ahead of Mother”

9 “Mother laughed and said I sounded like I was jealous. Jealous of a cow doctor!” “Here comes Mother, so I guess I better shut up

Hamlet Act I - Horatio joins the watchmen Bernardo and Francisco who claim to have seen a ghost - Horatio tries to speak to it but it leaves and Horatio goes to tell Hamlet that it is the ghost of the dead King Hamlet - The next morning, King Claudius tells of his brothers death and his marriage to the widowed queen Gertrude. He allows Laertes, son of Polonius (Lord Chamberlain), to return to France but urges Hamlet to stay at Elsinore rather than return to Wittenberg - Hamlet is “comforted by his mother and new father but still laments his father‟s death - Laertes, leaving for France, tells his sister Ophelia not to fall in love with Hamlet and she agrees but urges him to take his own advice; Polonius tells Laertes to always think before acting and then instructs Ophelia in the same way Laertes had - That night, when on watch, Hamlet follows the ghost (though cautioned by Horatio) and learns that Claudius murdered King Hamlet by pouring poison in his ear while he was sleeping in his orchard - The ghost tells Hamlet to get revenge on Claudius but to leave Gertrude alone - Hamlet tells his friends that he will act mad in order to investigate the situation and he swears the men to secrecy - Claudius is delighted to hear that Norway, on his deathbed, has instructed his son Fortinbras not to regain the lands he lost to Denmark but rather simply to attack Poland Act II - Polonius sends a spy, Reynaldo, to make sure Laertes is behaving in France - Ophelia tells Polonius and Claudius that Hamlet came to see her and is obviously insane - Claudius brings Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Hamlet‟s friends, to find out the cause of Hamlets apparent madness - The dying King of Norway instructed his son Fortinbras not to attack the Danes but rather the Poles - Polonius and Claudius plan to have Hamlet meet Ophelia in the hall and they will listen to the conversation from behind a curtain - Hamlet, in the library, talks with Polonius and uses seemingly irrational statements to insult the old man - Hamlet tries to reveal to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern that he is not in fact mad but the two do not understand and Hamlet warns them about working for the devious king - Actors enter and Hamlet asks them to put on the Play The Murder of Gonzago which mimics the recent events of Denmark and Hamlet adds a few lines to enrage the king if he is indeed guilty Act III - Hamlet enters into Polonius‟ trap while giving his famous “To be, or not to be” soliloquy and becomes enraged when talking to Ophelia and denies ever having loved her - Seeing that Hamlet is not mad for the love of Ophelia, Claudius and Polonius continue to watch Hamlet - After taunting Ophelia with numerous sexual innuendoes, Hamlet settles down to watch the play, and the King

10 Hamlet is convinced of Claudius‟ guilt when he storms out in the middle of the play Hamlet, on his way to see his mother, passes the chapel and plans to kill Claudius while he prays there. Hamlet realizes that this would send him to Heaven and decides to wait until Claudius is in the act of sinning. As soon as Hamlet leaves, the King reveals that he is unable to pray and repent for his crimes (dramatic irony) Polonius hides in Gertrude‟s bedroom while Hamlet storms in and rebukes his mother. When he seems to become violent, she screams help and is echoed by Polonius. Hamlet yells “rat!” and stabs the curtain, killing Polonius, thinking it was the King After Hamlet continues to attack his mother the ghost appears and reminds him that he is only to harm Claudius Gertrude cannot see the ghost and is convinced that Hamlet is mad Hamlet leaves, dragging with him the body of Polonius, just before the King enters

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Act IV - Gertrude tells Claudius that Hamlet has killed Polonius and the king realizes that Hamlet probably meant to kill him instead - To keep Hamlet from harming anyone else (without executing him) Claudius sends Hamlet to England that night and tells the King of England to kill Hamlet - When Claudius demands Polonius‟ body, Hamlet reveals that he hid the body under the main staircase and that it is now worm food - Hamlet meets one of Fortinbras‟ troops and learns that they are going out to kill and die for a worthless piece of land in Poland. Meanwhile, Hamlet realizes, he cannot bring himself to avenge his father‟s, the king‟s, cold-blooded murder - Gertrude meets with Ophelia who sings a few verses of a song and has obviously gone mad after her father‟s death - Laertes barges in and threatens Claudius‟ life in revenge of his father‟s and learns that Ophelia is mad and Hamlet killed Polonius - Horatio receives a letter from Hamlet telling him of pirates who attacked the ship and took Hamlet back to Denmark - Claudius and Laertes plot to kill Hamlet in an “accident” – they will have a fencing match and give Laertes a sword dipped in poison and the king will offer Hamlet a poisoned drink as a back-up plan - Gertrude interrupts the two with news that Ophelia, in her madness, has drowned Act V - Hamlet picks up the skull whom, as the grave-digger points out, belonged to Yorick, the old court jester. This sparks a meditation on the imminence of death - When Hamlet sees Ophelia‟s funeral procession, he jumps in her grave as Laertes had just done and the two scuffle - Hamlet tells Horatio that he re-wrote the letters to England and told the king to kill Rosencrantz and Guildenstern - Orsic enters to tell Hamlet that the King has made a bet with Laertes and that Hamlet is to fence with Laertes immediately - Before the match Hamlet apologizes to Laertes and the King seems to root for Hamlet - When Hamlet is winning the King drinks, poisons the cup, and urges Hamlet to drink. When Hamlet refuses, Gertrude takes a drink - Laertes, with a cheap shot, wounds Hamlet with the poisoned tip and this brings a scuffle in which the swords are exchanged and Hamlet wounds Laertes with the poisoned sword

11 Laertes, revealing the plot, apologizes to and forgives Hamlet just before dying Gertrude yells that the wine is poisoned and then collapses and dies Hamlet stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword and makes him drink the poison Hamlet, dying, tells Horatio not to kill himself because he must now tell the story and clear Hamlet‟s name. He then tells Horatio that Fortinbras, who has just entered the castle, is to be named King of Denmark Fortinbras accepts and gives Hamlet a hero‟s funeral

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Hamlet Quotes - “The funeral baked meats did coldly furnish forth the marriage table” – Hamelt - “Murder most foul, as in the best it is, but this most foul strange and unnatural” – Ghost - “Do not, as some ungracious pastors do, show me the steep and thorny way to Heaven, while like a puffed and reckless libertine...” – Ophelia - “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark” – Marcellus - “Thus was I, sleeping, and by my brother‟s hand of life of crown of queen at once dispatched” – Ghost - “There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow” – Hamlet - “Madness in great ones must not unwatch‟d go” – Polonius - “O, my offence is rank, it smells to Heaven” – Claudius - “Though this be madness, yet there be method in it” – Polonius - “...O, what form of prayer can serve my turn? „Forgive me my foul murder?‟ That cannot be since I am still possessed of those effects for which I did the murder” – Claudius - “What have I done that thou dar‟st wag thy tongue…so rude against me?” – Gertrude - “Let not the royal bed of Denmark be a couch for luxury and damnèd incest?” - Hamlet - “O, what a noble mind is here o‟erthrown!...O, woe is me t‟ have seen what I have seen, see what I see” – Ophelia - “Could beauty, my lord, have better commerce than with honesty” – Ophelia - “Frailty they name is woman” – Hamlet - “More matter with less art” – Gertrude - “Brevity is the soul of wit” – Polonius - “The lady doth protest too much, methinks” – Gertrude - “Thus conscience does make cowards of us all” – Hamlet - “My words fly up, my thoughts remain below; words without thoughts never to Heaven go” – Claudius - “That‟s rosemary, that‟s for remembrance. Pray you, love, remember. And there is pansies, that‟s for thoughts…” – Ophelia - “When sorrows come, they come not in single spies but in battalions” – Claudius - “This same skull, was, sir, Yorick‟s skull” – Gravedigger - “Sweets to the sweet” – Gertrude - “The treacherous instrument is in thy hand, unbated and envenomed. The foul practice has turned itself on me” – Laertes - “Exchange forgiveness with me noble Hamlet. Mine and my father‟s death come not upon thee, nor thine on me” – Laertes - “Good-night, sweet prince; and flights of angels sing thee to thy rest” – Horatio - “Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive against thy mother aught.” – Ghost - “Thou this be madness, yet there is method in „t” – Polonius

12 “Thou turn‟st my eyes into my very soul, and there I see such black and grained spots as will not leave their tinct.” – Gertrude “I‟ll touch my point with this contagion, that if I gall him slightly, it may be death.” – Laertes “Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, grapple them unto my soul with hoops of steel…” – Polonius “Let Hercules himself do what he may, the cat will mew, and dog will have his day.” – Hamlet “Oh my offense is rank, it smells to heaven; it hath the primal eldest curse upon „t…” – Claudius

The Great Gatsby Plot Chapter 1 - Nick is invited to dinner at Tom Buchanan‟s house in East Egg o Tom begins to discuss social issues and reveals his prejudice o Tom takes a phone call from his mistress and Daisy wishes that her daughter Pammy will grow up to be a fool in order to avoid heartache - When Gatsby returns home he spots Gatsby starring with arms outstretched at the green light on the Buchanans‟ dock directly across from his house Chapter 2 - Nick goes with Tom to his apartment in New York City (158 th Street) and the stop at Wilson‟s garage in the valley of ashes on the way to pick up Myrtle o Tom makes Myrtle ride in a separate train car o At the apartment Nick meets Myrtle‟s sister Catherine and Mr. and Mrs. McKee o Myrtle immediately changes into an expensive dress and acts like a socialite o The six sit around and get drunk and Tom breaks Myrtle‟s nose when she refuses to stop saying “Daisy” Chapter 3 - Nick attends Gatsby‟s party and sees Jordan Baker, whom he had met at the Buchanans‟ o They meet the Owl-Eyed Man in the library  He points out that the books are real but still uncut (deceptively real) o Nick overhears the absurd rumors about Gatsby‟s past - At midnight Nick meets Gatsby - Gatsby privately talks to Jordan - Nick and Jordan begin to date Chapter 4 - Gatsby drives Nick to Manhattan for lunch o Gatsby tries to impress Nick with a fake autobiography during the car ride o They see a funeral procession in the Valley of Ashes (foreshadowing) - They meet Meyer Wolfsheim, a 50-year-old gambler (involved the 1919 World Series scandal) at lunch on 42nd Street - At afternoon tea with Jordan, she tells Nick about Gatsby‟s past with Daisy o They fell in love in Louisville in 1917 but Daisy married Tom when Gatsby was delayed coming home from World War I o Gatsby now wants Nick to set up a meeting between him and Daisy

13 Chapter 5 - Gatsby meets Daisy at tea with Nick and at first very awkward and embarrassed, then overcome with joy, and finally he is lost in wonder - After making her very uncomfortable, Gatsby takes Daisy on a tour of his mansion o Daisy breaks down in a catharsis at the sight of Gatsby‟s expensive tailored shirts - Gatsby is confused because Daisy could not live up to his ideal; the green light has lost all meaning for Gatsby Chapter 6 - Nick describes Gatsby‟s true past o He was born James Gatz to a poor North Dakota family and only attended college for two weeks o He changed his name and traveled the world on a yacht with the 50-year-old millionaire Dan Cody - Nick visits Gatsby‟s house as Tom and his friends ride up on horseback o Tom is jealous after Gatsby‟s meeting with Daisy - Tom and Daisy attend Gatsby‟s next party and Gatsby dances with Daisy Chapter 7 - Gatsby‟s lights aren‟t working one evening so he dismisses his servants - Gatsby, Nick, and Jordan go to the city with Tom and Daisy o Gatsby drives Tom‟s blue coupe and Tom takes Gatsby‟s yellow car, stopping on their way at Wilson‟s Garage where Myrtle mistakes Jordan for Daisy o Gatsby announces his belief that Daisy never loved Tom and Tom calls Gatsby a crazy racketeer o Daisy drives with Gatsby in his car and hits and leaves Myrtle for dead o Nick, Jordan, and Tom arrive and Tom tells Wilson that he was not driving Chapter 8 - Nick urges Gatsby to leave town for a while but he refuses to leave until he is sure that Daisy will be alright - Wilson talks to Michaelis, a witness of the accident, and tells him that he knew about Myrtle‟s affair and that God (pointing at the Dr. Eckleburg billboard) also knew - Wilson goes to Tom, convinced that her lover killed her, and Tom tells him that it was Gatsby that killed her - Wilson kills Gatsby in his pool and than shoots himself Chapter 9 - Tom and Daisy leave town and Nick plans Gatsby‟s funeral o Wolfsheim says he cannot go and get involved with a murder victim o Henry c. Gatz, Gatsby‟s father, comes and shows Nicka copy of Hopalong Cassidy that Gatsby had written a schedule for himself in as a child o The rainy funeral is attended only by the servants, Henry Gatz, and Nick (the Owl-Eyed Man comes to the grave soon after) o Nick returns to the Midwest and sees a very peaceful scene of students waiting for their trains in the light snowfall Characterization - Nick Carraway o 1st person narrator, Nick explains that he does not judge people (at least not to their face), age 30

14 o Comes from an upper-middle class background; went to Yale, served in World War I, and became a bond trader in the East o Abandons the appalling moral wasteland (Valley of Ashes) of the Buchanan society and returns to the Midwest, his haven of integrity  He mentions at the end that, as westerners, he, Jordan, Gatsby, Daisy, and Tom cannot adapt to life in the East Daisy Fay o Former belle of Louisville, age 23, who fell in love with Gatsby but married Tom o Charming and seductive but extremely shallow Tom Buchanan o Wealthy former athelete, age 30, who married Daisy o Stupid, arrogant, racist, and morally weak Jordan Baker o Childhood friend of Daisy and professional golfer, age 21 o Spiritually empty and incapable of happiness o “a bad driver”

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Jay Gatsby (James Gatz) o Millionaire, age 32  Attained his money through illegal means for the sole purpose of impressing and winning back Daisy o Essentially a good man, he is caught up in his own illusion and pursuit of Daisy Myrtle Wilson o Tom‟s mistress and George Wilson‟s wife, in her mid 30‟s o Not beautiful but has a smoldering energy o Her death leads to Wilson‟s and Gatsby‟s

Setting - West Egg o New money, non-traditional o Home of Gatsby and Nick - East Egg o Established wealth, very traditional and out of touch Home of Daisy and Tom o Compared by Nick to the El Greco painting of a drunken woman in a white dress - New York City - Valley of Ashes o The vast ash dump between East/West Egg and the city o Modeled after T.S. Elliot‟s Wasteland o A place completely rid of its morals and watched over by the faded eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg as a god figure - Summer Time o As the heat intensifies the tensions among the characters mount o Gatsby is disappointed that he never got to use his pool and is killed in it during his first swim of the summer - Plot Timeline

15 o o o o 1923 – Nick narrates the story (flashback) 1907 – 1912 – Gatsby sails with Dan Cody 1917 – Gatsby fall in love with Daisy in Louisville Summer 1922 – main action of the story

Quotes - “Since the Middle West now seemed like the ragged edge of the universe, I decided to go east and learn the bond business” – Nick - “I hope she‟ll be a fool – that‟s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool” – Daisy - “I married him because I thought he was a gentleman… I thought he knew something about breeding, but he wasn‟t fit to lick my shoe” – Myrtle - “Daisy, Daisy, Daisy. I‟ll say it whenever I want! Daisy, Dai–” – Myrtle - “I keep it always full of interesting people, night and day. People who do interesting things. Celebrated people” – Gatsby - “Can‟t repeat the past? Why of course you can! I‟m going to fix everything just the way it was before” – Gatsby - “They‟re such beautiful shirts. It makes me sad because I‟ve never seen such beautiful shirts before” – Daisy - “They‟re a rotten crowd… you‟re worth the hole damn bunch put together” – Nick - “She only married you because I was poor and she was tired of waiting for me. It was a terrible mistake, but in her heart, she never loved anyone except me” – Gatsby - “Go on. He wont annoy you. I think he realizes that his presumptuous little flirtation is over” – Tom - “I suppose the latest thing is to sit back and let Mr. Nobody from Nowhere make love to your wife” – Tom - “You may fool me, but you can‟t fool God… God sees everything” – Wilson - “I cannot come down right now as I am tied up in some very important business and cannot get mixed up in this thing right now. If there‟s anything I can do a little later, let me know” – Meyer Wolfsheim - “You said a bad driver was only safe until she met another bad driver… I met another bad driver, didn‟t I? I mean, it was careless of me to make such a wrong guess” – Jordan - “That‟s my Middle West… the street lamps and sleigh bells in the frosty dark…” – Nick - “He‟s an Oggsford man; the kind of man you‟d like to fix everything just the way it was before” – Wolfshiem - “I‟ve been here too long. I want to get away. My wife and I want to go west.” – George Wilson - “Beat me! Throw me down and beat me, you dirty little coward!” – Myrtle - "I am one of the few honest people I have ever known" – Nick

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Comprehensive Exam Outline Part I: Scantron 1 – 80 Vocabulary 81 – 93 Elements of Style (ch 1-5) 94 – 100 MLA Formatting 101 – 115 Hamlet Character Matching 116 – 125 Hamlet Quotes 126 – 135 Gatsby Quotes 136 – 150 Gatsby Questions 151 – 165 Short Story Identification 166 – 180 Short Story Quotes

Part II: Essays Gatsby Character Analysis Read and Analyze a Short Story

“So we beat on, boats against the current, borne ceaselessly into the past”


				
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