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					                                                  Strand 9 – Creating and Shaping Texts


                                                                       Year One


     Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                           Steps in Learning

                                                                    Step in learning 1
                                                                    During independent writing, children focus on narrative structure. They make
                                                                    basic authorial choices about what to include in a narrative text with a beginning,
                                                                    development and ending. The simple structure of the plot allows them to plan the
                                                                    content of their story independently and through oral rehearsal with a talk
During Year 1, children begin to                                    partner.
write across a wider range of
text types and purposes. As
                                                                    Step in learning 2
their knowledge of language
                                 Use key features of narrative in   During guided writing, children explore ways of developing character through a
features and vocabulary
                                 their own writing                  narrative. Writing a traditional tale extends their range of text types and moves
grows, they make authorial
decisions about their own                                           them from personal recounts (first person) to third person narrative.
writing with growing
confidence and                                                      Step in learning 3
independence.
                                                                    Children apply what they know about developing plot and characters. They
                                                                    extend their knowledge of narrative features by focusing on the interaction of
                                                                    characters and events in a setting. They increase their levels of writing
                                                                    independence through the use of visual and digital texts. They also make progress
                                                                    in the precision of their language choices by considering more detail about one
                                                                    part of a narrative
                                                                     Pupil Targets

                       1c                                                  1b                                                1a

Produce ideas about what to include in a           Choose appropriate and interesting words for
                                                                                                      Find and use appropriate and interesting words
narrative with a beginning, development and        writing from alternatives supplied (e.g. from a
                                                                                                      in stories, poems and non-fiction texts.
ending.                                            word bank).
                                                                      Strand 9 – Year One
              Classroom Example                                       Classroom Example                                        Classroom Example
                    Step 1                                                  Step 2                                                   Step 3
                                                        Classroom example: Writing narrative                     Classroom example: Writing narrative (fantasy
Classroom example: Writing narrative (story             (traditional tales)                                      settings)
structure)                                              After shared writing where a simple plot has been        In a previous lesson, an imaginary setting in a
Writing independently, children draw three pictures     drafted for a traditional tale, children are guided in   fantasy world, the main characters and a basic
to tell a story (real or imagined) where they are the   creating the characters. They are not responsible        three-part plot structure have been established
main characters. Their pictures show:                   for planning the narrative structure so they can         using visual images.
      an opening that establishes setting and          focus in more detail on vocabulary and language          Images of a background and characters are used
          introduces character(s)                       effects.                                                 as the basis for the next stage of story drafting.
      the complication or main event(s)                As part of their own retelling of a traditional tale,    During guided writing the teacher models use of
      a resolution/ending.                             children discuss the main characters during guided       the word setting and guides children in planning
Children take turns telling their story to a partner,   writing. They decide which characters show the           how the characters will behave in the fantasy
using the first person to narrate what happened         archetypal opposites of good and bad, rich and           setting already created. Children create the text to
with the help of their pictures.                        poor, old and young, for example. They use a             tell the first part of the story, either orally or by
During guided, supported or independent writing,        familiar resource such as an electronic word bank        drafting their own sentences.
as appropriate, they discuss main character, other      to help them choose and discuss words that will          As children compose each sentence, the teacher
characters, setting, opening, what happened and         help them reflect these opposites in their writing.      prompts them to reveal what each character is like
the ending. They write or orally compose a              JACK is brave... kind... helpful... a bit lazy.          in their writing by choosing words carefully. As
sentence for each picture, creating a short             The GIANT is mean... spiteful... a bully and a           each sentence is drafted, children discuss what
narrative text.                                         coward.                                                  they have written and explain how their word
                                                        Focusing on one ‘pair’ of characters, they plan          choices show what the characters are like: the
                                                        how they will reveal character information to the        things they do, the things they say and the words
                                                        reader / listener by telling them what each person       used to describe them.
                                                        said.                                                    If using digital images and creating an ICT text, it
                                                        What did they say?                                       may be appropriate for children to adapt the
                                                        Working in pairs, children add speech bubbles to         images to match the sentences they write, for
                                                        pictures of two main characters to show what they        example, by pasting characters into a background
                                                        are like or how they feel.                               or by adding their own text to each image. Some
                                                        JACK: Please don’t cry, Mum. I will go to market.        ICT texts will also allow children to use the support
                                                        GIANT: Come here you! Bring me that magic hen            of ‘read-me aloud’ text/audio facilities to check or
                                                        right now.                                               read back their independent writing.
                                                        Children perform the dialogue in their speech
                                                        bubbles for their group or class and the other
                                                        children guess which character is which.
                                                        Using examples from the children’s own speech
                                                        bubbles, a plenary session establishes how a
                                                        writer can use dialogue to give information to a
                                                        reader about a character.
                                                Strand 10 – Text Structure and Organisation


                                                                      Year One


     Progression Summary                Learning objectives                                       Steps in Learning

                                                                   Step in learning 1
During Year 1, children acquire                                    Children decide how to provide information by writing a clear statement. In
a growing bank of knowledge                                        shared or supported writing, they write a caption in the form of a single
and skill in organising the                                        complete sentence.
content of different kinds of
texts. They begin to apply their      Group written sentences
                                                                   Step in learning 2
growing knowledge of simple            together in chunks of
text structures when writing           meaning or subject          Children write instructions that require chronological organisation. In guided
their own texts, making choices       Write chronological and     writing, they decide on the order of the sentences and begin to use some
from a widening repertoire of          non-chronological texts     vocabulary to support the chronological structure of their text.
structural conventions. They           using simple structures
learn how to group sentences                                       Step in learning 3
together and make progress in
applying these skills to create                                    Children focus on the organisation and structure of a non-chronological text.
increasingly cohesive texts.                                       They assemble information about a subject and, in guided writing, decide how
                                                                   to organise the content.


                                                                    Pupil Targets

                       1c                                                 1b                                               1a
Develop the sense of a sentence. Write single      Write and order simple instructions. Label       Assemble written sentences together that are
words and phrases.                                 information correctly.                           about the same thing.
                                                                   Strand 10 – Year One
             Classroom Example                                     Classroom Example                                       Classroom Example
                   Step 1                                                 Step 2                                                 Step 3
Classroom example: Writing non-fiction                Classroom example: Writing non-fiction                 Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (non-
(captions)                                            (instructions)                                         chronological information text)

As part of the preparation for a class display the
children write a caption to go with each item or      After using and following simple instructions orally   Children collect information about a given subject
image on show. The first few captions are             and reading instructions during shared reading,        or theme, including text and images. They select
composed through shared writing to demonstrate        children are guided in composing their own             the most relevant and interesting information and
the need for ‘complete’ information (This is a        instructions. They give instructions orally to a       discard some content in order to create one page
sunflower seed./Dogs are the most popular pets in     partner for completing a short process such as         of an information text. For example, children
our class. Rather than: sunflower seed/dogs most      playing a game they have invented or how to            contribute in pairs to a page each of a class digital
popular).                                             make something.                                        text about animals who live in different habitats.
If items in the display include a chronological       To support them in organising the instructions in      Having collected the content for their text, children
element (such as events during a school visit or      the best order children can use three or four          are guided in deciding how to structure it. For
stages of an experiment) this aspect of the textual   photographs taken when they originally completed       example, they decide on the order and layout of
organisation is undertaken/supported by the           the process themselves. They place them in the         text and images.
teacher so that the children can focus during         correct order to remind them of the main stages.       During guided writing, they are encouraged to read
composition on the structure and organisation of a    Children also use three or four sentence starter       aloud so that they can consider the most helpful
sentence to give information about one thing.         cards showing temporal connectives to support the      organisation for their reader. They are encouraged
During guided or independent writing, children        chronological organisation of the sentences they       to avoid random placing of text and pictures that
consider what the reader needs to know that is not    use and to introduce words that help them to           are visually effective but not meaningful when read
evident in the display item itself, how they signal   create textual cohesion: First/Then /Next/Finally.     from beginning to end.
the beginning and end of the sentence to the          During independent writing they give the
reader (especially if the sentence is a long one      instructions orally to a partner, each take a turn,
that extends to a second line) and whether the        and then reflect on how well each set of
information is clear.                                 instructions worked.
When all the captions are completed, the children
are given time to read the collection of sentences
as a complete text in situ with the display. They
discuss whether any information is missing and
collaboratively compose any additional captions
required.
                                                     Strand 11 – Sentence Structure


                                                                      Year One


     Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                            Steps in Learning

                                                                   Step in learning 1
                                                                   Through shared writing, children develop their understanding of what a
                                                                   sentence is and when complete sentences are appropriate. They mark sentence
During Year 1, children develop                                    boundaries and make the connection between sentence punctuation and
their use of simple sentences                                      meaning in their own writing.
for a widening range of writing
purposes.                         Compose and write simple
                                  sentences independently to
                                                                   Step in learning 2
They begin to apply basic         communicate meaning
sentence grammar and                                               Children extend the range of sentence types they use and recognise to include
punctuation more deliberately,    Use capital letters and full     statements and questions. They apply what they know about questions in guided
increasingly aware of the need    stops when punctuating simple    or independent writing, as appropriate.
to convey meaning clearly for a   sentences
reader.                                                            Step in learning 3
                                                                   Children apply what they know about sentence structures in independent
                                                                   writing of their own recounts.


                                                                    Pupil Targets

                      1c                                                  1b                                                   1a

                                                  Be able to say and write a simple sentence           Consolidate the sense of a sentence, write
Develop the sense of a sentence. Write single
                                                  independently. Use capital letters and full stops    simple sentences independently. Use capital
words and phrases.
                                                  when punctuating a simple sentence.                  letters and full stops to punctuate a sentence.
                                                                     Strand 11 – Year One
              Classroom Example                                      Classroom Example                                      Classroom Example
                    Step 1                                                  Step 2                                                Step 3
                                                        Classroom example: Writing sentences
Classroom example: Writing sentences                                                                          Classroom example: Writing sentences
                                                        (poetry)
(Captions)                                                                                                    (Recount)
                                                        During guided and independent writing, children
Children’s understanding of simple sentence             compose their own poems based on a pattern of         Children use oral drafting as the starting point for
structure is extended through shared reading and        questions and answers. Using models from their        their own written recounts of a personal event or
shared writing. Shared writing demonstrates the         reading they make up their own versions of            experience.
differences between labels around the classroom         question and answer poems.
(words or phrases) and the captions the children                                                              Using a strategy modelled for them during shared
write for a display (sentences). Also see, Year 1,      They recreate a simple structure of a question        writing, they recount their narrative orally and ask
Strand 10 - Writing Non-fiction (captions), Step in     followed by an answer and their attention is drawn    questions to one another in pairs to help them add
learning 1.                                             to the way that the repetition of words in both       information to some of their sentences.
                                                        question and answer creates ‘word patterns’ in
They become more familiar with the basic                pairs of lines.                                       Question cards for children to use as prompts:
vocabulary needed to talk about sentences (word,                                                              When? Where? Who? What else was
sentence, line, capital letter, full stop,              Who slammed the door?
                                                                                                              interesting?
beginning/end) and they discuss why some writing        My sister slammed the door.
requires the use of complete sentences (their own       Who broke the window?
                                                        My sister broke the window.                           Example
captions) and other texts (display labels) do not.
                                                        Who spilt the tea?
                                                        My sister spilt the tea.                                  1. We went to Bridge Farm. When? Last
The teacher demonstrates that sentences do not                                                                       week we went to Bridge Farm.
have to be short. Children are shown how a short        What colour are sunflowers?
sentence can be extended to include more                Sunflowers are yellow.
                                                        What do sunflowers smell like?                            2. We fed the lambs. When? First we fed the
information and are invited to contribute to shared                                                                  lambs. What else was interesting? First
composition of additional captions for their display.   Sunflowers smell like sunshine.
                                                        How tall are sunflowers?                                     we fed the soft, fluffy lambs.
We planted sunflower seeds. We planted thirty
sunflower seeds. We planted thirty sunflower            Sunflowers are as tall as me.
                                                                                                                  3. Then we went to see the tractor. Where?
seeds in April.                                         Activities may include orally composing several              Then we went into the barn to see the
                                                        different answers to a single question,                      tractor.
Demonstration and shared writing also show why          collaboratively drafting answers to the same
sentence boundaries need to be demarcated when          questions as those in the model being used,           They record their first draft of simple sentences
a caption of two or more sentences extends over         writing their own question and answer poems           and, through guided/supported writing or peer
more than one line. We gave the seeds water.            during guided writing or framing their own list of    support, they refine or extend their sentences to
Here is Dan with the watering can. We took turns        questions for a partner to use as a writing frame.    provide information as effectively as possible.
each day to water the seeds.                            Reflection on their writing establishes criteria to
                                                        help the children identify sentences that are
                                                        questions: sentence ends with a question mark,
                                                        usually anticipates an answer, often begins with
                                                        what/who/when/where/why/which/how.
                                                   Strand 9 – Creating and Shaping Texts


                                                                      Year Two


     Progression Summary                Learning objectives                                        Steps in Learning

                                                                    Step in learning 1
                                                                    In shared writing, children contribute their own language choices for a
Children build on their
knowledge and experience of                                         collaborative poem based on a model that uses patterned language.
texts during Year 2 and grow
more confident in planning                                          Step in learning 2
for writing.                      Make adventurous word and
                                                                    In guided writing of poetry, children focus on finding and choosing words to
Their handling of a range of      language choices appropriate
                                                                    describe accurately the close details they have observed from first-hand
forms becomes more                to the style and purpose of the
                                                                    experience in another curriculum area.
consistent (for example, in       text
their use of person and tense)
as well as more creative (for                                       Step in learning 3
example, in adapting forms and                                      Children work with a response partner during talk for writing and independent
exploring vocabulary                                                writing. They apply what they have learned about language choices, style and
                                                                    poetic forms to write a humorous poem. They are given time to explore their
                                                                    ideas through play and experimentation.

                                                                    Pupil Targets

                       1a                                                 2c                                                2b

Make language choices appropriate to different
                                                   Choose words for effect, making writing           Demonstrate use of adventurous word choices
text types. Consider and select from alternative
                                                   interesting for the reader.                       and detail to engage the reader.
choices.
                                                                             Strand 9 – Year Two
               Classroom Example                                              Classroom Example                                              Classroom Example
                     Step 1                                                         Step 2                                                         Step 3
Classroom example: Writing poetry (language                  Classroom example: Writing poetry (word choices)                  Classroom example: Writing poetry (style)
choices):
                                                             Children have already discussed and made notes or                 Children work independently in pairs to write a
In Phase 3 of Poetry Unit 1 the teacher has modelled         drawings of closely observed details during a prior activity in   humorous poem on an appropriate theme or
and explored writing in several different patterned forms,   another curriculum area. For example, they have observed          subject.
focusing on playful and inventive language choices and       minibeasts with a magnifying glass or microscope during a
vocabulary.                                                  science activity and made observational drawings, or they         They are given time to use their knowledge of
                                                             have made notes about the close-up details of a large             forms (e.g. lists, riddles, puzzles, limericks, shape
In shared writing, the teacher models the drafting of the    painting during a visit to an art gallery.                        poems, nonsense poems) language choices (e.g.
first two or three lines of a poem using one or more of                                                                        vocabulary, patterned language) and style/mood
the language patterns already explored.                      Using a poem they have discussed during shared reading            (e.g. humorous, scary, sad) to play around with
                                                             as a model, or using a poetic form they are familiar with         ideas for their poem and try them out through
Children join in and contribute to the rest of the poem,     (such as a list poem) children write their own poems during       reading aloud, playing with language and
continuing the same patterned language. They are             guided writing.                                                   recording any suggestions.
encouraged to make inventive and creative choices that
extend their vocabulary rather than choices that rigidly     They are guided in finding, trying out and selecting the most     They are appropriately supported during
follow a particular format.                                  effective words to describe the subject in detail. They are       independent writing, ensuring that they remain
                                                             supported in making word choices appropriate to the style of      focused on choosing language that is humorous
Example
                                                             their poem and its purpose.                                       and discussing why they prefer one suggestion to
Children contribute new words they have made up using
the same patterns as a poem where new vocabulary                                                                               another. For example, some children use a
has been created for effect:                                 Example                                                           checklist or a model poem as a scaffold.
       Model poem                 Our version                                                                                                              First          Ideas to
                                                             A list poem about Van Gogh’s painting, Starry Night               Talk for writing a poem
                                        Delicious                                                                                                          ideas            keep
Juicy fruits
                             desserts                        Purpose: to describe the painting in detail. [highlighted text]   What kind of poem shall
Oranges are                  Chocolate is                                                                                      we write?
                                                                                              Changes during guided
squeezesome,                                                           First ideas                                             What will make it funny?
                                                                                              writing
juiceful                                                                                                                       the characters?
and                                                          Starry Night                     Starry Night                     the things that happen?
bumpylicious.                                                A blue and green sky             An emerald and sapphire sky      the words?
Apples are                   Ice cream is                    Twirly clouds                    Swirling clouds                  Jokes
munchive,                                                    Shiny stars                      Bright, glowing stars
crunchious                                                   An orange moon like a letter     A hot orange crescent moon       Language play
and                                                          c                                                                 Words we could use
scrunchylicious.                                                                           A tall, feathery tree
                                                                                                                               Lines we could use
                                                             A big tree with branches that Tiny houses with bright roofs
Other examples could use repetition of sound patterns        look like feathers            A church with a pointed spire       Pairs are invited to share some of their initial ideas
or visual patterns on the page or screen. Poems with         Little houses                 Indigo hillsides                    in a mid-session plenary so that they receive
rigid rhyme patterns are not suitable for this activity      A church with a sharp spire And shadowy fields.                   feedback from the rest of the class before going on
because children’s choice of rhyming words for each          Blue hills                                                        to write the final version of their poem.
line will limit their language choices.                      Dark fields
                                                Strand 10 – Text Structure and Organisation


                                                                      Year Two


     Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                          Steps in Learning

                                                                    Step in learning 1
                                                                    In independent writing, children use a support structure such as a writing frame
                                                                    to help them plan what to include in each section of a set of instructions.
During Year 2, children make
progress in the way they                                            Step in learning 2
organise whole texts by
                                                                    Children independently plan how to organise the content of an explanation text.
planning how best to group        Use planning to establish clear
                                                                    They follow a suggested and familiar structure for planning, such as a flow chart but
content together into sections.   sections for writing
                                                                    they create the planning structure themselves.
They also begin to take
account of the way meaning
links from section to section.                                      Step in learning 3

                                                                    Children write a non-chronological report during independent writing. They apply
                                                                    what they know about planning strategies to decide independently how to plan the
                                                                    content of each paragraph in their writing.

                                                                    Pupil Targets

                       1a                                                 2c                                                  2b
                                                                                                       Use basic sequencing of ideas or material, using
Write sentences in the order that they have been   Writing shows characteristics of chosen form
                                                                                                       connecting words and phrases making sure the
planned.                                           based on structure of known texts.
                                                                                                       layout is clear to the reader.
                                                                     Strand 10 – Year Two
              Classroom Example                                      Classroom Example                                       Classroom Example
                    Step 1                                                  Step 2                                                 Step 3
Classroom example: Writing Non-fiction                                                                         Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (non-
                                                        Classroom example: Writing Non-fiction
(instructions)                                          (explanations)                                         chronological reports)
Children write a set of instructions for a well-known
classroom procedure or a process they are familiar      The teacher has demonstrated how to use a              Children have gathered the information they need to
with in another curriculum area, such as How to         particular, simple strategy to support planning for    write a non-chronological report. For example, they
make a birthday card or How to clear up after an        writing an explanation. Children have read and         have been learning about what life was like locally
art lesson.                                             discussed examples of explanations.                    before they were born and have discussed during
                                                                                                               shared writing which information is important and
They plan independently what to include in each         Children plan what to include in their own             interesting enough to include. The specific purpose
                                                        explanation text and the order in which it will be     and audience for their writing have also been
section, using a planning scaffold to support their
                                                        included. For example, they plan how to organise       established during prior discussion.
ideas. For example, they could use a writing frame
that prompts them with appropriate connectives or       an explanation of the life cycle of an animal they
                                                                                                               Children decide independently how to plan the
they could use a visual frame showing                   have studied or a process they have undertaken in      paragraphs for their report. They are given a
chronological photographs or diagrams of the            a technology lesson.                                   selection of resources to help them discuss and plan
procedure taking place (example below).                                                                        with a partner or a small group.
                                                        They discuss the content with a talk partner and
Before writing the instructions, they use their         then apply the same planning structure the teacher     A selection that includes A3 paper and pens, a set of
planning to check that they have organised              demonstrated to organise their own text. For           small blank cards and several sheets of plain A4
content into the correct order. For example, they       example, they create a flow chart to note the order    paper will help to give them a range of choices about
ask a friend to follow the order of content and         of main points to be made (and possibly the causal     the planning approach they take.
make sure the procedure works or they match             connectives they will use to begin each section) or
each section of their planning with a                   a cyclical diagram if the process being explained is   Pairs/groups join up to compare the different ways
photograph/illustration (example below) and then        one that repeats itself.                               they have planned their writing and discuss which
check that the photographs are chronologically                                                                 content they have planned to include in each
ordered. These can be numbered correctly on the                                                                paragraph. (See Framework site for pictorial table)
                                                        Example
reverse if necessary.
                                                                                                               In the plenary session, children give their opinions
                                                        Children are asked to use a cyclical planning          about the best way to plan the paragraphs in a non-
Examples                                                strategy to explain a process they have learned        chronological report, giving their reasons. They are
                                                        about in another curriculum area. Some children        prompted by the teacher to compare the different
(Sequenced pictures of how to plant and look            use the structure to make notes and others use a       ways that groups have shaped and organised the
after a tree)                                           combination of simple illustrations and notes.         content, paying particular attention to the first and
How to: ………………………                                                                                              final paragraphs.
You will                                                Child’s planning
                                                                                                               Children are given some additional editing time
need
                                                                                                               during the next lesson so that they can further refine
First                                                                                                          their planning in light of the shared feedback, before
Next                                                                                                           they write their report.
Finally
                                                        Strand 11 – Sentence Structure


                                                                         Year Two


     Progression Summary                Learning objectives                                              Steps in Learning

                                                                       Step in learning 1
                                                                       During shared writing, the teacher demonstrates how to combine simple
                                                                       sentences to create a compound sentence. Children contribute to drafting a story
During Year 2, children begin to
                                                                       by suggesting compound sentences. They reflect on the difference in effect
include some longer
                                                                       between two simple sentences and one compound sentence.
sentences to add more detail
and variety to their writing.

They experiment with
coordinated clauses to create      Write simple and compound           Step in learning 2
compound sentences using           sentences and begin to use
                                                                       In guided writing, children focus on sentence construction during the process of
and, or, and but and they begin    subordination in relation to time
                                                                       writing a sustained story in the style of a familiar author. They edit their first drafts,
to use subordinate clauses to      and reason
                                                                       experimenting with both simple and compound sentences and comparing their
explain when and why.
                                                                       effects on style.
The range of punctuation
evident in their independent
writing extends to include                                             Step in learning 3
question marks.
                                                                       During independent writing, children extend the range of sentence structures
                                                                       they use. They begin to use subordination for time and reason to help them
                                                                       sequence or connect events and develop character.


                                                                       Pupil Targets

                       1a                                                     2c                                                     2b
Begin to demonstrate consistency in the use of
                                                                                                            Use question marks, exclamation marks and
first or third person and tense when writing         Use conjunctions to join compound sentences.
                                                                                                            commas in a list with some accuracy.
simple sentences.
                                                                                         Strand 11- Year Two
                 Classroom Example                                                       Classroom Example                                                         Classroom Example
                       Step 1                                                                  Step 2                                                                    Step 3
Classroom example: Writing narrative (traditional stories)            Classroom example: Writing narrative (style)                              Classroom example: Writing narrative (extended stories)

Children are planning their own version of a traditional tale they    Children have explored the style of a particular author through           Children are independently planning and writing their own sustained
know well, reversing the stereotypes of the two main                  reading and discussion and are familiar with several books or             stories, with success criteria that reflect their prior learning about
characters. Shared writing is used to focus children’s attention      stories and their characters. They are writing their own story in the     sustaining narrative: for example, sequencing events, development
on the way they can create sentences for effect during the next       same style using a principal character created by the author.             of setting and character, using story language.
stage of writing.
                                                                      Working on their first drafts, children edit a section of the narrative   During the writing process, children build on their knowledge of
                                                                      that includes characterisation. They focus on combining short             sentence structure and apply their skill in shaping sentences
The teacher models drafting the first few lines in the style of the
                                                                      sentences into longer ones where appropriate, and are guided in           deliberately for effect.
original story. Simple sentences are drafted and read aloud,
                                                                      discussing the effects of the changes.
modelling consistency of tense and person (Cinderella was ...
                                                                                                                                                They are provided with resources they can access independently to
She shouted ... She was nasty to her ...)
                                                                      They are encouraged to read back and reread both versions:                support and focus them on creating complex sentences that use
                                                                                                                                                subordinate clauses for time (... after the lights went out.) and
The teacher edits the drafted text to combine two sentences,               1.   to check whether they are reflecting the style of their         reason (... because she was so happy.) to add detail about plot and
creating a compound sentence using and, or or but.                         chosen author;                                                       character.
                                                                           2.   to consider the effects of short or long sentences and the
                                                                           way they join.
                                                                                                                                                Children are given appropriate levels of individual support to help
Example                                                                                                                                         them include subordinate clauses during independent writing.
                                                                      Example
Cinderella                                                                                                                                      Examples
                                                                      Main character: Sam (The Man Whose Mother was a Pirate by                 An aide memoire
     1. Cinderella was a selfish girl. She shouted a lot. She         Margaret Mahy)                                                            A list or a set of word cards of subordinating connectives to provide
     was nasty to her stepsisters.                                                                                                              ideas for connecting clauses.
     2. Cinderella was a selfish girl. She shouted a lot and          Extract from child’s new story:
     was nasty to her stepsisters.                                    Sam was the son of a pirate. Sam had a pirate ship. Sam was                         because                 when
                                                                      brave. He liked adventures. He had seen the whole world.                            if                      while
The new sentence is read aloud and the effect compared with           Sam’s ship could fly. Sam saw the moon. He had an idea. “I will fly
the original, shorter sentences, checking that tense (past) and       my ship. I will go to the moon,” he thought.                                        therefore               until
person (third) are still maintained.                                                                                                                      so                      after
                                                                      Teacher: example prompts for guided writing
                                                                                                                                                          in order to         before
This process is repeated and the children contribute their own                                                                                  Two cards
                                                                      Repetition of ‘Sam’. Create one longer sentence? Sam was the son
suggestions for compound sentences, first using two simple                                                                                      Each showing a prompt question to think about when composing a
                                                                      of a pirate so he had a pirate ship. Discuss other options: Sam was
sentences drafted by the teacher and then without prompting.          the son of a pirate. That’s why he had a pirate ship.                     new sentence (Why? When?).
                                                                                                                                                Sample sentences that model different structures:
     1. Cinderella was going to the ball. Her stepsisters were
     not allowed to go.                                               Sam’s ship could fly. Doesn’t need to be a longer sentence                          When she was tired, the girl fell asleep.
     2. Cinderella was going to the ball but her stepsisters          because this is a surprising piece of information so it’s effective.                The girl fell asleep when she was tired.
                                                                      Refer to one or two examples of short, simple sentences for effect
     were not allowed to go.
                                                                      in the original book.                                                               If you do that, I will be angry.
     1. “Shall I wear the silver dress? Shall I wear the gold                                                                                             I will be angry if you do that.
     one?” she asked her fairy godmother.                             He had an idea. He had this idea because he saw the moon. How                       The boy was sad. He started to cry.
                                                                      can you show that in your writing?
     2. “Shall I wear the silver dress or shall I wear the gold                                                                                           The boy was sad so he started to cry
     one?” she asked her fairy godmother.                             He saw the moon. Suddenly he had an idea.                                           The boy started to cry because he was sad
                                                                      He saw the moon and suddenly he had an idea.
In guided and supported writing, children continue their own
                                                                      He saw the moon. That’s when he had an idea.                                        Because he was sad, the boy started to cry.
version of the traditional tale, writing both simple and              When he looked at the moon he had an idea.
compound sentences                                                    Children continue editing their sentences in this part of the text and    A writing response partner
                                                                      are guided in maintaining a focus on sentence construction using
                                                                      connectives.                                                                        Have we used long and short sentences?
                                                                                                                                                          Have we used different kinds of sentences?
                                                  Strand 9 – Creating and Shaping Texts

                                                                     Year Three


     Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                         Steps in Learning
                                                                 Step in learning 1
                                                                   Children independently evaluate their writing against a success criterion
                                                                    for purpose that was agreed collaboratively when planning.
                                                                 Step in learning 1
                                                                  The teacher models note-making during shared writing. Children contribute
                                                                    to selecting vocabulary from an information text to create notes, for later use
                                                                    when they write a report on the same topic.
PLEASE NOTE:
There are two steps in learning                                  Step in learning 2
relevant to this strand in Year                                    During guided writing for planning, children make decisions about the
3.                                                                  purpose and form of their writing. They are guided in using these to set their
The teacher models note-          Select and use a range of         own success criteria.
making during shared writing.     technical and descriptive      Step in learning 2
Children contribute to            vocabulary
                                                                  Children write an instructional text during guided writing. They compose
selecting vocabulary from an
                                                                    each instruction in detail, selecting the most specific vocabulary possible,
information text to create
                                                                    including appropriate technical vocabulary.
notes, for later use when they
write a report on the same                                       Step in learning 3
topic.                                                                 Using talk to reflect on their writing, children independently evaluate
                                                                        how successful and effective their texts are, using success criteria for
                                                                        form and purpose that they set for themselves when planning.
                                                                 Step in learning 3
                                                                     Children use a range of ICT information texts to select particular words
                                                                        and phrases that will be effective in persuading a reader. Writing
                                                                        independently, they use their chosen vocabulary as the starting point for
                                                                        an information text.
                                                                  Pupil Targets

                      2a                                                  3c                                               3c
Select and use vocabulary appropriate to          Use specific vocabulary, varying nouns, verbs     Use a developing range of adjectives, adverbs,
different text types.                             and adjectives.                                   verbs and nouns in writing to engage the reader.
Make decisions about which form of writing to     Apply what they know about form and purpose to    Use success criteria to evaluate how effective
use for a particular audience and purpose.        decide what will make their writing effective.    their writing is for its reader and purpose.
                                                                            Strand 9 (1) – Year Three
                Classroom Example                                             Classroom Example                                                   Classroom Example
                      Step 1                                                         Step 2                                                             Step 3
Classroom example: Writing Narrative (adventure                Classroom example: Writing narrative (letters)                  Classroom example: Writing narrative (play scripts)
stories)
                                                               In Phase 3 of Unit 4, children refer back to the key            Children have completed Narrative Unit 5 and performed their play
                                                                                                                               scripts based on familiar stories.
Children have written an adventure story independently         features of letters, a text type they have discussed in
and in guided writing, over several days. Their stories        prior lessons where the teacher demonstrated how to             In small groups, they reflect on the final outcomes of their writing.
will be available for other children in the class to read as   write a letter and modelled both organisation and layout.       They discuss and evaluate how successful the scripts were in light
books and on screen. Success criteria for form and                                                                             of the success criteria they set themselves at the planning stage.
                                                               During guided writing, children use the features of the
purpose were established during shared writing, based
                                                               text type to set success criteria for their own letters to an
on what they already know about the features of
                                                               author. The group agrees on a limited number of criteria                   Which criteria did they meet most successfully?
adventure stories.
                                                               to use during the writing process. Teacher guidance
                                                               ensures that these are tightly focused on the purpose                      Which were the most difficult to achieve?
After completing their own first draft, children are
                                                               and form of the children’s writing, as appropriate to the
reminded of the success criteria the class agreed when                                                                         Using a simple method of recording, each child summarises how
                                                               context for the activity.                                       effectively their play script met their own criteria for success. For
planning. They are given time to read the adventure
                                                               Example                                                         example, they shade in their degree of success for each as shown
story written by their response partner and vice versa.
                                                                                                                               below:
                                                               Children have explored the work of two or more
In pairs, they discuss how effective each of the two           favourite authors and compared different books or                                                                           N   YE
                                                                                                                                        My success criteria for a play script          ←          →
stories is for its audience. Focusing closely on one           stories by the same writer. They have written book                                                                          O    S
                                                                                                                                           based on .... (name of story).
success criterion relating to purpose, each child              reviews and discussed their personal preferences. Each                                                                  1 2 3 4 5
suggests how their partner’s first draft could be              child in the class will write a letter to their preferred       Shows the actual words characters say
improved.                                                      author, to explain their preferences and ask a question,
                                                                                                                               Tells the story in the right order
Example                                                        for example, about the way the author plans or decides
                                                               on characters and plot.                                         Builds suspense right to the end
Success criterion for PURPOSE
                                                                                                                               Action is fast-moving
The adventure story will be exciting for my readers.           In guided writing, children set the following success           Script layout for dialogue is correct
                                                               criteria for their letter to an author:
                                                                                                                               A plenary session allows the class to share and compare their
Discussion Guide                                                                                                               evaluations:
    1. Did you find the story exciting?                        Purpose
    2. Which parts, in particular, were exciting?                  1. To give information: The letter will give the                       Which success criteria were the most difficult to meet?
    3. Why?                                                        main points about which books I enjoyed most and                        Why?
    4. What made you want to keep reading?                         why.
    5. Which parts of the story could be more exciting             2. To question: The letter will ask one important                      Were the success criteria too challenging or could the
    for a reader?                                                  question about the author.                                              children have met them if they had done something
                                                                                                                                           differently?
    6. How?
    7. What needs to be changed?                               Form
    8. Does anything need to be added?                                                                                                    What did they learn about setting their own success
    9. Does anything need to be taken out?                             The letter will be organised into clear sections                   criteria for writing?
                                                                   with a paragraph for each one: an introduction,
Children use the feedback from their response partner              main points about books I enjoyed, a question
to edit and improve the final draft of their text.                 about writing and an ending/thanks.
                                                                    The letter will use a formal layout and
                                                                   language: address and date, greeting, ending
                                                                               Strand 9 (2) – Year Three
                 Classroom Example                                               Classroom Example                                                 Classroom Example
                       Step 1                                                           Step 2                                                           Step 3
Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (reports)                   Classroom example: Writing non-fiction                       Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (information texts)
                                                                   (instructions)
Children have read a range of reports, and focused on their                                                                     With a writing partner, children independently draft the text for a
precise use of vocabulary and controlled use of description. In                                                                 brochure about a holiday venue for children. The brochure is
                                                                   In Phase 3 of Primary Framework Unit 2, children write       intended to provide information about the facilities and also to
Phase 1 of Non-fiction Unit 1, the teacher demonstrates how to
                                                                   their own instructional text using the same structure that   persuade readers to book a holiday.
make notes for a report using ICT information texts as a source
of information.                                                    the teacher has demonstrated during shared writing.
                                                                   The instructional text should relate to a process the        Children collect words and phrases they think will be effective
                                                                   children are familiar with or have used recently in          persuasive devices. They use a range of ICT texts selected by the
The teacher models retrieving key information to answer a
                                                                   another curriculum area such as design and technology        teacher, such as appropriate bookmarked or saved web pages for
particular question, using an ICT text. Relevant words and
                                                                                                                                holiday resorts and online family tourist destinations. Children can
phrases are selected to be used in the report and noted, for       or science.                                                  focus particularly on headings and subheadings to limit the level of
example by creating a second document on screen or by                                                                           reading challenge if appropriate.
writing them on a whiteboard.                                      In guided writing, children collaboratively write a set of
                                                                   instructions for another child of the same age to follow,    They select, copy and paste individual words and phrases or re-
The teacher draws children's attention to topic-specific nouns,    for example, a child in another class or one in their own    type them if necessary into a new document and save this as a list
verbs and adjectives that will contribute to an accurate report                                                                 of useful persuasive words for their own ‘holiday brochure'.
and contrasts note-making with other forms of writing as the
                                                                   class who is not familiar with the process in question.
words are selected and noted, for example, by copying and                                                                       Example
pasting.                                                           After agreeing on the correct order for the instructions                          family friendly
                                                                   they compose each one in more detail. The teacher
                                                                                                                                                     delightful
Using a second ICT text containing information about the same      guides them to make precise vocabulary choices that
topic, the teacher invites children to suggest which words to      describe or explain as accurately as possible what to do                          fantastic
select. Through shared writing, the children contribute to the     at each stage. They are prompted to use correct                                   fun for children of all ages
notes and, if appropriate, suggest how to edit the notes to        technical vocabulary where appropriate.                                           luxurious
organise them into a sequence that will support writing the
report.
                                                                                                                                                     maximum adventure
                                                                   Example                                                                           world-class experiences
A follow-on shared or guided writing session makes use of the                                                                   Children use their chosen persuasive vocabulary as a starting point
notes to write a report on the same topic.                         Children are writing instructions for operating the CD       for writing their holiday brochure using ICT. Pairs can add their own
                                                                   player used during school assemblies.                        ideas and then share or even combine their electronic word lists to
Example
                                                                                                                                create a larger, more useful selection of vocabulary.
First few lines of source text:
Light is an important form of energy for living things on Earth.   First suggestion:
                                                                                                                                They can use the same document and type the additional text they
When there is no light at all, humans cannot see anything. We
                                                                           Put the power on at the plug.                        need or create a new file, cutting and pasting the words they need
see when light enters our eyes. Light always travels from a                                                                     from their list as they write:
source. It can pass through some materials but not all and         Improved version using more specific and technical
that is why we get shadows. Some surfaces reflect light.           vocabulary:                                                           This island is so family friendly you will never want to
Reflection is the reason we can see anything.                                                                                        leave.
                                                                          Connect the power by switching on the plug on
Notes
                                                                       the wall.                                                        We have small cabins as well as a big hotel and it's not
What is light?                                                                                                                       expensive.
       form of energy                                              First suggestion:                                                      There are four delightful swimming pools. Your children
       light enters our eyes                                               Press the button to turn on the CD player.               will love it here!
       travels from a source                                      Improved version using more specific and technical                     There are lots of cafés and the food is fantastic. We
       passes through materials - not all - shadows               vocabulary:                                                       only serve children's favourites and no cabbage.

         surfaces reflect
                                                                            Press the big red button on the left to turn on                If fun for children of all ages is what your family wants,
                                                                            the CD player.                                           visit us now!
         reflection
                                                   Strand 10 – Text Structure and Organisation


                                                                       Year Three


     Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                           Steps in Learning

                                                                     Step in learning 1
During Year 3, children refine
the way they organise                                                Children plan the content of each paragraph in a non-chronological report. In
                                                                     shared writing, they begin to group related material that has already been
content. They progress from
                                                                     organised into sections, and decide how the sections will be ordered, grouped
gathering related material into
                                                                     or re-grouped as paragraphs.
sections, to the deliberate use
of paragraphs to support
meaning. They sequence
material in more considered                                          Step in learning 2
                                  Group related material into
and coherent ways,                                                   In independent writing, children plan the content and order of paragraphs in an
                                  paragraphs
increasingly aligned to the                                          instructional text, using information they have grouped into sections during guided
needs and expectations of                                            writing.
their audience. This becomes
evident in the use of
connectives to signal                                                Step in learning 3
sequence, place and time                                             Children are guided in improving an ICT information text they have written
within and between                                                   independently. They evaluate the text and the choices they have made about
paragraphs.                                                          structure and organisation.


                                                                      Pupil Targets

                        2a                                                  3c                                                3c
Demonstrate clear sections in different forms of                                                       Organise ideas and related points into
                                                     Group related material into paragraphs.
writing.                                                                                               paragraphs.
                                                                                                      Strand 10 – Year Three
                        Classroom Example                                                               Classroom Example                                                            Classroom Example
                              Step 1                                                                          Step 2                                                                       Step 3
Classroom example: Writing Non-fiction (reports)
The teacher has already demonstrated how to group information for a non-            Classroom example: Writing Non-fiction (instructions)                     Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (information texts)
chronological report in another curriculum area, using several different
sources. This collection of notes, extracts and short summaries shows how           Children draft a set of instructions for an activity or procedure in      Children have researched a particular area using reference materials
related information is gathered together into sections. It is used in this lesson   another curriculum area. The instructions are for an activity that is     including ICT sources. They have decided how to present information and
as a resource for shared writing.                                                   not completely straightforward.                                           have made informed choices by using structures from different text types.
Shared writing is used to demonstrate the way that information already                                                                                        Working collaboratively, they have written an ICT-based presentation which
grouped according to content can be organised into paragraphs. The teacher                                                                                    includes different text types.
                                                                                    They plan the order and content of the paragraphs, based on
uses two shared texts to move between the original ‘section plan’ and a new         information they have already gathered and grouped into related
‘paragraph plan’ for the report.                                                    sections. They try out one another’s instructions to check that they      In guided writing, children reflect on the decisions they have made about
For example:                                                                                                                                                  the way that information is grouped and presented.
                                                                                    are clear and accurate, with a focus on the organisational devices
- a large format planning sheet shows the original information grouped into
                                                                                    that help to make the instructions clear for the person following them.
sections and a paragraph plan is drafted on-screen using a digital projector                                                                                  Teacher questioning and guidance move the focus through two different
and screen for display;                                                                                                                                       levels of response: the grouping of information (what’s included in each
- the original section plan was created using digital text extracts and notes       Children give one another feedback on how easy it was to follow the       section, chapter or screen) and the detail of information (content of each
from ICT sources; this and the new plan for paragraphs are two separate files       instructions correctly. When they have agreed where, in particular,       paragraph).
displayed at the same time using an interactive whiteboard (IWB).                   the detail was difficult to follow or understand, they discuss how the
The teacher demonstrates how to plan what will go into each paragraph in the        content or order of paragraphs could be improved, for example, by              1.    What about the amount of information on each screen? Some
report, showing that paragraphs are not necessarily the same as sections.           separating a long or complex paragraph into two or more shorter                      screens are filled with text and others include very little text to
Some sections, particularly long or complex sections, may require more than         paragraphs.                                                                          read. Is one way better than the other, or doesn’t it matter?
one paragraph in order to convey information clearly for the reader.
Children are actively involved in the decision making, as a plan for the content                                                                                   2.    The section on ‘sport in history’ and ‘sport today’ only has one
of each paragraph is created.                                                       Example                                                                              page but the page doesn’t fit on the screen. I have to scroll down
Example:Endangered species: whales                                                                                                                                       to read it all. There are six paragraphs. Why did you decide not
This large format example organises information under the headings below. It        Children have walked the alternative route to the school office from                 to split that information into two separate pages?
includes children’s notes made from a book about whales, hard copy of               their classroom while building work is underway. They have made
extracts from two websites stuck onto the appropriate sections and adhesive         notes for each stage of instructions about how to get to the office            3.    The last paragraph on this page only has one sentence. You
notelets that children used to make notes when discussing a DVD they have           during the temporary arrangements. They use their notes to draft the                 could easily have tagged it onto the end of the paragraph above
watched about endangered species.                                                   content of each paragraph.                                                           it because they’re both about keeping fit. I think I can guess why
Section plan to group information collected from reading
                                                                                                                                                                         you decided to write it that way. Can you explain your reasons?
General information about whales (information has been written directly onto
the sheet or stuck onto the paper)                                                  Para 6 last bit – hall to office
Details about whales (information has been written directly onto the sheet or
stuck onto the paper)                                                               When you get to the hall you have to decide which way to go
Why they are in danger of becoming extinct (information has been written            because the library is used for lessons sometimes. On Mondays and
directly onto the sheet or stuck onto the paper)                                    Tuesdays, open the library door and go in. The office door is straight
The teacher uses the section plan above to gather and shape information for         ahead of you but on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays go past
each paragraph in the final report. Demonstration shows how information             the library door and turn left into the corridor. The office is the
from one section provides the content for more than one paragraph. The              second door on the left.
content for each paragraph is sourced from the section plan but written in
note form, modelling the way a writer can avoid recording the same                  Edited version after paired discussion
information twice.                                                                  Para 6: If it is a Monday or Tuesday, open the library door and go in.
Paragraph plan for a non-chronological report                                       The office door is straight ahead of you.
Opening - general information                                                       Para 7: If it is a Wednesday, Thursday or Friday, go past the library
      1.    opening – whales are mammals not fish – many kinds                      door and turn left into the corridor. The office is the second door on
      2.    some kinds in danger - why?                                             the left.
Detailed description of life and habits
      3.    some different kinds of whales
      4.    habitat – they go where there is food - what they eat
      5.    blue whale: how many left, size, habitat
      6.    amazing facts about blue whales
Ending - link information to reader
      7.    one powerful fact – (e.g. might take 100 years of protection before
            blue whale is out of danger) – we can all help - what our school is
            doing for endangered animals
                                                       Strand 11 – Sentence Structure


                                                                      Year Three


     Progression Summary                Learning objectives                                          Steps in Learning

                                                                     Step in learning 1
Children begin to use
                                                                     Children focus on using verbs for effect. In shared writing, the teacher models
subordinate clauses during
                                                                     how to compose sentences for a story.
Year 3 to explain why, using
causal connectives (because,
                                                                     Through supported composition, children contribute to choosing and using verbs
so).
                                                                     carefully for precision and for their impact on their reader.
They use their growing
                                   Compose sentences using
vocabulary to make                                                   Step in learning 2
                                   adjectives, verbs and nouns for
increasingly effective,
                                   precision, clarity and impact     Children write the first part of a myth in guided writing. They focus on choosing
precise and appropriate
choices when composing                                               vocabulary (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) for maximum impact on their
sentences.                                                           reader as they compose sentences that introduce the first setting and main
                                                                     character(s).
The range of punctuation
they use independently extends                                       Step in learning 3
to include exclamation marks.
                                                                     Writing independently, children apply what they know about sentence structure
                                                                     and vocabulary. They adapt sentence structure for effect

                                                                     Pupil Targets

                        2a                                                 3c                                                3c

                                                                                                       Use a range of adjectives, adverbs, verbs and
Use interesting vocabulary varying the use of       Use a range of verbs, nouns and adjectives for
                                                                                                       nouns/noun phrases in writing and consider the
verbs for effect, keeping the tense consistent.     impact.
                                                                                                       impact on the reader.
                                                                           Strand 11 – Year Three
              Classroom Example                                             Classroom Example                                                        Classroom Example
                    Step 1                                                         Step 2                                                                  Step 3
Classroom example: Writing narrative (stories with                                                                                 Classroom example: Writing narrative (mystery stories)
                                                           Classroom example: Writing narrative (myths)                            In Phase 2 of Unit 3, children have read and discussed an extract
familiar settings)
                                                                                                                                   from a mystery story and explored different types of sentences and
Children have read stories with familiar settings and      In Phase 2 of Unit 2, children became familiar with a story map and     their effects. The teacher has demonstrated how to change the
collected vocabulary that helps describe the               the main characters for a quest myth.                                   structure of a sentence for effect.
experiences of a character in a particular setting. In                                                                             Children are asked to retell an incident from one of the mystery
Phase 2 of Unit 1, they reread and analyse, investigate    In Phase 3, the children write the first part of their own myth,        stories they have read, writing in role as one of the characters.
                                                           introducing the first setting in the quest and the main character(s).   Their aim is to retell what happened as vividly as possible, in just a
and write sentences through modelled and shared
                                                           During guided writing, visual resources provide a focus for             few sentences.
composition.                                               character description and support the children in making considered     They are given a key question as their starting point for writing.
In shared writing, the teacher models composition, using   choices about words that have the most impact on a reader.
a familiar setting as a resource. For example, a setting                                                                           Example: What happened when you went through the gate into
is displayed on an IWB LINK TO RESOURCES FOR               As they draft, they read back and reread to discuss effect. The         the garden?
UNIT 1 e.g. photos of playground and the story being       teacher guides them in using text marking as a strategy to focus on
                                                           the words in each sentence that do the most work in helping a           When their draft sentences are complete, the children are asked to
composed is also displayed as a shared text. The           reader to imagine clearly the places, characters and events in the      decide which are the big impact words in each sentence. Which
teacher rehearses sentences orally, writing and            story.                                                                  words are the ones that make this event sound really exciting and
rereading cumulatively to consider effect.                                                                                         mysterious? They use text marking to highlight the big impact word
Discussion focuses on verb choices and the way that an     As they write, the children highlight any words that have potential     or words in each sentence. For example, when writing an ICT text
author selects the best words when they are describing     impact. When they reread, they discuss alternatives for their           they change the font colour, use the underline tool or bold font.
things that happen in a setting. Alternatives for each     highlighted words and choose the most effective.                        What happened when you went through the gate into the garden?
verb are considered and the effect tried out by reading                                                                                 1.    The garden was empty and the boy had disappeared.
                                                           The teacher draws attention to the fact that the most useful words           2.    There was a bird hanging upside down from a branch.
aloud. Children contribute their own suggestions and the   for achieving impact are often the nouns, verbs, adjectives and
teacher ensures that new or adventurous vocabulary is                                                                                   3.    The bird suddenly said, “ I knew you would follow me.
                                                           adverbs.
                                                                                                                                        What’s your name?”
also introduced, particularly as more descriptive and
                                                                                                                                        4.    I was so scared that I was shaking like a leaf when I ran
emotive alternatives for common verbs such as said,                                                                                     back out through the gate.
walked, went.                                              Example
Teacher modelling also ensures consistency of verb                                                                                 Using the same strategies that the teacher modelled in a previous
                                                           The Minotaur                                                            lesson, children try out the effects of changing sentence structure,
tense.
Example                                                                                                                            making sure that their high impact words create the desired effect
                                                           The minotaur was big “Why are you here?” he asked them in a loud        of mystery.
                                                           voice. He walked towards them. Then he put his sharp axe in the         What happened when you went through the gate into the garden?
Teacher writes                                             air and made a nasty face.                                                   1.    The boy had disappeared and the garden was empty.
There was no one else in the playground. Jo was lonely.                                                                                 2.     Hanging upside down from a branch, there was a bird.
Teacher rereads                                            He went into the dark. They could hear him making horrible noises.
                                                                                                                                        3.     Suddenly, the bird said, “I knew you would follow me.
                                                           “I will never let you go,” he said
There was no one else in the playground. Jo was lonely                                                                                  What’s your name?”
– No, Jo looked lonely. That’s a better verb because it                                                                                 4.    I was so scared that when I ran back out through the
tells us a little about Jo’s appearance.                                                                                                gate I was shaking like a leaf .
Teacher rereads, edits and writes                          The minotaur was huge. “Why are you here?” he roared at them in
There was no one else in the playground. Jo looked         a thundering voice. He lurched towards them. Then he lifted his         In a plenary discussion, children share some of the changes they
                                                           razor-sharp axe in the air and made a cruel face.                       have made to improve their sentences and discuss their reasons.
lonely. She went over to the swings.                                                                                               The teacher ensures that discussion focuses on the appropriate
Teacher highlights (or underlines) 'went'                                                                                          objective for the lesson: the structure of a sentence can make a big
She went over to the swings. That verb doesn’t tell my     He slipped into the shadows. They could hear him growling               difference to the way it gives information and the effect it has.
                                                           wickedly. “I will never let you escape,” he snarled.                    Children may have noticed that an important word or phrase often
reader anything at all about how Jo moved or how she
was feeling. Can you help me think of a better verb?                                                                               acts powerfully when it is positioned at the beginning or end of a
                                                                                                                                   sentence. At the beginning of a sentence it can surprise the reader
                                                                                                                                   and positioned at the end it stands out from the other words.
                                                   Strand 9 – Creating and Shaping Texts


                                                                      Year Four


     Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                          Steps in Learning

                                                                    Step in learning 1
                                                                    Children focus on establishing a specific setting. They are guided in selecting
                                                                    and adapting information to create an authentic atmosphere and emphasise
During Year 4, children                                             historical details
develop the style of their           Show imagination through
independent writing. They             the language used to create
make increasingly informed            emphasis, humour,             Step in learning 2
choices to suit purpose and           atmosphere or suspense        Children are supported through guided writing to orchestrate setting, plot and
reader. They apply their             Use settings and              character to create momentum in a narrative. They plan how to show the way a
growing knowledge of                  characterisation to engage    character develops through the main events.
structural and presentational         readers' interest
features to enhance meaning.
                                                                    Step in learning 3
                                                                    Children develop character in more detail during independent writing. They use
                                                                    character and setting to create humour using the characteristics of playscripts.

                                                                    Pupil Targets

                       3b                                                 3b                                                 3a


Use descriptive language to establish a specific   Use adjectives and adverbs selectively to add      Develop character in more detail in narrative
setting in writing.                                detail, choosing the most appropriate.             writing.
                                                                              Strand 9 – Year Four
                Classroom Example                                             Classroom Example                                                Classroom Example
                      Step 1                                                         Step 2                                                          Step 3
Classroom example: Writing narrative (historical             Classroom example: Writing narrative (developing character)     Classroom example: Writing plays (creating humour)
settings)
                                                             Children have already planned the main features of a            Having improvised dialogue for the characters in a humorous play,
                                                             narrative (setting, main characters and key events).            children use what they have been learning about the presentational
Using historical detail they have already collected and                                                                      features of playscripts to write their own scene.
used in oral drafting, children have written their own       During shared writing and paired talk, they have
story with a historical setting.                             considered the dilemma a main character faces that              They use their previous exploration of the characters as a basis for
When their first drafts are complete, children share their   creates the complication in their own story.                    creating the dialogue and stage directions. During independent
ideas and receive feedback during guided writing. They                                                                       writing, they plan how to include humour in the things the
consider how effectively they are creating a historical      In guided writing, they discuss the decisions their main        characters say to one another and the way they interact with the
                                                             character makes when faced with a dilemma and the               setting for the scene.
setting using the details they have collected.
The teacher guides the discussion to focus on how they       way this moves the plot forward.                                          Characters              Funny things they do or say
have used each strategy (1 to 4 below) to convey the
                                                             The children plan how to use the main events, the               Jo’s mother                      Mixes up the order of words
setting and atmosphere.
                                                             setting and the way the character develops to help them                                          Says the wrong words
Creating a historical setting                                organise the chapters in their narrative. Their aim is to       kind, but her mistake over the
                                                                                                                                                              Keeps walking into the
                                                             create suspense at chapter endings. Using a simple              phone message causes Jo’s
                                                                                                                             main problem                     cupboard thinking it’s the
    1.   Use old-fashioned words and ways of speaking        story planner, they are guided in shaping the text to                                            kitchen
         for dialogue.                                       build momentum that maintains a reader’s interest.                                               Gives wrong answers to
                                                                                                                             Jo’s brother                     questions
                                                              Ch
    2.   Make sure dialogue doesn’t use modern                apt      Main events         Character            Setting      mixed-up teenager, seems
         language.                                            ers                                                            cross with Jo all the time but Trips over Jo’s toys and stands
                                                                                                           Describe new      helps Jo when everything goes on the puppy’s tail
    3.   Only mention things people wore or used in                 Pip moves to new   Pip feels nervous                     wrong
                                                                                                           house – big and
         those days.                                                house              and lost
                                                                                                           scary
                                                               1                       Pip confused, no
    4.   Describe in detail the way things were (places,                                                   Inside of bus,
                                                                    Meets bully on     friends – wonders
                                                                                                           crowded, noisy,
         buildings, everyday objects, clothing, food,               school bus         how to deal with
                                                                                                           steamy windows
         transport).                                                                   bully

                                                               2
Children are asked to offer examples they have used in
their own stories and to think about how well each
                                                               3
strategy has worked. Which ones will have the most
impact?
                                                               4
                                               Strand 10 – Text Structure and Organisation


                                                                     Year Four


     Progression Summary              Learning objectives                                          Steps in Learning


During Year 4, children begin to                                  Step in learning 1
explore ways of organising                                        Children focus independently on the beginnings of paragraphs in a recount, to
texts to improve their                                            check for cohesion through a complete text.
effectiveness for a reader.         Organise text into
When planning what to write,         paragraphs to distinguish
they apply their knowledge of        between different            Step in learning 2
text structures to help them         information, events or       Children focus on the beginnings and endings of paragraphs in an explanation
chunk ideas and information in       processes                    text through the support of shared writing. They collaboratively edit in more detail
logical or interesting ways.        Use adverbs and              for textual cohesion between one paragraph and another.
Children make progress in            conjunctions to establish
establishing textual cohesion        cohesion within paragraphs   Step in learning 3
with exploratory use of
connectives within and                                            Children are guided in the final stage of editing of a persuasion text. They reread
between paragraphs.                                               the text aloud to check for cohesion between sentences and paragraphs.


                                                                   Pupil Targets

                      3b                                                3b                                                   3a

                                                   Consider beginnings of paragraphs and begin       Use adverbs and conjunctions to build links
Create paragraphs to link and group information.
                                                   use of connectives to help structure text.        between sentences within paragraphs.
                                                                          Strand 10 – Year Four
               Classroom Example                                           Classroom Example                                            Classroom Example
                     Step 1                                                      Step 2                                                       Step 3
                                                            Classroom example: Writing non-fiction                       Classroom example: Writing non-fiction
Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (recounts)           (explanations)                                               (persuasion)

During the process of writing a newspaper article,          Shared writing is used to compose two or three short         Children have already completed their first draft of a
children work independently in pairs or small groups on     paragraphs of an explanation text such as an                 persuasion text, applying what they have learned about
editing their first draft of the recount.                   explanation of the way something works or why                the language of persuasion. During guided writing, they
                                                            something is the way it is. The example in Non-fiction       edit and refine the text to a second draft with a focus on
They share their drafts and provide feedback for one        Unit 3 (The Shirt Machine by Jon Davis) can be used for      textual cohesion.
another on the organisation and sequencing of the           this activity.
paragraphs.                                                                                                              They first check links in meaning between paragraphs to
                                                            Teacher demonstration and modelling focus on the             ensure cohesion at whole-text level. They reread the
    1.   Are the events recounted in the right order?       cohesive links between the content of one paragraph          end of each paragraph and make links between its
                                                            and the paragraph that follows it. The teacher uses text     content and the paragraph that follows. Do the
    2.   Is there a good reason for the start of each new   marking (such as highlighting, circling and joining with a   connectives suggest a logical order? (The first thing you
         paragraph?                                         line or changing font colour in a shared digital text) to    will notice ... Not only that ... Finally, we must mention
                                                            create a visual connection between the grammatical and       the wonderful ...)
The children reread aloud the first few words of each       syntactical links.
new paragraph to make sure that the order of events                                                                      They then check cohesion within paragraphs by reading
                                                            Example
being recounted is clearly signposted for a reader.                                                                      and rereading pairs of consecutive sentences. How
                                                            Humans and some other animals have a skeleton. The           does each sentence lead into the next or lead on from
They use an aide memoire of connectives as a source         skeleton is made up of bones. The bones all do               the one before? Can the meaning be made clearer?
of alternatives to choose from when they are editing.       important jobs.
The list of connectives provided can be grouped into
                                                            [Teacher draws a line to connect the highlighted words       Example
examples that serve the same purposes such as
conjunction (also, in addition to) or concession (but,      above and below.]
                                                                                                                         Exercise keeps us healthy. We need to move around
although, however, and yet).                                                                                             every day. Walking is good exercise. You should walk
                                                            For example, the ribs protect the lungs and the cranium
                                                                                                                         somewhere whenever you can.
                                                            protects the brain. Other bones have the job of helping
                                                            us to walk, pick things up or move around in different       Exercise keeps us healthy. That’s why we need to
                                                            ways. Hundreds of bones each have a special purpose,
                                                                                                                         move around every day. Walking is good exercise so
                                                            even the tiny ones.
                                                                                                                         you should walk somewhere whenever you can.
                                                            [Teacher draws a line to connect the highlighted words
                                                            above and below.]

                                                            This is why it can be dangerous to break a bone if it is
                                                            not repaired properly.
                                                      Strand 11 – Sentence Structure


                                                                     Year Four


     Progression Summary              Learning objectives                                          Steps in Learning

During Year 4, children                                            Step in learning 1
experiment with more ways of                                       In guided writing, children try out different ways of extending sentences to create
using sentences to make                                            atmosphere and to add richness of detail about character and setting.
meaning clear or to create
particular effects.              Clarify meaning and point of
                                 view by using varied sentence     Step in learning 2
They try out the effects of      structure (phrases, clauses and
                                                                   Children focus on sentence structure during guided writing. They compose both
adapting familiar clause         adverbials)
                                                                   simple and complex sentences and compare the different effects of each on
structures by changing word
                                                                   meaning and impact. They use commas where necessary within sentences to
order.                           Use commas to mark clauses,
                                                                   mark clause boundaries.
                                 and use the apostrophe for
Use of punctuation within        possession                        Step in learning 3
sentences becomes more
evidently linked with their                                        In shared writing, children explore the effects of different sentence structures.
developing attempts to clarify                                     They use adverbial clauses to enhance the persuasive effect of language. They
meaning.                                                           also use commas for lists.


                                                                   Pupil Targets

                       3b                                                3b                                                 3a


Use adjectives and adverbs to create variety and   Compose a complex sentence, using a               Begin to use commas to separate phrases and
add interest for the reader.                       subordinate clause.                               clauses in sentences.
                                                                                   Strand 11 – Year Four
                 Classroom Example                                                  Classroom Example                                              Classroom Example
                       Step 1                                                             Step 2                                                         Step 3
Classroom example: Writing narrative (extended phrases)              Classroom example: Writing narrative (sentence               Classroom example: Writing non-fiction
                                                                     structure)                                                   (persuasion)
Children have already started writing their own stories set in
imaginary worlds.                                                                                                                 Children are writing a persuasion text, such as an advert
                                                                     Children have read examples of stories from more than
                                                                                                                                  for a holiday resort or a children’s amusement park.
                                                                     one culture and are writing their own version of an event
During guided writing, they work with the teacher and/or a                                                                        Before independent writing, a shared writing session
writing partner to improve one part of their draft. They identify
                                                                     in one familiar story.
                                                                                                                                  demonstrates how to increase the persuasive effect
sentences where they can add detail that will help to create the                                                                  using adverbial clauses.
desired atmosphere or add information about character and            The children are asked to retell a significant moment
setting for their reader.                                            from one of the narratives. They create a visual image to        1.   The class discusses the most attractive
                                                                     capture that part of the story. For example, they create a            features and the teacher lists them as a shared
Examples
Children make suggestions to improve a sentence by extending         digital image using appropriate graphic software or                   text, for example:
it and try out the effects of different options. For example, they   create a still image and take a photograph that can be
                                                                     inserted into their own text.
                                                                                                                                               o    The rides
extend nouns to create noun phrases and enhance verbs by                                                                                       o    swimming pool
adding adverbial phrases.
Extending a noun phrase                                              During guided writing, they write a short paragraph that
                                                                                                                                               o    gardens
     She noticed a creature hiding in the shadows.                  retells the moment shown in the image, using more than           2.   Using shared writing strategies, the teacher
     She noticed a small, scaly creature hiding in the shadows.     one sentence structure deliberately for effect. For                   models how to focus on what children can
Using an adverbial phrase                                            example, they use a short sentence to get the reader’s                enjoy at the resort by creating adverbial
     The creature looked at her and began to speak.                 attention followed by a long sentence that provides more              clauses, for example:
     The creature looked at her in a strange way and began to       information and detail. They clarify meaning by using
      speak.                                                                                                                                   o    You will be able to play all day on the
                                                                     commas to mark grammatical boundaries within
                                                                                                                                               rides.
                                                                     sentences.
Children make use of any effective phrases they remember                                                                                       o Children can use the swimming pool
from oral drafting or from their reading.                                                                                                      and playground for hours.
                                                                     Example                                                                   o The gardens reach all the way to the
When they have chosen their preferred version of each
                                                                     The battle began. Hanuman, Rama and Lakshman                              sea.
sentence, the children reread both versions aloud to check that
they have achieved the right effect. Longer sentences are not        fought bravely but Ravana was winning. Rama, who                 3.   The teacher also models and reinforces the
automatically the most effective option and children may decide      was the bravest of all, used a special bow and arrow to               use of commas within lists, for example:
that the original, shorter sentence is best.                         shoot Ravana. Sita was rescued!
                                                                     Simple sentence (a single clause), compound sentence
                                                                                                                                               o    There are four different cafés selling
For example,
                                                                                                                                                    salads, hot food, sandwiches or ice
                                                                     with two coordinated clauses, a complex sentence with
    They saw a palace up above them in the sky.                                                                                                    creams.
                                                                     a subordinate clause, simple sentence
    They saw a palace with glittering windows up above them
     in the sky.
    You will find a wooden box in the cottage.                      Reflection on their writing during guided writing (or a
    You will find a wooden box in the cottage at the edge of        plenary) focuses on the range of different sentence
     the forest.                                                     types the children have chosen to use, and their effects.
    We came upon a stranger.
    We came upon a stranger who looked just like me.
As they edit their writing to compose longer sentences in
some cases, children are guided in deciding whether
they need to add commas within a sentence to make the
meaning clear.
                                                      Strand 9 – Creating and Shaping Texts


                                                                         Year Five


       Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                             Steps in Learning

                                                                      Step in learning 1
                                                                      During shared writing, the teacher models how to make stylistic choices for a
                                                                      poem. Through collaborative drafting and reflection on word choices the poem is
Children in Year 5 develop                                            amended to achieve a particular style.
their skills of critical
reflection in relation to their
                                                                      Step in learning 2
own writing. They make
                                    Reflect independently and         In guided writing, children reflect on the way that structural features affect style.
progress in evaluating their
                                    critically on their own writing   They edit their writing during the writing process, before going on to create a
outcomes both during and
                                    and edit and improve it           final draft.
after writing. Children build on
their knowledge of text types
and language choices to edit                                          Step in learning 3
and improve their writing.
                                                                      In independent writing, children reflect on the success of their own poems after
                                                                      writing, evaluating how effectively they have taken style into account. They use
                                                                      their original success criteria to propose one or two specific ways they could
                                                                      improve their poems on another occasion.

                                                                       Pupil Targets

                         3a                                                  3a                                                   4c
                                                     Use adventurous vocabulary (including figurative     Use a range of adjectives, adverbs, powerful verbs
Create characters in writing using action,
                                                     language) to describe the setting, mood and          and phrases selectively in order to amuse,
description and dialogue.
                                                     characters in narrative writing.                     entertain, persuade and inform the reader.
Edit and improve word choices, considering the       Edit and improve elements of writing, appropriate    Evaluate writing against success criteria and make
audience and purpose.                                to a consistent style and viewpoint.                 changes considering the audience and purpose.
                                                                              Strand 9 – Year Five
               Classroom Example                                              Classroom Example                                             Classroom Example
                     Step 1                                                         Step 2                                                        Step 3
                                                              Classroom example: Writing poetry (narrative
Classroom example: Writing poetry (poetic style)                                                                             Classroom example: Writing poetry (performance
                                                              poems)
                                                                                                                             poetry)
                                                              Children have read and discussed the narrative poem,
Children have already explored the features of a
                                                              ‘The Highwayman’ by Alfred Noyes and have prepared
particular form of poetry (e.g. rhyming stanzas or free                                                                      Children have written in pairs, rehearsed and presented
                                                              a performance of one part of the plot.
verse) through reading, discussion, comparison and                                                                           their own performance poems. A digital video camera
                                                              In guided writing, children create an additional verse to
analysis of example poems. They have discussed which                                                                         has been used to record their live performances.
                                                              supplement the narrative, for example by providing more
ingredients contribute most to a poet’s distinctive style.
                                                              detail for one part of the poem or by providing an             Working independently with their original writing partner,
Children focus on poetry by a writer whose individual         alternative telling of one part of the action by a different   children view their recorded performance. Two pairs
style they have become familiar with through reading          character.                                                     watch their performances together, as joint response
and discussion. The teacher uses modelled writing and         They focus on the way that the structure of the new            partners. The two pairs use their original success criteria
collaborative drafting to write a poem, borrowing from        verse enhances style and impact.                               for the poem’s style to reflect on the success of their
and adapting the poet’s style.                                                                                               own outcomes. They decide on two or three ways in
                                                              Example
                                                                                                                             which they could improve their text the next time they
Children contribute to stylistic choices, to improve on the   A traveller was staying at the inn. He was watching from       write a performance poem.
first ideas drafted by the teacher as a shared text. They     the shadows while unsaddling his horse in the stables.
suggest and discuss the effects of words and phrases          Children write an additional verse to reveal this new          Children make a note of the main points to share in the
that will contribute to the style they aim to achieve.        information.                                                   plenary session.

The teacher makes changes to the vocabulary and               What will be the content of your new verse?
rereads aloud to encourage reflection about the style         e.g. A tired traveller was stabling his horse. He saw          Example
achieved through word choices.                                Tim’s angry face and heard him whispering about
                                                              revenge.                                                       Success criteria for our RAP style performance poem:
Example
The teacher demonstrates how to write in the style of         What structure is needed to fit with the rest of the               1.   The pattern of the RAP rhythm goes all the way
Jack Prelutsky and decides to write a poem in the first       poem?                                                                   through the poem.
person, the voice of a child recounting a humorous            e.g. six lines (lines 4 and 5 shorter)
event.                                                        rhyme pattern: AA B CC (same word) B                               2.   The same rhymes are repeated several times.
During shared writing, discussion focuses on the most                                                                            3.   The lines are all short with same number of
significant features of Jack Prelutsky’s style that can be    What are your first ideas?
                                                              Children are reminded that the biggest impact in each                   beats.
copied, such as his use of uncommon vocabulary,
technical words and longer words that are less                verse of the original poem usually lies in the refrain-like
                                                              quality of lines 4 and 5. They are asked to think about            4.   The beat of the music matches the rhythm of
frequently used by children, even when he is writing a                                                                                the lines.
humorous poem (venerable/replete/mystified/elemental).        the most important part of their new verse and how it
                                                              could be written for lines 4 and 5, to achieve the most
                                                              impact, using a repeated word at the line end. They note       Children reflect on how far they have achieved each of
The teacher drafts the first two or three lines and reads                                                                    the four aspects of RAP style listed above.
them aloud to try out the effect, using some vocabulary       or draft any ideas they already have, whether they are
that can easily be replaced with more adventurous             lines or just words at this stage:
words. Children share suggestions for alternative word        He heard the ostler’s angry whisper,
choices and reread to consider the effect of any              The ostler’s cruel, jealous whisper
changes.                                                      Children are guided in drafting the remaining four lines.

The poem can be completed during guided and
independent writing.
                                                   Strand 10 – Text Structure and Organisation


                                                                         Year Five


     Progression Summary                    Learning objectives                                       Steps in Learning

                                                                      Step in learning 1
                                                                      In shared writing, children plan how to organise sections in a set of instructions
                                                                      that do not have a simple linear sequence.
During Year 5, children’s
developing understanding of
the purposes and effects of
                                                                      Step in learning 2
paragraphing is reflected in
the structure and                  Experiment with the order of       During the process of writing a recount, children are guided in making decisions
organisation of their written      sections and paragraphs to         about the organisation of content by comparing the effects of changing the
texts. They begin to organise      achieve different effects          sequence of paragraphs.
content within paragraphs for
effect, including the use of                                          Step in learning 3
appropriate opening and
closing sentences.                                                    In independent writing, children write a commentary on an issue that is important
                                                                      to them. With a writing partner, they decide which points are the strongest and
                                                                      most persuasive elements of their argument and plan the order of paragraphs
                                                                      to reflect this.


                                                                       Pupil Targets

                        3a                                                  3a                                                 4c

Organise writing into different sections,             Organise ideas into clear sections/paragraphs     Use connecting words and phrases to give order
considering the purpose and audience.                 with an appropriate opening and closing.          and structure to writing.
                                                                                          Strand 10 – Year Five
                  Classroom Example                                                      Classroom Example                                                           Classroom Example
                        Step 1                                                                 Step 2                                                                      Step 3
Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (instructions)                   Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (recounts)                        Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (persuasive writing)
The teacher models the planning process for a set of                    Children are writing a recount for a newspaper report. The               Writing independently with a partner, children are writing a
instructions that do not have a straightforward linear sequence         event they are recounting could be a real, local event or an             persuasive commentary on an issue that is important to them, to
and children contribute to the decision-making about where to           imagined incident that took place during drama sessions. They            convey their own strongly held opinions.
position each section. The instructions will be presented as an         have gathered evidence from several different sources (such              Pairs discuss the ideas they have drafted already and decide on the
ICT text that will be navigated on-screen.                              as onlookers, an expert witness, people involved in the                  ‘persuasion value’ of the main point to be made and justified in each
Building on what children already know about linear instructions        incident, the police) and written a first draft.                         paragraph.
(First ... Then ...Finally ...) the teacher models the first stage of   In guided writing, children explain the order they have each             The points they wish to make have already been sequenced
planning by defining any sections that can be organised                 decided on for the content of their recount by summarising               logically, but children consider whether they could increase the
sequentially and creates a separate file for each, using an             what each paragraph includes.                                            impact of their argument by re-ordering the paragraphs, for example
interactive whiteboard to display all the files.                        They are guided in comparing the different ways they have                by moving more powerful points to the beginning or the end, or by
Example                                                                 each organised the same, available information for their                 linking several closely related points to build momentum in the
Planning an on-screen manual that provides the instructions for         readers and the effect this has on the whole text. For example,          middle of the text.
using an adventure game                                                 they are asked to consider what effect the choice of content for         Example
Stage 1                                                                 the first paragraph has (the official story from the police, the                        Paragraph's main points
The teacher notes possible titles and order for sections as             boy’s recount of what happened or what the driver of the car
follows, in four separate files.                                        has to say about the event).                                             1. We’re already allowed to use the library on wet
                                                                                                                                                                                                           3
How to load the program                                                 Children decide if they want to make any changes to the                  lunchtimes.
How to get started                                                      sequence of paragraphs when they continue writing.                       2. Reading at lunchtime is an educational and fun
                                                                                                                                                                                                           10
How to use the game                                                     Example                                                                  activity.
How to close down                                                                                                                                3. Even when it’s not raining there is not much to
                                                                               Child A                 Child B                 Child C                                                                     5
Stage 2                                                                                                                                          do outside.
The teacher then models the next stage of planning by adding                                     boy – crossing the     driver’s statement –
notes for sections that do not have an obvious sequential               police statement –       main street, dog ran   dog ran out of park,     4. Reading is a safe activity but outdoor games can
                                                                                                                                                                                                     5
position.                                                               car crashed on main      from park onto road,   braked just in time –    lead to accidents.
Tips for playing the game: how to move around the adventure             street, boy injured      car stopped suddenly   boy on crossing – life   5. It is our school so it is our library – why can’t we
                                                                                                 – broke my leg         saved                                                                              9
safely                                                                                                                                           use it whenever we want to?
“And some players might decide they’d like to know how to               witnesses – a dog                                                        6. Teachers are allowed to read in the library at
score points and avoid losing points.”                                  ran from park, no        boy’s mother – took                                                                                       8
                                                                                                                        police statement –       lunchtime so it’s not fair.
What to do if you get stuck at any point                                lead, car almost ran     him to hospital –
                                                                                                                        car crashed on main      7. It would leave more space outside for games.           2
“We’d better include instructions that tell players what to do if       over a boy – big         blame the dog’s
                                                                                                                        street, boy injured
something goes wrong or if they forget how to play. But they            crowd gathered, boy      owner
                                                                        taken to hospital                                                        When they have decided on the most effective sequence for the
won’t need to read these instructions unless something does                                                                                      content, children can complete the writing process independently,
go wrong.”                                                                                       witnesses – a dog      witnesses – a dog        considering how to link their main points to create a complete,
Stage 3                                                                 councillor – says        ran from park, no      ran from park, no        persuasive text.
Through whole-class discussion, options are explored for                problems with stray      lead, car almost ran   lead, car almost ran
positioning the first non-sequential section above. The                 dogs in town for         over a boy – big       over a boy – big
discussion includes ICT options such as adding hyperlinks that          years                    crowd gathered, boy    crowd gathered, boy
will allow a section to be accessed and read at more than one                                    taken to hospital      taken to hospital
point in the manual and bookmarking that directs the reader to          driver’s statement -
                                                                                                 councillor – says      councillor – says
another section.                                                        dog ran out of park,
                                                                                                 problems with stray    problems with stray
Children discuss in pairs their suggestions for managing the            braked just in time –
                                                                                                 dogs in town for       dogs in town for
remaining two non-linear sections and share their ideas. The            boy on crossing – life
                                                                                                 years                  years
teacher models inserting hyperlinks to turn the word processed          saved
plan into an interactive text by adding links to aid navigation.
The whole class discusses the best ways to support a reader’s
                                                                            Child A: Focuses on the problem with stray dogs and does
                                                                             not emphasise the personal story of the boy.
navigation around the sections to be included in the manual.
                                                                            Child B: Focuses on the boy’s story from the outset but does
                                                                             not emphasise the role of the driver.
                                                                            Child C: Tells the driver’s story, backed up by evidence
                                                                             from others but does not focus on the boy.
                                                     Strand 11 – Sentence Structure


                                                                       Year Five


   Progression Summary                Learning objectives                                         Steps in Learning

Children’s use of simple and                                      Step in learning 1
complex sentences in Year 5
becomes increasingly                                              In shared writing, the teacher demonstrates how to write in the style of a
appropriate to text-types,                                        familiar author, using sentence length and structure to achieve a particular
purposes and audiences in                                         effect.
their independent writing.
                                                                  .
They begin to vary the length    Adapt sentence construction to
and structure of sentences       different text-types, purposes   Step in learning 2
for effect, such as using        and readers
subordinate clauses to add                                        In guided writing, children are supported in adapting their writing for a different
                                                                  purpose and effect. They achieve the style of folk stories from other cultures by
detail.                          Punctuate sentences
                                                                  using the shorter and informal sentence structures of spoken language.
                                 accurately, including using
Children make progress in        speech marks and apostrophes
using punctuation more
consistently to mark                                              Step in learning 3
grammatical boundaries and                                        Through shared composition, children write the opening lines of a multimedia film
clarify meaning, including the                                    narrative that combines images and words. They construct complex sentences
use of apostrophes,                                               that work effectively together with the visual images that complement them.
exclamation marks and the
punctuation of speech.

                                                                      Pupil Targets

                      3a                                                   3a                                              4c


Use dialogue, layout and punctuation with        Use different sentence types, including simple     Can use subordinate clauses to add detail to
increased accuracy                               and complex sentences in writing.                  complex sentences.
                                                                            Strand 11 – Year Five
                Classroom Example                                           Classroom Example                                                Classroom Example
                      Step 1                                                               Step 2                                                  Step 3
                                                              Classroom example: Writing narrative (stories from            Classroom example: Writing narrative (film narrative)
Classroom example: Writing narrative (style)
                                                              other cultures)
                                                              Children have read stories from a range of different
Children have explored aspects of a significant author’s                                                                    In Narrative Unit 5, children are writing a final version of the
                                                              cultures and traditions. They have discussed the ways         short film The Piano, as an extra feature on a special edition
style by comparing the way the writer uses language for
                                                              that authors use language to achieve a common style in        DVD. They create a multimedia presentation of the narrative.
characterisation in several different stories. In Phase 4
                                                              this genre, with particular reference to their use of
of Narrative Unit 1, they begin writing a new story                                                                         Children have already selected key images from the visual text
                                                              sentences that reflect the informal structures of talk.
inspired by a favourite book.                                                                                               to tell their version of the narrative. They have learned how to
                                                              In guided writing, children begin the process of writing a
                                                              familiar folk tale from the viewpoint of one of the main      import the images into a presentation program so that they can
The teacher uses modelling and collaborative writing to                                                                     create a storyboard.
scaffold composition. The children write the first few        characters. They write in role and their outcome will be a
lines of the opening of their story together.                 retelling that is read aloud, in role, to the rest of the     Before the children begin adding the text to their storyboard of
                                                              class.                                                        visual images in independent writing, the teacher demonstrates
They focus on introducing the main character(s) using         They are guided in discussing how to portray the              how to compose and add text to a screen showing an image.
action, description and/or dialogue. As each sentence is      character’s in the kind of language they use to tell their
composed, they discuss how the author in question             version of the story. Each child makes their own notes        The focus for shared writing and whole-class discussion is the
                                                              during the discussion, to capture first ideas about           composition of sentences to accompany each image. The
would have constructed it. The teacher models correct                                                                       teacher models the editing of sentences by adding subordinate
layout and punctuation for dialogue.                          sentence structure.
                                                              Example                                                       clauses that provide detail, enhancing the visual images and
                                                                                                                            contributing to the emotive mood of the text.
Children are encouraged to refer back to particular           The hare who was clever but lazy (Africa)
sentences at the beginning of the author’s story as           Original text the children read:                              1. What do the images contribute and what does each
                                                              Hare was hungry and he knew he needed to plant a              sentence contribute to the story?
specific examples. The teacher ensures that the focus                                                                       2. What detail can we add to give the story even more impact?
for composition is on sentence structure and length.          crop very soon but he couldn’t plant anything in his field.
                                                              It was full of weeds. He thought for a while. That was
Example                                                                                                                     Example
                                                              when he had a very good idea.
Teacher:                                                      Child's first draft of a retelling in role as the hare (for   Children have selected the image below as the first in their
"Let’s look again at the very first sentence of our two       reading aloud in role):                                       storyboard.
favourite Allan Ahlberg stories. They both introduce the      My name is Hare and I would like to tell you a funny
main character right away. What are the sentences like?       story. A few weeks ago I was feeling very hungry. I had
Short or long? What makes them both so long? Yes, he          no food and my field was full of weeds. I wanted to plant
gives the reader more information, more detail, by            something nice and green to eat but I didn’t want to
building up extra clauses.                                    spend all day weeding.
"So, we’ve written: 'Long ago, a girl was walking by the      Child's guided/edited version introducing sentence
                                                                                                                            First draft of sentences to accompany this image
river.'                                                       structures from spoken language:                              The old man was all alone. He was playing the piano. He
                                                              Greetings! My name’s Hare. and I would like to tell you a     started to remember.
"Allan Ahlberg really piles on the information in the first   funny story. Here’s a funny story. I was so hungry that       Sentences edited during teacher demonstration.
sentence sometimes, doesn’t he? It makes the text             day. So hungry! Not a bite to eat. My field was empty.        The old man was all alone. He was playing the piano when
sound quite funny right from the beginning. How would         Just weeds. Weeds everywhere. Looked like a hot job.          pictures began to flash into his mind. He had played this music
                                                              Phew!                                                         many times so he started to remember.
he extend that sentence to tell us more about the girl or                                                                   Children contribute to sentence composition for the next image
the setting? "                                                I had no food and my field was full of weeds. Something
                                                                                                                            and are encouraged to give their reasons for adding the detail
                                                              had to be planted. Something green. Something juicy.
                                                                                                                            in the complex sentences they suggest.
Children contribute their suggestions for sentences that      Something like carrots. Know what I mean?
echo the author’s style and are invited to add them to        Yummmmmmmm. I wanted to plant something nice and
the shared text, prompted if necessary to present and         green to eat but I didn’t want to spend all day weeding.
punctuate any direct speech accurately.
                                                   Strand 9 – Creating and Shaping Texts


                                                                        Year Six


     Progression Summary               Learning objectives                                              Steps in Learning

During Year 6, children apply                                       Step in learning 1
their knowledge to create
texts that present more                                             Supported through guided writing, children adapt a text they have written to make
complex and extended                                                it suitable for a different purpose. They focus on the use of persuasive language
challenges across an                                                to establish and maintain a single point of view.
extended range of writing
experiences for different                                           Step in learning 2
readers and purposes more         In non-narrative, establish,
effectively.                      balance and maintain              During independent writing, children work with a response partner to discuss
Children’s language choices       viewpoints                        and edit their own draft of a balanced and reasoned discussion text embracing
develop increased precision                                         two different points of view.
and subtlety as they
orchestrate what they know                                          Step in learning 3
about a wide range of textual
features in combination to                                          Children write a multimodal ICT text independently. They focus on combining a
influence the style, meaning                                        range of persuasive devices, including language and images.
and impact of their writing

                                                                     Pupil Targets

                       4b                                                  4a                                                    4a
                                                                                                         Use varied vocabulary to create effects
                                                    Use precise vocabulary (including figurative
Establish and demonstrate a consistent                                                                   appropriate to the form and purpose of the
                                                    language) and sentence variation to contribute to
viewpoint in different forms of writing.                                                                 writing. Maintain style (e.g. impersonal, formal)
                                                    the effectiveness of the writing.
                                                                                                         throughout the piece of writing.
                                                                                        Strand 9 – Year Six
                  Classroom Example                                                     Classroom Example                                               Classroom Example
                        Step 1                                                                Step 2                                                          Step 3
Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (persuasion)                    Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (argument)              Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (applying a range of
                                                                                                                                      persuasive devices)
Transition unit - The Highwayman
                                                                       After completing their first draft of a discussion text that
Children are re-purposing their final piece of writing from Year 5                                                                    In Non-fiction Unit 4, children use ICT to create a multimodal guided
                                                                       includes two alternative points of view on a controversial     tour advertising a family theme park, real or imagined. They aim to
to create a text for oral presentation on the main persuasive
                                                                       issue, children discuss and edit their writing with the        combine words, images and sound in a way that will encourage
points of an argument. They aim to persuade the judge to
reopen the case.                                                       support of a response partner.                                 tourists of all ages to visit.

                                                                       Using two different colours to highlight the two different     They select from and combine as wide a range of resources as
In guided writing workshops, children revisit their original text to
                                                                       viewpoints, children mark the text to indicate the             possible, including (as appropriate) their own text files,
adapt it for the same audience (the judge) but a different
                                                                                                                                      photographs, digital images of drawings and diagrams, audio files
context (a brief oral presentation). They identify the main and        specific words and phrases that make each view                 of outdoor or indoor sounds, e.g. children having fun in a
most significant points of evidence in their original text,            evident.                                                       playground, water lapping, music, spoken commentary.
selecting and adapting the language. They highlight information
and evidence that strongly present and justify the argument            They use the marked text to reflect on how effectively                     Success criteria for writing could include:
that the case should be reopened.
                                                                       they have balanced the main points on both sides of the                          Persuasive devices used
                                                                                                                                                                                                          √
                                                                       argument. When the highlighted words are compared,                                     in my draft
They are guided in reorganising their highlighted statements
into a succinct and persuasive text that establishes and               are both sides of argument given equal weighting?              Persuasive phrases (e.g. surely, without a doubt, no one
maintains their point of view for oral presentation to the judge.                                                                     could disagree)

                                                                       Example                                                        Audience specific: information that will appeal to adults
Example: The Highwayman                                                                                                               Audience specific: information that will appeal to young
                                                                       The school day should start and finish earlier.                people
             Why the case should be reopened
                                                                                                                                      Audience specific: information that will appeal to children
   Main points
                       Evidence
                                      Persuasive oral language
                                                                       Words we marked in the text.
                     justification                                                                                                    Powerful, interesting vocabulary
no evidence         caught on the   Clearly, my Lord, the                           For                       Against                 Persuasive audio file included (or text for commentary to
against the         highway, not at evidence is merely                                                                                read)
                                                                       definitely                   absolutely disastrous
highwayman          the inn         circumstantial.
                                                                                                                                      Images and text work well together
                                                                       some people think            very unhelpful because
                                     It is obvious that Tim had an                                                                    Range of images (photographs, diagrams, tables, lists)
                                     overwhelming motive to get        certainly                    really important
                                                                                                                                      User friendly (easy to read, navigate, find specific information)
                                     rid of his rival.                 excellent idea               awful nuisance
Tim the ostler
                    was jealous,                                                                                                      Varied layout
had a motive to                                                                                     inconvenient
                    loved Bess       Real justice must surely          helpful
lie
                                     investigate whether the
                                     soldiers were involved in the
                                                                       strongly support             the most difficult
                                     crime!                            handy for parents            everyone says that
Highwayman did
not have motive     he loved her
to shoot Bess
                                                 Strand 10 – Text Structure and Organisation


                                                                        Year Six


      Progression Summary                Learning objectives                                         Steps in Learning


As they develop flexibility in                                       Step in learning 1
the style of their writing during                                    In shared writing, the teacher models how to use a plan based on the typical
Year 6, children apply their                                         structure of a particular genre. Children contribute to the writing process as a
knowledge of text types and                                          plan is developed and paragraphs are drafted to create a short story.
structures to make
independent decisions about
                                                                     Step in learning 2
the most effective ways to
                                    Use varied structures to shape   Children make independent decisions about the most effective narrative
shape content for a range of
                                    and organise text coherently     structures for one particular genre. They draft two alternative versions to make
audiences and purposes.
                                                                     comparisons.
Children’s management of
paragraphs to control pace or                                        Step in learning 3
emphasise particular content in
fiction and non-fiction texts                                        Children independently plan how to shape and organise a more complex,
becomes more secure.                                                 interactive or extended narrative structure.


                                                                     Pupil Targets

                        4b                                                 4b                                                  4a
Use connecting words and phrases within and         Use paragraphs and sections to organise the        Organise writing to include a clear opening and
between paragraphs to organise writing in           content and support the purpose of writing in      closing and develop material in each
different text types.                               different text types.                              section/paragraph.
                                                                                     Strand 10 – Year Six
                 Classroom Example                                                   Classroom Example                                                    Classroom Example
                       Step 1                                                              Step 2                                                               Step 3
Classroom example: Writing narrative (short stories)
                                                                    Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (narrative                   Classroom example: Writing narrative (extended narrative
Children have already discussed and compared a range of                                                                                 structures)
                                                                    structure: biography)
narrative structures used for short stories in different genres
they have read.
                                                                    Children have made notes on biographical information about a        Children have analysed the structure of an adventure text, for
In shared writing, the teacher demonstrates how a basic                                                                                 example, a non-linear quest-type adventure game, using devices
structural plan can support the writing process for a short story   person, from a variety of sources.
                                                                                                                                        such as story-boarding and story mapping to clarify its organisation,
in a familiar genre such as fantasy or a historical story.                                                                              its possible reading pathways and their various outcomes.
Using a simple plan (such as a flow chart or story map) the         Writing independently, children use their notes to compile a
teacher reminds children about the common structure of this         short biography suitable for a particular purpose and audience,
                                                                                                                                        Working individually or in writing groups, children create the
narrative type.                                                     such as the home page of the person’s website or the
                                                                                                                                        narrative for an adventure game or interactive story based on an
                                                                    introduction to a magazine article.
                                                                                                                                        extended and/or complex structure, such as a non-linear adventure.
Example 1:                                                                                                                              They select from and apply the structures and strategies
Introduction - main character: 1850 – Janet, poor and hungry,       Children apply what they know about the different effects of        exemplified and discussed during their prior reading and analysis of
collects firewood to sell                                           narrative structure to plan a draft of two alternative versions,    this genre.
Development - Janet finds a coin – will buy food                    using either a paragraph plan or a simple map of the content.
Complication - old beggar woman on the street, falls over           Each version should use a different structure for the               During the writing process, children/groups combine to share and
Janet helps the old beggar woman who says she is hungry             biographical account.                                               reflect on the ways they are shaping their text. Discussion focuses
Janet gives up her coin                                                                                                                 on the decisions they have made about shaping and controlling a
Resolution - That night, beggar returns in fine clothes. She        During independent or supported writing as appropriate, they        narrative that is not straightforward.
wasn’t really a beggar.                                             discuss which structure is the most effective for the genre
Janet’s kindness is rewarded.                                       (biography) and the purpose (e.g. informing fans on a celebrity     1.   Which shape or narrative structure have you decided to
The teacher models drafting the first, short paragraph and the      website).                                                                use? Why?
first sentence of the second paragraph. Selection of connecting
words and phrases is emphasised [highlighted or highlighted so      Children use their preferred text structure during the next stage   2.   How do the chapters/sections/screens fit into this structure?
that cohesion within and between paragraphs is evident.             of their writing in non-fiction Unit 1.
                                                                                                                                        3.   Are the beginning and end set as fixed points for the
Example 2:                                                                                                                                   reader/user?
Teacher’s draft of paragraphs 1 and 2                               Example: Britain since 1930
In a few hours the bells would ring in the new year, 1950. It was                                                                       4.   Where is the scene set and the characters introduced?
still snowing but Janet had to find more firewood to sell if she    My great grandfather
was going to eat that night.                                                                                                            5.   Are the events organised in chronological order?
That’s why she was alone by the river, a small girl wearing only    Version 1 – simple order of events – chronological
thin rags and a tattered bonnet.                                    Paragraph 1: childhood/poverty, moving to London                    6.   What happens to develop the action?
                                                                    Paragraph 2: school and learning a trade
Connecting devices to emphasise                                     Paragraph 3: outbreak of war, in the army                           7.   Where is the complication and is there more than one?
In a few hours the bells would ring in the new year, 1950. It was   Paragraph 4: great-granny gets the bad news telegram on the
still snowing, but Janet had to find more firewood to sell if she   same day that grandma was born                                      8.   How does the tension or suspense build?
was going to eat that night.
That's why she was alone by the river, a small girl wearing only
thin rags and a tattered bonnet.                                    Version 2 – begins at the end – how his life ended
Collaborative writing is used to complete the second and third      Paragraph 1: great-granny excited about her baby being born –
paragraphs. Children are encouraged to select and discuss the       the telegram arrives, looks at photo of her husband (my great-
merits of a wide range of connecting words to begin sentences       grandfather)
in keeping with the text type.                                      Paragraph 2: back to his early days – summarise his hopes for
Plenary discussion focuses on the varied authorial decisions        future: childhood /poverty, moving to London, school and
children made about the best way to begin each paragraph that       learning a trade
develops their version of the story.                                Paragraph 3: outbreak of war, in the army
                                                                    Paragraph 4: more information about the war and where he
                                                                    went, where he was killed in battle as the ending.
                                                    Strand 11 – Sentence Structure


                                                                    Year Six


   Progression Summary                 Learning objectives                                        Steps in Learning

                                                                 Step in learning 1
                                                                 In shared writing, children adapt a biographical text to change the viewpoint.
                                                                 Writing in role, they edit sentence structure for effect, to create bias or shift
During Year 6, children make
more effective and deliberate                                    emphasis
choices about a wide range of
sentence structures to create Express subtle distinctions of     Step in learning 2
a variety of effects.         meaning, including hypothesis,     With the support of guided writing, children create a script to report on a news
                              speculation and supposition, by    item, managing both clarity of information and balanced viewpoint. They focus
Their independent writing     constructing sentences in          on language selection and sentence structure to handle the differences between
shows more sustained,         varied ways                        facts, hypothesis, speculation and supposition in their report.
accurate use of punctuation
for both meaning and
particular emphasis.                                             Step in learning 3
                                                                 Children independently apply what they know about different sentence types,
                                                                 using a range of clause structures in both simple and complex sentences to
                                                                 explore issues.

                                                                  Pupil Targets

                       4b                                              4b                                                   4a
Use subordinate clauses in writing to add
                                                 Manipulate the subordinate clauses in a            Use a variety of simple and complex sentences
relevant detail to complex sentences and
                                                 sentence to achieve different effects.             in writing to have an effect on the reader.
consider impact.
                                                                                      Strand 11 – Year Six
                 Classroom Example                                                    Classroom Example                                                     Classroom Example
                       Step 1                                                               Step 2                                                                Step 3
                                                                    Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (journalistic                  Classroom example: Writing poetry (exploring issues)
Classroom example: Writing non-fiction (biography)
                                                                    writing)
Using an extract from a biography the class has either read or
written, the teacher uses shared writing to demonstrate how to                                                                            In a series of independent writing sessions, children write their
edit or re-write the text to change the viewpoint. How would the    As part of their work on Non-fiction Unit 2 - Journalistic writing,   own poems in response to an issue they have discussed
content change if the writer was someone who knew the               the children have discussed and explored a news incident              previously.
subject of the biography? Content is added or removed,              using role-play and drama. They have re-read and analysed
vocabulary is changed and sentences are edited to convey the        journalistic news texts in both written and aural formats and         They select from, and use, techniques modelled previously in
viewpoint of a particular writer. Demonstration reveals how         identified key language features as preparation for writing.          their reading of poems about important issues. In particular,
small changes in sentence structure, in particular, can shift                                                                             they focus on the links between sentence structure and effect,
emphasis or subtly affect meaning.                                  In guided writing, children draft the script for a radio news         for example, comparing the different effects of short, simple
                                                                    report about the incident. During writing, they are guided in         one-line sentences to convey powerful feelings and longer,
Example                                                             careful construction of sentences to write clear, factual             complex sentences to create a flow of meaning across more
Using a biography of Henry VIII that the children have read         information and avoid speculating, for example, about who was         than one line.
during history lessons, the teacher adapts an extract of the text   responsible for the incident or what might have caused it.
to change the viewpoint to that of Catherine Parr.                                                                                        They also consider the way that sentence punctuation works in
King Henry VIII had six wives. Two of them were executed.                                                                                 conjunction with poetic features, such as line length and
                                                                    Example                                                               rhythm, to support meaning.
His marriage to Catherine of Aragon, his first wife, was annulled
and he married Anne Boleyn, a lady in the court.                    The pedestrian believes the driver braked suddenly.
Teacher demonstration                                                                                                                     Example
                                                                    It is believed that the driver braked suddenly.
"King Henry VIII had six wives."
                                                                    (Change active to passive to mask the agent..)                        Simple sentences are powerful because a short statement
King Henry VIII had no less than six wives.
                                                                                                                                          emphasises the key words.
(Expand phrase to suggest viewpoint.)
King Henry VIII, who was a talented but selfish man, had no         A number of witnesses who saw the accident happen were
less than six wives.                                                interviewed by police officers who talked with anyone who was         e.g. Pollution is destroying our world.
(Insert subordinate clause to add bias.)                            there.
"Two of them were executed. "                                                                                                             New lines can separate clauses visually and this helps make
He executed two of them.                                            A number of witnesses who saw the accident happen were                meaning clear:
(Change passive to active to suggest that Henry was                 interviewed by police officers. who talked with anyone who was
responsible.)                                                       there.                                                                You throw your litter on the floor - [first clause]
He executed two of them because he was impatient to marry           (Remove subordinate clause to clarify/simplify content and
someone else.                                                       remove confusion – repetition of who.).                               but you never think about pollution. - [second (coordinated)
(Add subordinate clause to add detail and show biased                                                                                     clause]
viewpoint.)
                                                                                                                                          You add a little to the mountain of waste - [first (main) clause]
Talk for writing
Working with a partner for a few minutes, children discuss how                                                                            because you throw without thinking - [second (subordinate)
they could edit the next few sentences in the same way to                                                                                 clause]
change the viewpoint of the author. Writing collaboratively,
teacher and children discuss their suggestions and edit the rest                                                                          so think more and throw less. - [third (subordinate) clause]
of the text extract.

				
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