AUSTRALIAN EDUCATION SYSTEMS Prepared and Presented by: M. YAHYA AHMAD College of Education and Allied Programs, PCU Manila Australia in the World Map Map of Australia Some of Education Legal Basis and its Revisions National Vocational Education and Training Regulator Act 2011 Vocational Education and Training (Commonwealth Powers) Act 2010 Statute Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2009 Higher Education Amendment Act 2008 Statute Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2005 Vocational Education and Training Act 2005 Higher Education Support Act 2003 Statute Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2002 Higher Education Act 2001 No 102 Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000 Higher Education Act 1988 Responsibility of Education Education in Australia has been the responsibility of the following departments: Department of Education, Employment and Training (DEET) (1987) Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA) (1996) Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DETYA) (1997) Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST) (2001) Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2007) Public and Private Education Government Government (or state) schools are run by the respective state government. Government schools (also known as public schools) are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, They offer free education; however, many schools ask parents to pay a voluntary contribution fee They can be divided into two categories: open and selective school The open schools accept all students from their government- defined catchment areas, and teach using the CSF Selective government schools are considered more prestigious than open government schools because they have high entrance requirements and cater to a much larger area Public and Private Education Private Private schools can also be divided into two groups. Religious systems of education are operated by the Anglican, Lutheran, Roman Catholic denominations Independent schools, which are largely Protestant grammar schools. There are also a few Jewish and Islamic schools and a significant number of independent Montessori schools. Catholic and Independent schools usually charge attendance fees. However in addition to attendance fees; stationery, textbooks, uniforms, school camps and other schooling costs are not covered under government funding. T Education Jurisdictions non-government 34% government 66% Breakdown of Schools Primary Secondary Responsibility of Education Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations Minister for Employment Participation Minister for Early Childhood and Childcare Minister for Indigenous Employment and Economic Development Parliamentary Secretary for School Education and Workplace Relations Responsibility of Education Primarily the responsibility of the states and territories State or territory government provides funding and regulates the public and private schools within its governing area The federal government helps fund the public universities, but is not involved in setting curriculum Allocation of Responsibility The Commonwealth Grant Scheme : for a specified number of Commonwealth supported places each year; The Higher Education Loan Programme (HELP): arrangements providing financial assistance to students; The Commonwealth Scholarships; Grants for specific purposes: including quality, learning and teaching, research and research training programmes The Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST): Pre-school Pre-schools are usually run by the State and Territory Governments, except in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales where they are more often run by local councils, community groups or private organisations Responsibility for pre-schools in New South Wales and Victoria, lies with the Department of Community Services and the Department of Human Services, respectively.[ n all other states and territories of Australia, responsibility for pre-schools lie with the relevant education department Pre-school Pre-school (also known as Kindergarten in some states and territories) is relatively unregulated, and is not compulsory. Traditional parenting is day care or a parent-run playgroup Pre-school education is separate from primary school in all states and territories, except Western Australia and Queensland where pre-school education is taught as part of the primary school system.[ Pre-school Pre-schools are usually run by the State and Territory Governments, except in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales where they are more often run by local councils, community groups or private organisations. Pre-school is offered to three- to five-year-olds; Responsibility for pre-schools in New South Wales and Victoria, lies with the Department of Community Services and the Department of Human Services, respectively. In all other states and territories of Australia, responsibility for pre-schools lie with the relevant education department. Pre-school At the moment quality standards across early childhood education and care services vary across Australia and there is often limited information available to help families choose the best service for their children The Council of Australian Governments (COAG), Through the Council of Australian Governments (COAG), every State and Territory government and the Commonwealth have endorsed two National Partnership Agreements: An Indigenous Early Childhood National Partnership Agreement A National Partnership Agreement on Early Childhood Education, which provides for $970 million in Australian Government funding to ensure that by 2013 The Council of Australian Governments (COAG), COAG has initiated action to: address early childhood workforce issues establish a national Early Years Learning Framework create a national approach to quality and regulation of early childhood education and child care improve data and performance information in early childhood develop a national early childhood development strategy Primary and Secondary Education School education in Australia is compulsory between certain ages as specified by state or territory legislation. Depending on the state or territory, and date of birth of the child, school is compulsory from the age of five to six to the age of fifteen to seventeen. Primary and Secondary Education Government schools educate about two-thirds of Australian students, the other third in independent schools, a proportion which is rising in many parts of Australia. Government schools are free although most schools charge what are known as "voluntary contributions" or "Tax Levies“ Independent schools, both religious and secular, charge fees as well as levies. All school required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks. Primary Education Children are grouped in similar age groups Only one teacher for all subjects, excluding specialist subjects (e.g. Music, LOTE) No examination requirements, however required to undertake some benchmark testing at Year 3 & 5 Children progress on teacher’s recommendation No standard examination at end of primary school All students are accepted into secondary school on completion of final year of primary school (age - 11 or 12) Primary Education - Early Years Emphasis on developing: Literacyskills Numeracy skills Understanding of community/society Health and physical education skills Creative activities including music and art Primary Education - Upper Years Further development of skills learnt in early years Development of simple research and investigative skills Study of English, mathematics, social studies, health, science and technology, physical education Music, LOTE, library, art, IT and religious education are an option at most schools Common Ages Primary Grade/Year 1: 5–7 year olds Grade/Year 2: 7–8 year olds Grade/Year 3: 8–9 year olds Grade/Year 4: 9–10 year olds Grade/Year 5: 10–11 year olds Grade/Year 6: 11–12 year olds Grade/Year 7: 12–13 year olds (QLD, SA, WA) Common Ages Secondary Year 7: 12–13 year olds (ACT, NSW, TAS, VIC) (Middle School NT) Year 8: 13–14 year olds Year 9: 14–15 year olds Year 10: 15–16 year olds (High School NT) Year 11: 16–17 year olds ("College" ACT, TAS) Year 12: 17–19 year olds Secondary Education - General Begins with Year 7 or 8 (depending on State or Territory) Most commonly comprehensive All students study English Curriculum is generally considered Middle School - Years 5 to 8 Secondary Education – General Some specialist secondary schools (technology, languages, performing arts, agriculture, sports or creative arts) Each day is divided into periods of 40-60 minutes Teachers usually specialise in two methods (e.g. English and Social Studies) Students move from room to room according to timetable Secondary Education - to Year 10 Progress to further years is usually based on age and class requirements rather than examinations Students normally take 8 or 9 subjects per year Learning accomplished through a variety of methods Investigation, experimentation and participation rather than memory Secondary Education - to Year 10 Division into lower or junior secondary and upper or senior secondary Lower/junior secondary General program undertaken by all students Upper secondary Ability to choose from core group of subjects and have options of electives Senior Secondary Education Year 11 and 12 Progress in senior secondary (i.e. Year 11 &12) is usually based on examinations and class work Years 11 & 12 offer several types of programs to prepare students for future study/employment (State and Territory dependent e.g. VCE in Victoria) Completion of Year 12 represents 13 years of education for the majority of students Senior Secondary Education Year 11 and 12 Other study programs available like Vocational Education and Training (VET) Offers vocational training and industry accredited training as part of final year certificate Not all subjects/VET programs are suitable for admission to University Students study English plus 4 or 5 elective subjects Secondary School Certification Each State and Territories has its own format of Year 12 Matriculation: Australian Capital Territory: ACT Year 12 Certificate South Australia: South Australian Matriculation / South Australian Certificate of Education (SAM/SACE) Northern Territory: Senior Secondary Studies Certificate / Northern Territory Certificate of Education (NTCE) Queensland: Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE) New South Wales: Higher School Certificate (HSC) Tasmania: Tasmanian Certificate of Education (TCE) Victoria: Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) or Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL) Western Australia: Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) Tertiary Education Both private and public universities: 36 public, 2 Catholic and 1 Non-profit Private universities Admissions by Australian citizens to public and Catholic universities in Australia are based on the prospective student's academic achievement Admission to the private university, is dependent on a student’s ability to pay tuition fees as well as academic achievement and "one on one" interviews with admission officers (the only university in Australasia to do this for all students). Tertiary Education Divided into two main types - those offered by industry and those by tertiary institutions VET - Vocational Education and Training (Industry) Higher Education (Institution) VET is competency based and offers programs under National Training Framework Higher education offers programs leading to bachelor degrees Varying entrance requirements Students are ranked state and national wide Each state has its own ranking scheme Tertiary Education International Students Australia ranks third in the English-speaking world behind the USA and Britain as an international student destination Students are attracted by the excellence of education and training standard, Australian lifestyle National legislation covering quality and financial standards for those in Australia on student visas Fees range from AUD$12,000-25,000 per annum Higher Education The higher education sector in Australia is made up of universities and other higher education institutions – or higher education providers. A higher education provider is a body that is established or recognised by or under the law of the Australian Government, a State, the Australian Capital Territory or the Northern Territory. The provider has to be approved by the Australian Government Minister for Education before it can receive grants or its students can receive assistance from the Australian Government under the Higher Education Support Act 2003 (HESA). Responsibilities for higher education The DEEWR is the Australian Government Department with responsibility for administering funding and for developing and administering higher education policy and programs. Decision-making, regulation and governance for higher education are shared among the Australian Government, the State and Territory Governments and the institutions themselves Some aspects of higher education are the responsibility of States and Territories. Higher Education Systems Fundamental contribution to the future of Australia, and plays a vital role in Australia’s intellectual, economic, cultural and social development. Educates future professional workforce, Creates future leaders, Provides jobs for Australians, Drives much of our economic and regional success, and Facilitates cultural and trade links with other countries Higher Education Support Act 2003 to support a higher education system that: is characterised by quality, diversity and equity of access; and contributes to the development of cultural and intellectual life in Australia; and is appropriate to meet Australia’s social and economic needs for a highly educated and skilled population; and Higher Education Support Act 2003 to support the distinctive purposes of universities, which are: the education of persons, enabling them to take a leadership role in the intellectual, cultural, economic and social development of their communities; and the creation and advancement of knowledge; and the application of knowledge and discoveries to the betterment of communities in Australia and internationally; Higher Education Support Act 2003 to strengthen Australia’s knowledge base, and enhance the contribution of Australia’s research capabilities to national economic development, international competitiveness and the attainment of social goals; and to support students undertaking higher education. Type of Programs & Qualifications Undergraduate Bachelor Degree Bachelor Degree (with Honours) Undergraduate Diplomas Associate Diplomas Postgraduate Masters Degrees Doctoral Degrees Graduate Diplomas Graduate Certificates Tuition Fee ( In Aus $ ) THE CURRICULUM Regardless of whether a school is government or private, it is regulated by the same curriculum standards frameworkt heir state or territory. Most schools, government and private, enforce a uniform or dress code, although there are varying expectations. The curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. ACADEMIC YEAR The academic year in Australia varies between states and institutions, but generally runs from late January/early February until mid-December for primary and secondary schools, Slight variations in the inter-term holidays and TAFE colleges, and from late February until mid- November for universities with seasonal holidays and breaks for each educational institute. Academic Grading Schools Australian primary and secondary schools are currently migrating to a common reporting and assessment format. Primary and secondary education is the responsibility of the states. The grading system is now structured as follows, though the percentages are only an approximate guide Academic Grading Grade Percentile A (Very High Achievement) 85 and above B (High Achievement) 70-84 C (Sound Achievement) 50-69 D (Low/Limited Achievement - Fail) 25-49 E (Very Low/Limited Achievement - Fail) 0-24 Academic Grading Grade point average National Quality Framework The National Quality Framework aims to raise quality and drive continuous improvement and consistency in education and care services through: a national legislative framework a National Quality Standard a national quality rating and assessment process a new national body called the Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority National Quality Framework National legislative framework the Education and Care Services National Law the Education and Care Services National Regulations. National Quality Standard The National Quality Standard sets a new national benchmark for the quality of education and care services.The National Quality Standard aims to promote: the safety, health and wellbeing of children a focus on achieving outcomes for children through high- quality educational programs families’ understanding of what distinguishes a quality service. National Quality Standard The National Quality Standard is divided into seven Quality Areas: Educational program and practice Children’s health and safety Physical environment Staffing arrangements Relationships with children Collaborative partnerships with families and communities Leadership and service management. SCHOOL SUPPORTIVE FUNDING At primary and secondary level government schools educate the majority of students. The major part of their costs is met by the relevant State or Territory government. Private schools, both religious or secular (the latter often with specialisations), may charge higher fees. SCHOOL SUPPORTIVE FUNDING The national government provides funding for all Universities in Australia (full fee): Domestic students in a non-Commonwealth Supported Place are not usually subject to up-front fees Government subsidies to the cost of tertiary education, Students have the option of deferring their financial contributions to their education completely via the Commonwealth Supported Students scheme. Students in a non-CSP, must pay all upfront fees, which are typically greater than a standard Commonwealth Supported Students debt, usually undertaken to reduce academic entrance requirements.
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