Higher Education Systems - M. Yahya Ahmad by zhouwenjuan


Prepared and Presented by:
College of Education and Allied Programs, PCU Manila
Australia in the World Map
Map of Australia
     Some of Education Legal Basis and its

   National Vocational Education and Training Regulator Act 2011
   Vocational Education and Training (Commonwealth Powers) Act 2010
   Statute Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2009
   Higher Education Amendment Act 2008
   Statute Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2005
   Vocational Education and Training Act 2005
   Higher Education Support Act 2003
   Statute Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2002
   Higher Education Act 2001 No 102
   Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000
   Higher Education Act 1988
Responsibility of Education
   Education in Australia has been the responsibility of
    the following departments:
       Department of Education, Employment and Training (DEET)
       Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth
        Affairs (DEETYA) (1996)
       Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DETYA)
       Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST) (2001)
       Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
        (DEEWR) (2007)
     Public and Private Education

   Government
     Government (or state) schools are run by the respective
      state government.
     Government schools (also known as public schools) are free
      to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents,
     They offer free education; however, many schools ask
      parents to pay a voluntary contribution fee
         They can be divided into two categories: open and selective
         The open schools accept all students from their government-
          defined catchment areas, and teach using the CSF
         Selective government schools are considered more prestigious
          than open government schools because they have high entrance
          requirements and cater to a much larger area
     Public and Private Education

   Private
       Private schools can also be divided into two groups.
         Religious systems of education are operated by the Anglican,
          Lutheran, Roman Catholic denominations
         Independent schools, which are largely Protestant grammar
         There are also a few Jewish and Islamic schools and a significant
          number of independent Montessori schools.
     Catholic and Independent schools usually charge attendance
     However in addition to attendance fees; stationery,
      textbooks, uniforms, school camps and other schooling costs
      are not covered under government funding. T
 Education Jurisdictions


Breakdown of Schools

   Primary             Secondary
Responsibility of Education
   Department of Education, Employment and
    Workplace Relations (DEEWR)
     Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth
     Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations

     Minister for Employment Participation

     Minister for Early Childhood and Childcare

     Minister for Indigenous Employment and Economic
     Parliamentary Secretary for School Education and
      Workplace Relations
Responsibility of Education
   Primarily the responsibility of the states and
   State or territory government provides funding and
    regulates the public and private schools within its
    governing area
   The federal government helps fund the public
    universities, but is not involved in setting curriculum
Allocation of Responsibility
   The Commonwealth Grant Scheme : for a specified
    number of Commonwealth supported places each year;
   The Higher Education Loan Programme (HELP):
    arrangements providing financial assistance to students;
   The Commonwealth Scholarships;
    Grants for specific purposes: including quality, learning
    and teaching, research and research training
   The Department of Education, Science and Training
   Pre-schools are usually run by the State and Territory
    Governments, except in Victoria, South Australia and
    New South Wales where they are more often run by
    local councils, community groups or private
   Responsibility for pre-schools in New South Wales and
    Victoria, lies with the Department of Community
    Services and the Department of Human Services,
   n all other states and territories of Australia,
    responsibility for pre-schools lie with the relevant
    education department
   Pre-school (also known as Kindergarten in some
    states and territories) is relatively unregulated, and
    is not compulsory.
     Traditional   parenting is day care or a parent-run
     Pre-school education is separate from primary school in
      all states and territories, except Western Australia and
      Queensland where pre-school education is taught as
      part of the primary school system.[
   Pre-schools are usually run by the State and Territory
    Governments, except in Victoria, South Australia and New
    South Wales where they are more often run by local
    councils, community groups or private organisations.
   Pre-school is offered to three- to five-year-olds;
   Responsibility for pre-schools in New South Wales and
    Victoria, lies with the Department of Community Services
    and the Department of Human Services, respectively.
   In all other states and territories of Australia, responsibility
    for pre-schools lie with the relevant education department.
   At the moment quality standards across early
    childhood education and care services vary across
    Australia and there is often limited information
    available to help families choose the best service
    for their children
The Council of Australian Governments (COAG),

   Through the Council of Australian Governments
    (COAG), every State and Territory government and
    the Commonwealth have endorsed two National
    Partnership Agreements:
     An Indigenous Early Childhood National Partnership
     A National Partnership Agreement on Early Childhood
      Education, which provides for $970 million in Australian
      Government funding to ensure that by 2013
The Council of Australian Governments (COAG),

   COAG has initiated action to:
     address  early childhood workforce issues
     establish a national Early Years Learning Framework

     create a national approach to quality and regulation
      of early childhood education and child care
     improve data and performance information in early
     develop a national early childhood development
Primary and Secondary Education
   School education in Australia is compulsory between
    certain ages as specified by state or territory
   Depending on the state or territory, and date of
    birth of the child, school is compulsory from the age
    of five to six to the age of fifteen to seventeen.
Primary and Secondary Education
   Government schools educate about two-thirds of
    Australian students,
    the other third in independent schools, a proportion
    which is rising in many parts of Australia.
   Government schools are free although most schools
    charge what are known as "voluntary contributions" or
    "Tax Levies“
   Independent schools, both religious and secular, charge
    fees as well as levies.
   All school required to adhere to the same curriculum
Primary Education

   Children are grouped in similar age groups
   Only one teacher for all subjects, excluding
    specialist subjects (e.g. Music, LOTE)
   No examination requirements, however required to
    undertake some benchmark testing at Year 3 & 5
   Children progress on teacher’s recommendation
   No standard examination at end of primary school
   All students are accepted into secondary school on
    completion of final year of primary school (age -
    11 or 12)
Primary Education - Early Years

   Emphasis on developing:

     Literacyskills
     Numeracy skills
     Understanding of community/society
     Health and physical education skills
     Creative activities including music and art
Primary Education - Upper Years

   Further development of skills learnt in early years
   Development of simple research and investigative
   Study of English, mathematics, social studies, health,
    science and technology, physical education
   Music, LOTE, library, art, IT and religious education
    are an option at most schools
Common Ages

   Primary
     Grade/Year 1: 5–7 year olds
     Grade/Year 2: 7–8 year olds

     Grade/Year 3: 8–9 year olds

     Grade/Year 4: 9–10 year olds

     Grade/Year 5: 10–11 year olds

     Grade/Year 6: 11–12 year olds

     Grade/Year 7: 12–13 year olds (QLD, SA, WA)
Common Ages
   Secondary
     Year 7: 12–13 year olds (ACT, NSW, TAS, VIC) (Middle
      School NT)
     Year 8: 13–14 year olds

     Year 9: 14–15 year olds

     Year 10: 15–16 year olds (High School NT)

     Year 11: 16–17 year olds ("College" ACT, TAS)

     Year 12: 17–19 year olds
Secondary Education - General
   Begins with Year 7 or 8 (depending on State or
   Most commonly comprehensive
   All students study English
   Curriculum is generally considered Middle School -
    Years 5 to 8
Secondary Education – General

   Some specialist secondary schools
    (technology, languages, performing arts,
    agriculture, sports or creative arts)
   Each day is divided into periods of 40-60
   Teachers usually specialise in two methods
    (e.g. English and Social Studies)
   Students move from room to room according
    to timetable
Secondary Education - to Year 10

   Progress to further years is usually based on age
    and class requirements rather than examinations
   Students normally take 8 or 9 subjects per year
   Learning accomplished through a variety of
     Investigation, experimentation and participation
      rather than memory
Secondary Education - to Year 10

   Division into lower or junior secondary and upper
    or senior secondary
   Lower/junior secondary
     General program undertaken by all students
   Upper secondary
     Ability to choose from core group of subjects
      and have options of electives
Senior Secondary Education
Year 11 and 12

   Progress in senior secondary (i.e. Year 11 &12) is
    usually based on examinations and class work
   Years 11 & 12 offer several types of programs to
    prepare students for future study/employment
    (State and Territory dependent e.g. VCE in
   Completion of Year 12 represents 13 years of
    education for the majority of students
Senior Secondary Education
Year 11 and 12
   Other study programs available like Vocational
    Education and Training (VET)
     Offers vocational training and industry
      accredited training as part of final year
   Not all subjects/VET programs are suitable for
    admission to University
   Students study English plus 4 or 5 elective subjects
Secondary School Certification
Each State and Territories has its own format of Year 12 Matriculation:
   Australian Capital Territory: ACT Year 12 Certificate
   South Australia: South Australian Matriculation / South Australian
    Certificate of Education (SAM/SACE)
   Northern Territory: Senior Secondary Studies Certificate / Northern
    Territory Certificate of Education (NTCE)
   Queensland: Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE)
   New South Wales: Higher School Certificate (HSC)
   Tasmania: Tasmanian Certificate of Education (TCE)
   Victoria: Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) or Victorian
    Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL)
   Western Australia: Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE)
              Tertiary Education
   Both private and public universities: 36 public, 2
    Catholic and 1 Non-profit Private universities
   Admissions by Australian citizens to public and
    Catholic universities in Australia are based on the
    prospective student's academic achievement
   Admission to the private university, is dependent on
    a student’s ability to pay tuition fees as well as
    academic achievement and "one on one" interviews
    with admission officers (the only university in
    Australasia to do this for all students).
              Tertiary Education
   Divided into two main types - those offered by
    industry and those by tertiary institutions
     VET - Vocational Education and Training (Industry)
     Higher Education (Institution)

   VET is competency based and offers programs
    under National Training Framework
   Higher education offers programs leading to
    bachelor degrees
   Varying entrance requirements
     Students are ranked state and national wide
     Each state has its own ranking scheme
            Tertiary Education
International Students
 Australia ranks third in the English-speaking world
  behind the USA and Britain as an international
  student destination
 Students are attracted by the excellence of
  education and training standard, Australian
 National legislation covering quality and financial
  standards for those in Australia on student visas
 Fees range from AUD$12,000-25,000 per annum
Higher Education
   The higher education sector in Australia is made up of
    universities and other higher education institutions – or
    higher education providers.
   A higher education provider is a body that is
    established or recognised by or under the law of the
    Australian Government, a State, the Australian Capital
    Territory or the Northern Territory.
   The provider has to be approved by the Australian
    Government Minister for Education before it can receive
    grants or its students can receive assistance from the
    Australian Government under the Higher Education
    Support Act 2003 (HESA).
Responsibilities for higher education
   The DEEWR is the Australian Government
    Department with responsibility for administering
    funding and for developing and administering
    higher education policy and programs.
   Decision-making, regulation and governance for
    higher education are shared among the Australian
    Government, the State and Territory Governments
    and the institutions themselves
   Some aspects of higher education are the
    responsibility of States and Territories.
Higher Education Systems
 Fundamental contribution to the future of Australia,
 and plays a vital role in Australia’s intellectual,
 economic, cultural and social development.
  Educates  future professional workforce,
  Creates future leaders,

  Provides jobs for Australians,

  Drives much of our economic and regional success, and

  Facilitates cultural and trade links with other countries
Higher Education Support Act 2003

   to support a higher education system that:
     is characterised by quality, diversity and equity of
      access; and
     contributes to the development of cultural and
      intellectual life in Australia; and
     is appropriate to meet Australia’s social and economic
      needs for a highly educated and skilled population;
Higher Education Support Act 2003

   to support the distinctive purposes of universities,
    which are:
     the education of persons, enabling them to take a
      leadership role in the intellectual, cultural, economic and
      social development of their communities; and
     the creation and advancement of knowledge; and

     the application of knowledge and discoveries to the
      betterment of communities in Australia and
Higher Education Support Act 2003

   to strengthen Australia’s knowledge base, and
    enhance the contribution of Australia’s research
    capabilities to national economic development,
    international competitiveness and the attainment of
    social goals; and

   to support students undertaking higher education.
Type of Programs & Qualifications
   Undergraduate
     Bachelor Degree
     Bachelor Degree (with Honours)
     Undergraduate Diplomas
     Associate Diplomas

   Postgraduate
     Masters Degrees
     Doctoral Degrees
     Graduate Diplomas
     Graduate Certificates
Tuition Fee ( In Aus $ )
   Regardless of whether a school is government or
    private, it is regulated by the same curriculum
    standards frameworkt heir state or territory.
   Most schools, government and private, enforce a
    uniform or dress code, although there are varying
   The curriculum framework however provides for
    some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such
    as religious education can be taught.
   The academic year in Australia varies between
    states and institutions, but generally runs from late
    January/early February until mid-December for
    primary and secondary schools,
   Slight variations in the inter-term holidays and TAFE
    colleges, and from late February until mid-
    November for universities with seasonal holidays
    and breaks for each educational institute.
Academic Grading
   Schools
     Australian primary and secondary schools are currently
      migrating to a common reporting and assessment
     Primary and secondary education is the responsibility
      of the states.
     The grading system is now structured as follows, though
      the percentages are only an approximate guide
Academic Grading
   Grade                                     Percentile
   A (Very High Achievement)                 85 and above
   B (High Achievement)                      70-84
   C (Sound Achievement)                     50-69
   D (Low/Limited Achievement - Fail)        25-49
   E (Very Low/Limited Achievement - Fail)   0-24
Academic Grading
Grade point average
         National Quality
The National Quality Framework aims to raise
quality and drive continuous improvement and
consistency in education and care services
a  national legislative framework
 a National Quality Standard

 a national quality rating and assessment process

 a new national body called the Australian Children’s
  Education and Care Quality Authority
             National Quality
   National legislative framework
     the Education and Care Services National Law
     the Education and Care Services National Regulations.
National Quality Standard

 The National Quality Standard sets a new national
 benchmark for the quality of education and care
 services.The National Quality Standard aims to
    the safety, health and wellbeing of children
    a focus on achieving outcomes for children through high-
     quality educational programs
    families’ understanding of what distinguishes a quality
National Quality Standard
 The National Quality Standard is divided into seven
 Quality Areas:
    Educational  program and practice
    Children’s health and safety
    Physical environment
    Staffing arrangements
    Relationships with children
    Collaborative partnerships with families and communities
    Leadership and service management.

   At primary and secondary level government schools
    educate the majority of students.
   The major part of their costs is met by the relevant
    State or Territory government.
   Private schools, both religious or secular (the latter
    often with specialisations), may charge higher fees.

   The national government provides funding for all
    Universities in Australia (full fee):
      Domestic students in a non-Commonwealth Supported Place
      are not usually subject to up-front fees
     Government subsidies to the cost of tertiary education,
     Students have the option of deferring their financial
      contributions to their education completely via the
      Commonwealth Supported Students scheme.
   Students in a non-CSP, must pay all upfront fees, which
    are typically greater than a standard Commonwealth
    Supported Students debt, usually undertaken to reduce
    academic entrance requirements.

To top