Management and Leadership - San Diego State University by yaofenjin

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									    A Swift Tour of
 Key Management &
Performance Concepts


           Allison Rossett
      San Diego State University
      San Diego, CA 92182-0311
       arossett@mail.sdsu.edu
    Critical to have a skeptical view
           based on cycles of
    management & performance
   start with the 1920s, with dueling scientific
    management (Taylor) vs humanistic school
    (Follett, Mayo, up thru McGregor, Rogers....)
     – In the 60s came victory for idea that management must
       honor people, past approaches did not honor them
       sufficiently
   up to the present; look at what’s going on in the
    country/world; key thoughts and ideas
   focus on people/ideas of interest to HPT
“How come when I want
 a pair of hands I get
a human being as well?”

                             Henry Ford
     [quoted in The Witch Doctors, p. 118]
When we don’t,
 the price is
           When we don’t,
      the price is IGNORANCE
   Causing continuous searching for the right
    answer, the silver bullet

   Causing over-fondness for unworthy ideas

   Causing us to repeat our over-fondness,
    scarcely noting we’ve been there before
              1920-1928

               Industrial era; mechanization &
Economy           productivity; intro of chain stores and
                  franchising; stock market speculation

               AMA is formed; focus on breaking jobs
Management      into small parts; decentralization;
                grumblings from humanistic school

               Birth of ESOPs; call by Mary Follett for
Performance
                  ‘power with,’ not ‘power over.’
              1928-1939
               Market crashes; American industrial
Economy          dream called into question; heavy
                 layoffs and impact on net worth;
                 growth of unions (why?)
               Command and control dominates;
Management       Mayo’s experiments raise questions
                 about pay as incentive
               Government involvement to restore
                 confidence and give unions power;
Performance      focus on value of participation,
                 teaming; training and counseling for
                 people, particularly foremen (sic)
                            Elton May
   Six female workers, who assembled telephone relays, were
    segregated out. Over five years changes in rest and light were
    made and they were monitored for production and morale.
    There was always full discussion and consultation about the
    changes. No matter what happened, output increased each time.
   When, with consultation, the conditions went back to a 48 hour
    six day week without incentives, rest breaks and refreshments,
    output reached a maximum.
   What mattered was that the six had been consulted; they had a
    sense of freedom and control over the work rate; and the women
    in their cohesion and decision making were in effect rewarding
    the researchers for their interest in them with what they
    considered were desired increases in output.
               [http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/business/mayo.html]
              1940-1950
               Wartime; TVA; women in non trad’l
Economy         roles; Coca Cola goes global;
                Marshall Plan for Euro recovery:
                ENIAC

Management     Maslowe’s hierarchy of needs;
                 interest in the interests of people

               Lots of training for wartime workers
Performance      generates habits re: training and
                 use of ed research for outcomes;
                 birth of ISD
              1950-1959
               Post war baby boom; Korean War;
Economy          birth of SBA; spread of
                 communism

               Carl Rogers encourages managers to
Management       understand employees; Drucker
                 urges objectives over social
                 relations; professional middle mgr

Performance    MBO; rigid organizations; stovepipe
                thinking; Robert Katz (1955) said
                that training not personality is key
              1960-1975
               McDonalds; Vietnam War; War on
Economy          Poverty; Mainframe computers;
                 environmental movement

               McGregor’s Theory X&Y; concept of
Management       corporate strategy introduced; OD;
                 T groups; Herzberg urges content
                 rich jobs, not sensitivity training

Performance    Mgmt by numbers; still focus on
                individual and human potential;
                QWL, which is now much touted
              1976-1990
                PCs!; Fiber optics; quality MFG;
Economy           deregulation; ATC fired; global
                  competition from the Japanese &
                  Germans; shift to service
                Quality movement; quality circles;
Management        formal education for managers via
                  MBAs; Porter on strategy; In
                  Search of Excellence
                Consulting becomes ‘legit’;
Performance       skunkworks for productivity; cross
                  cultural training; lessons from
                  abroad (Japanophobia)
              1990- 2000
                Women in the workforce; Internet;
                   Intranet; Cold War ends; small
Economy            businesses dominate; NAFTA;
                   dotcom to dotbomb; Wintel;
                   information era; Asia boom & bust
                Prahalad & Hamel; Senge; weakening
Management         job ladders; era of horizontality;
                   disintermediation; customer focus;
                   virtual org; ISO standards
                Process reengineering; PT; KM;
Performance        boundaryless collaboration;
                   certification; outsourcing works;
                   job insecurity; value chain
               2000-today
  You tell me. What would you put in this figure?
  No one right answers, of course.

Economy



Management



Performance
                 2000-today
   You tell me. What would you put in this figure?
   No one right answer, of course.
                  Globalism; harsh realities of the dotbomb era;
Economy           trade deficits; Chinaphobia; questions about
                  NAFTA; WI-FI; outsourcing; movement of
                  the biggies into learning: Oracle, Sun, Fidelity
                  Virtual teams; online collaboration; self-
Management regulation; return to interest in leadership and
                  sponsorship; continued disintermediation, yet
                  questions about it
                  Captology; stacked ranking; development
Performance opps as incentives; clarity about competences;
                  online communities to encourage
                  performance; I-messaging/coaching
 Reflect on Teach for America
“…..Yet five years later, Teach For America was on the verge
  of collapse. The organization was more than $1 million in
  debt, and Kopp was scrambling to find $200,000 every two
  weeks to meet its payroll. Applications for teaching
  positions were dropping and would soon be down by
  almost 40 percent. To make matters worse, an influential
  expert blasted Teach For America in a leading academic
  journal, thereby spooking donors and eroding already low
  staff morale.”

  Why the problems? What can we apply from our tour of
  the past?
Organization should matter to nonprofit groups and
profit-making businesses alike. But though nonprofit
leaders zealously build programs and raise money, they
often neglect the organizational structures and
management processes that form the base of enduring
institutions. Part of the problem lies in the funding
environment. Although some philanthropists are beginning
to recognize the importance of building organizational
capacity, foundations and other large donors give money
mainly for specific programs or capital projects rather than
general administrative expenses. Charities therefore
routinely publish their overhead-expense ratios to convince
donors that money won’t be "wasted."
Meanwhile, the group realized that it needed solid,
quantifiable performance goals. During the early
years, Kopp and her team had tried to manage by
specifying processes, not end results. This
approach led to countless meetings about planning
and to tedious micromanagement by senior
leaders, while frustrated staff members were
sometimes unclear about, and unaccountable for,
the outcome of their work. By setting goals and
making specific people responsible for achieving
them, Kopp improved the organization’s results
and morale and freed up more of her own time.
Staff members, in turn, were happier in their jobs
and better understood how they should spend their
time.
“Good judgment is the result
        of experience
  and experience the result
     of bad judgment.”
                    Walter Wriston
                    Citibank

								
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