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					                 Solar Thermal
             Business Development

Water Heating, Space Heating, Pool Heating
                     Developing a Successful Business Plan
Compile all assets and determine start-up capital Settle on an Affordable Business Model
       • Wholesale
       • Retail
       • - % Residential
       • - % Commercial
  The purpose of the business plan is to:
         1)     Help you think through the venture and ensure you have considered all your
                options and anticipated any potential difficulties.
         2)     Convince lenders and investors that you are in control of the project and that
                their money will be safe with you.
         3)     Serve as an operating guide as you turn your idea into a viable business.
         4)     Furnish a standard against which to judge future business decisions and results

 Your business plan outline should be modified to suit your specific type of business and the audience
     for which the plan is written.
       •   For Bankers
       •   For Investors
       •   For Yourself

Bankers want assurance of orderly repayment
      •    Amount of loan
      •    How the funds will be used
      •    What will this accomplish (how will it make the business stronger?)
      •    Requested repayment terms (number of years to repay). You will probably not have much
           negotiating room on interest rate, but may be able to negotiate a longer repayment term,
           which will help cash flow.
      •    Collateral offered, and list of all existing liens against collateral
      Investors are looking for dramatic growth, and they expect to share in the
      • Funds needed short term
      • Funds needed in 2 to 5 years
      • How company will use funds, and what this will accomplish for growth.
      • Estimated return on investment
      • Exit strategy for investors (buyback, sale, or IPO)
      • Percent of ownership you will give up to investors
      • Milestones or conditions you will accept
      • Financial reporting to be provided
      • Involvement of investors on the Board or in management

Refine for Your Type of Business
      •   Service Business
      •   High Technology Company
      •   Retail Company
 Service Business
      Service businesses sell intangible products. They are usually more flexible than other types of businesses, but
      they also have higher labor costs and generally vary
      • Prices
      • Methods used to set prices
      • System of production management
      • Quality control procedures
      • Standard or accepted industry quality standards
      • How is labor productivity measured?
      • What percent of total available hours are actually billed to customers?
      • Breakeven billable hours
      • Percentage of work subcontracted to other firms
      • Profit on subcontracting?
      • Credit, payment, and collections policies and procedures
      • Strategy for keeping client base
      • Strategy for attracting new clients
      High Technology Business
        •   Economic outlook for the industry
        •   Does company have info systems in place to manage rapidly changing prices, costs, and markets?
        •   Is company on cutting edge with its products and services?
        •   What is the status of R&D? And what is required to:
        •   Bring product/service to market?
        •   Keep the company competitive?
        •   How does the company:

                      Protect intellectual property?
                      Avoid technological obsolescence?
                      Supply necessary capital?
                      Retain key personnel?
      Retail Business
  •    Company image
  •    Pricing:
                Explain markup policies.
                Prices should be profitable, competitive and in accord with the company image.
  •    Calculate your annual inventory turnover rate, and compare this to industry average for your type store.
  •    Customer service policies: should be competitive and in accord with company image.
  •    Promotion: methods used, cost. Does it project a consistent company image?
  •   Credit: Do you extend credit to customers? If yes, do you really need to, and do you factor the cost into
  •   Location: Does it give the exposure you need? Is it convenient for customers? Is it consistent with
      company image?
                                I. Table of Contents
                      I.           Table of Contents
                      II.          Executive Summary
                      III.         General Company Description
                      IV.          Products and Services
                      V.           Marketing Plan
                      VI.          Operational Plan
                      VII.         Management and Organization
                      VIII.        Personal Financial Statement
                      IX.          Startup Expenses and Capitalization
                      X.           Financial Plan

                              II. Executive Summary
Explain the fundamentals of the proposed business:
            • What will your product be?
            • Who will your customers be?
            • Who are the owners?
            • What do you think the future holds for your business and your industry?
            • If applying for a loan, state clearly how much you want, precisely how you are going to use it,
               and how the money will make your business more profitable, thereby ensuring repayment.
                          III. General Company Description
           •   What business will you be in? What will you do?
           •   Mission statement
           •   Company goals and objectives
           •   Business philosophy
           •   Who are your customers?
           •   Describe your industry & competition
           •   Advantages over competition
                               IV. Products and Services
Describe in depth your products or services
• Competitive advantage
• Pricing structure

                                     V. Marketing Plan
Market research
•   Secondary Research- gathered from public information
•   Primary Research- gathering your own data
       − traffic count at location
       − demographics
       − identify competitors through Yellow Pages
•   What is the total size of your market?
•   What percentage share of the market will you have? (This is important only if you think you will be a major
    factor in the market.)
•   Current demand in target market.
•   Trends in target market—growth trends, trends in consumer preferences, and trends in product development.
•   Growth potential and opportunity for a business of your size.
•   What barriers do you face in entering this market with your new company? Some typical barriers are:
       − High capital costs
       − High production costs
       − High marketing costs
       − Consumer acceptance and brand recognition
       − Training and skills
       − Unique technology and patents
       − Unions
       − Shipping costs
       − Tariff barriers and quotas
Economics    (cont.)
   • How will you overcome the barriers?
   • How could the following affect your company?
       Change in technology
       Change in government regulations
       Change in the economy
   • Change in your industry

In the Products and Services section, you described your products and services as you see them. Now describe
them  from  your  customers’  point  of  view.

    Features and Benefits
    List all of your major products or services.
    For each product or service:
    • Describe the most important features. What is special about it?
    • Describe the benefits. That is, what will the product do for the customer?
    What after-sale services will you give? Some examples are delivery,
    warranty, service contracts, support, follow-up, and refund policy.

  Identify your targeted customers, their characteristics, and their geographic
  locations, otherwise known as their demographics.
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Location
  • Income level
  • Social class and occupation
  • Education
          •   What products and companies will compete with you?
          •   List your competitors (names, address, phone, web)
          •   Will you have important indirect competitors (plumbers, hvac contractors, electricians, etc.)
          •   How will you compare with your competitors?

 Competitive Analysis Table
 In the column labeled Me, state how you honestly think you will stack up in customers' needs. Then check whether you
 think  this  factor  will  be  a  strength  or  a  weakness  for  you.  Remember,  you  can’t  be  everything  to  everyone.  BE  HONEST

 Now analyze each major competitor. In a few words, state how you think they compare

 In the final column, estimate the importance of each competitive factor to the customer. 1 = critical; 5 = not very

 Then, write a short paragraph stating your competitive advantages and disadvantages.

                               Competitive Analysis Table

           Factor   Me   Strength   Weakness   Competitor A   Competitor B    Customer
   Sales Method
   Credit Policy

  Now that you have systematically analyzed your industry, your product, your customers, and the competition, you should
  have a clear picture of where your company fits in the world.

  In a short paragraph describe your personal niche

 Outline a marketing strategy consistent with your niche capitalizing on your advantages and desired market share.
    • How will you get the word out about your company?
    • Advertising: What media? Why? How often?
    • Image: Graphics, Logo, Business Cards, Branding
    Promotional Budget
    • Before start-up
    • After start-up

    •   Profit margin
        -   cost of sales
        -   cost of operations
        -   profit margin
        -   expansion
    •   Competition


Determining Sales Price                       Cost of Sale

    •     Cost of Sale                        •   Lead Cost
          - Lead Cost                             What does it cost to generate the original appointment? GOAL 3%
          - Sales Commission                  •   Sales Commission
          - Fees and Permits                      - Residential 8% to 10%
    •     Equipment Cost                          - Sales manager override 2%
    •     Installation Cost                       - Commercial 3% to 5% (determined by size of job and
    •     Cost of Operations                        what the market can bear)
    •     Capitol Expenditures                      “No  one  makes  anything  unless  the  job  is  sold”
                                              •   Fees & Permits

                                          Installation Cost
Equipment Cost
                                      • Labor
•       Determined by volume            - Hourly wage + Burden = Total Cost
•       Cheapest is not always best   • Burden
•       Include freight cost            - Taxes (feds, state, SS, Medicare)
                                        - Benefits (insurance, holidays, sick days)
                                      • Typical: hourly wage X 30%
                               Installation Cost (cont.)
        • Pipe & fittings
        • Insulation, tape etc
        • Caulk, flashing
        • Wire & connectors
        • Glycol (if required)
        • Rental machinery (lifts, trenchers, etc)
        • “Hide  a  pipe”  (if  required)

 Cost of Operations
        •   Officers salary
                                                     •   Telephones, cell phones
        •   Managers & office personnel
                                                     •   Postage
        •   Payroll tax expenses
                                                     •   Web management
        •   Employee benefits                        •   Truck expenses
        •   Accounting                               •   Gas
        •   Legal                                    •   Insurance
        •   Marketing                                •   Warehouse supplies
        •   Rent                                     •   Principle payment on loan
        •   Utilities                                •   Interest expense
        •   Office supplies
                                               Five Year Projections

                                                    Make a Plan and Follow It!
                                Does a major league team go to a game without a set of plays?

 •   Be conservative
 •   Minor variations are expected
 •   Major variations require adjusting the plan
 •   If  it  works  on  paper  it  has  a  higher  potential  to  work  in  reality.    If  it  doesn’t  work  on  paper  it  has  no  chance  
     of working in reality
 •   Sales price – Cost of Goods Sold (material cost + installation cost + labor + cost of sale) = Gross Profit
 •   Gross Profit – Operating Cost = Net Profit (before taxes)
 •   Determine what percentage of Sales Price is Cost of Goods Sold
 •   Determine what percentage of Sales Price is Operating Cost
 •   % Cost of Goods Sold + % of Sales Price is Minimum Break Even Mark-Up

   •    Trucks
                                      Capital Expenditures
   •    Tools
   •    Furniture & Fixtures
   •    Computers, Software Programs
   •    Office Equipment
 Sales Price
   Determine additional % mark-up
   • Cost of expansion (Capital Expenditure)
   • Desired Retained Earnings for your company
   • Competition and what the market will bare

   You can decrease your sales price if you
   • Decrease Cost Of Goods Sold
   • Decrease Operating Cost
   • Increase Monthly Sales
        - This will increase Operating Cost but should decrease Cost of Material

 Determining Sales Volume
   •    Start-up capital
   •    Physical space
   •    Manageable size
   •    Gross Profit vs. Net Profit
   •    What volume is required to satisfy operating cost, capital expenditures, retained earnings, and
        projected growth.
                                      Growth Planning
        Without control you have a runaway stagecoach
        • Building infrastructure
        • Expanding market share

        Determined according to 5 year projections. Consider 1st & 2nd year needs.
        • Office space?
        • Warehouse space?
        • Office equipment?
        • Personnel?
        Consider 3rd through 5th year growth % increase...
        What is industry projected growth?
        What are your personal expectations?
        Increase sales and cost of sales accordingly
        • Large office/warehouse
        • More personnel
        • Increase in capital expenditure
                              VI. Operational Plan
     Explain the daily operation of the business, its location, equipment, people, processes, and
                                      surrounding environment.
             Explain your methods of:
             • Production techniques and costs
             • Quality control
             • Customer service
             • Inventory control
             • Product development

             Physical requirements:
             • Amount of space
             • Type of building
             • Zoning
             • Power and other utilities
             • Transportation
             • Suppliers
             • Walk-in traffic
             • Freeways, airports, freight yards, accommodations
             • Drawing layout
             • Cost
               - rent
               - maintenance
               - utilities
               - insurance
               - initial remodeling cost
Legal Environment
 •   Licensing and bonding requirements
 •   Permits
 •   Health, workplace, or environmental regulations
 •   Special regulations covering your industry or profession
 •   Zoning or building code requirements
 •   Insurance coverage
 •   Trademarks, copyrights, or patents (pending, existing, or purchased)
 •   Number of employees
 •   Type of labor (skilled, unskilled, and professional)
 •   Where and how will you find the right employees?
 •   Quality of existing staff
 •   Pay structure
 •   Training methods and requirements
 • Who does which tasks?
 • Schedules and written policy & procedures
 • Draft job descriptions
 • Subcontractors

 •   Inventory mix?
 •   Average value in stock (i.e., what is your inventory investment)?
 •   Rate of turnover and how this compares to the industry averages?
 •   Seasonal buildups?
 •   Lead-time for ordering?
         Identify key suppliers
         • Names and addresses
         • Type and amount of inventory furnished
         • Credit and delivery policies
         • History and reliability
         • Back-up suppliers
         • Shortages or short term delivery problems
         • Steady or fluctuating costs
   Credit Policy
         • Customer financing a necessity
           - banks and lending institutes
           - credit cads
           - internal financing
         • Identify associated costs and build it into price

   Managing Accounts Payable
         • Age your accounts payable
         • Pay on time but not too early this can deplete your cash

                                      Total     Current        30 Days    60     90    Over 90
                                                                         Days   Days    Days
        Accounts Payable Aging

                   VII. Management & Organization
          Who will manage the business on a day to day basis?
          Professional & Advisory Support
          • Board of directors
          • Management advisory board
          • Attorney
          • Accountant
          • Insurance agent
          • Banker
          • Consultant or consultants
          • Mentors and key advisors

                   VIII. Personal Financial Statement
  Include personal financial statements for each owner and major stockholder, showing assets and liabilities
                               held outside the business and personal net worth

                 IX. Startup Expenses & Capitalization
          Most people under estimate startup expense
          • Expenses–what it costs to get your business running
          • Contingencies
             - padding
             - add as line item (20% of total startup costs
          • Working Capital (5 year projections)
          • Sources
          • Collateral
                                         X. Financial Plan
        Financial plan consists of:
             • 12 month profit and loss statement
             • 4 year profit and loss projection
             • Cash-flow projection
             • Projected balance sheet
             • Break-even calculation
         Thank You

Alternate Energy Technologies
     1345 Energy Cove Court
   Green Cove Springs, FL 32043

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