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					                                          II



                         John W. Harris
                         Yale University



John Harris (Yale)   Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
    Future of Jets, Heavy Flavor and EM Probes at


                                  and
                                          II



                         John W. Harris
                         Yale University



John Harris (Yale)   Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
            “Near”-term (2005-2012) Physics at
from PHENIX and STAR decadel plans:
PHENIX & STAR goals: “continue to establish the presence and properties of the QGP”
   Systematic study (vs. …) of soft observables (& establish spin program)
   Electromagnetic Probes
           • Direct g – thermal radiation, shadowing
           • Virtual g (e+e-) - chiral restoration via low mass di-leptons
   Heavy Flavors
           • Open charm, charmonium (y, y’) spectroscopy                 Deconfinement
           • Open beauty, bottomonium (U, U’, U’’) spectroscopy             Initial T
           • flavor-tagged jets
                                     Low s physics will require RHIC upgrade in luminosity!
   Hard Probes - jets
           • via leading particles                            Parton energy loss
           • g-jet, D-jet, B-jet, topology (jet energy)!      Properties of QGP
PHENIX & STAR: “must continue upgrading detector capabilities”
   Increase triggering capabilities and DAQ rates
   Expand apertures       PHENIX MVTX          PHENIX HBD             PHENIX Aerogel
   Add new capabilities (micro-vertexing, low-mass di-leptons, high pT PID)
                                                                                STAR ToF
                                                          STAR mVTX
John Harris (Yale)            Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
    “Long”-term (2012  ..)                    II
                                          RHIC II Luminosity Upgrade
                                                II
 Current RHIC Luminosity for Au+Au
     – Lo = 2 x 1026 cm2 s-1
     – Recent performance  2 Lo
     –  L  dt per RHIC year (20 wks) ~ 2 - 3 nb-1


 RHIC II Luminosity for Au+Au
     – Many crucial Au + Au measurements require > 10 nb-1
     – For vital program must increase  L  dt  RHIC II = 40 x Lo ~ 80 - 90 nb-1



                        Need similar statistics to Au + Au for
                                 p+p reference data
                                 d+Au comparison/control data




John Harris (Yale)         Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
    Luminosities for AuAu at RHIC II & PbPb at LHC
   L dt (nb-1)




                     RHIC             LHC           RHIC II ?         eRHIC / EIC (?)
L (cm-2s-1) 2x1026              8x1026 8x1026       8x1027

                                                         L dt (RHIC II) = 35  L dt (LHC)
   RHIC: 14 weeks production/yr, 4 experiments

   LHC: 4 weeks production/yr, 2-3 experiments
           Design L by third year
   RHIC II: 14 weeks production/yr
John Harris (Yale)          Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                     Electromagnetic Probes
                                      at




John Harris (Yale)     Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                     EM Probes (Direct Photons)
• EM Probes in                                         sNN = 200 GeV Au + Au
     – p+p (pQCD reference)
            s = 200 GeV p + p g
             PHENIX Preliminary




                             Vogelsang
                             NLO




       –p+A (nuclear shadowing)
       –A+A (thermal radiation)
  I. Tserruya, Hard < pT < Conference:
Thermal photons (1Probes 4 GeV/c)?
  “will know about thermal photons
Curves pQCP for pp with binary scaling
  for sure from RHIC Run binary scaling
Direct photons  pQCD +4!” – done?
Run 4 – definitive! Benefit from larger  L  dt ?   K. Reygers, Hard Probes Conference
John Harris (Yale)          Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                 EM Probes (Virtual Photons via e+e- )
• Thermal radiation
           • May be dominated by charm (unless thermalized) at RHIC
• Medium modifications of vector mesons
           • Chiral symmetry breaking
                                                                           R. Rapp nucl-th/0204003


           • Bound states in sQGP ?
•                requires
          •Hadron-blind TPC (HBD)

          •RHIC II  L  dt
                  for detailed charm studies

•   STAR    requires
          •ToF
                     for electrons (pT > 0.2 GeV/c)

          •RHIC II  L  dt
                  for detailed charm studies

        Significant background issues! - e.g. Dalitz, correlated charm decays,....
John Harris (Yale)           Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                          Heavy Flavor
                                    at




John Harris (Yale)   Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                        Heavy Flavor (Quarkonium)
•                      e+e- resolution
    • PHENIX (10 nb-1)*   e+e-
          – with VTX (Dm = 60 MeV)
          – w.o. VTX (Dm = 170 MeV)
    (* 3 - 4 RHIC years of Au + Au)


    from PHENIX decadel plan


•      STAR triggered   e+e- resolution                 from STAR decadel plan
      – Dm = 340 MeV for 1s
      – mVTX improves resolution
              to Dm = 170 MeV
 (1s),  (2s),  (3s) program:
  e+e- resolution (PHENIX VTX)
  m+m- states unresolved!
Statistics?
John Harris (Yale)             2 hadron suppression factors (tradeoff - efficiency vs 11 Feb. 2005
                             Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, background)
                         Heavy Flavor (Quarkonium)
•                    quarkonium program - Au+ Au statistics for
                         RHIC (1.5 nb-1)            RHIC II (30 nb-1)
    J/y  e+e-                2800                          56000
    y’  e+e-                  100                           2000
      e+e-                     8                            155               VTX

    J/y (y’) m+m-            38,000 (1400)               760,000 (28,000)
       m+m-                  35                             700               m-trigger
• Need measurements with similar pT or xT reach in p+p, d+A, lighter systems.
                                                  from PHENIX and STAR decadel plans
• STAR quarkonium program statistics
• Trigger on J/y difficult in STAR
• Triggered   e+e- (pe+, e- > 3.5 GeV/c)
     –Expect 1750  for 1.5 nb-1 luminosity (long Au + Au run)
     –Without trigger (1.6% rate = 28 ), without DAQ upgrade (0.3% rate = 5 )

                            Bottomonium program requires
                                 RHIC II luminosities

John Harris (Yale)           Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                      Open Heavy Flavor in PHENIX
  • Significant open charm &
  open beauty with ~ few nb-1
       – Open charm to pT ~ 6 GeV/c


   Requires Vertex Detector
  and long RHIC AuAu run

         from PHENIX decadel plan


Measurement        Channel                     Range              L dt          New Det.
Open Charm         D  m, e + X         0.5 < pT < 2.5 GeV/c     1 nb-1
(Yield, E-loss, Flow)                   0.3 < pT < 6 GeV/c       3 nb-1             VTX
                   DK+p                  2 < pT (GeV/c)         3 nb-1             VTX

Open Beauty          B  m, e + X        1 < pT < 6 GeV/c        3 nb-1             VTX
(Yield, E-loss)      B  J/y  e+ e- + X      all pT             3 nb-1             VTX
                     B  J/y  m+ m- + X      all pT             3 nb-1             VTX
John Harris (Yale)          Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                     Open Heavy Flavor in STAR                                      STAR
    • Open charm flow measurements from electrons
          started in STAR and PHENIX

    • Good open charm measurement in STAR requires
              • mvertex detector
              • Time-of-Flight detector barrel               from STAR decadel plan
              • 10 nb-1



                     Requires mvertex + ToF + RHIC II luminosities




John Harris (Yale)           Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                        Jets at


                           and                      II




John Harris (Yale)   Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                                        g + jet                                                         STAR
Direct photons                      g                           q
                                                                               from STAR decadel plan
• pT  10 GeV/c for 1 nb-1
• pT  15 GeV/c for 10 nb-1         q                         g
 Issues of fragmentation g’s
      Distinguish direct from frag. g’s                                        AuAu (b = 0), s1/2 = 200 GeV




                                                  dN/dyd2pT (y=0) (GeV-2c-3)
      How does energy loss affect this?

g+jet
•  1% jets have leading hadron > bkgd
• Measure away-side frag. function

g+jet yields in STAR
    (central Au+Au – long Au + Au run):
     Eg = 10 GeV: ~8K ch. hadrons in spectrum
     Eg = 15 GeV: ~1K ch. hadrons in spectrum

 Detailed g - jet measurements* require RHIC II
                                                                                                 XN Wang et al
John Harris (Yale)       Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                                 g + jet




                                                                  XN Wang et al
John Harris (Yale)                                  A. Drees – NSAC 11 Feb. 2005
                     Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge,HI Review
            Heavy Flavor Tagged Jets in STAR                                   STAR

                         Ramona Vogt, hep-ph/0111271



                                             p+p




       pT ~ 15 GeV/c: s (p+p) ~ 5 x 10-4 mb/GeV
           s (Au+Au) ~ 20mb/GeV centrally produced

      10 nb-1 of RHIC Au+Au  200K bb pairs             from STAR decadel plan

        These measurements require mvertex + ToF + RHIC II luminosities

John Harris (Yale)      Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
    Warning - Jets Broaden Significantly in Pseudorapidity!
 Kinematics in h and pT in pp (g+jet)        Broadening in h and f pp  AA
                                                        Au+Au, 0-5%
                                                                               200 GeV, |Df| < 0.7
                                                                              2.5 < pT(trig) < 4 GeV
                                            pp                               2 < pT(assoc) < pT(trig)
                                                                                 AA




                                            STAR results on correlations for pT < 2 GeV/c




                                            Dh elongation even on near-side!


Large acceptance for g’s, high pT particles, jets (energy)
essential to understand jets, high pT correlations and x-dependence (esp.
John Harris (Yale) x)  with tracking + EMCAL (+ ….)
   forward - low         Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
       Compelling “Jet Physics” for RHIC II (in an LHC-era)*
Characterizing the QGP using “jets”                        * not complete at LHC!
•   Probes
     – Jets (Jet energy  parton energy)
     – High pT identified (light-, s-, c-, b-quark) particles (fragmentation function)
     – Photons (establish parton energy)
     – g-jet, g- high-pT identified particle, particle-particle, di-jets (fragmentation function,
       parton energy loss in medium)
•   Measure over Multi-Parameter Space:
     – Energy - √s
     – Geometry - system A1+A2 , impact parameter b
     – Rapidity (x-dependence) to forward angles
     – Transverse momentum of jet / leading particle
     – Particle type (flavor)
     – Orientation relative to flow plane (f flow)
     – Photon-tag on opposite side

FQGP (rgQGP) = finitial (√s, A1+A2, b, x1, x2, Q2) 
                                  fQGP (pTg,yg ,fg ,pT jet,y jet ,f jet,flavor jet, f flow)
John Harris (Yale)           Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                     Detailed “Tomography” of the QGP
FQGP (rgQGP) = finitial (√s, A1+A2, b, x1, x2, Q2) 
                            fQGP (pTg,yg ,fg ,pT jet,y jet ,f jet,flavor jet, f flow)




                                     flow plane
John Harris (Yale)       Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                     Gluon versus Quark Jets?
LHC  Gluon jets

Top energy RHIC
   pT < 20 GeV  Gluon jets
   pT > 20 GeV  Quark jets

Lower RHIC II energy
  transition from
  gluon to quark jets

g-jet (hadron)
   h1 h2 correlations
    x1 x2 correlations
   qg, gg, qq scattering

Three jet events?
John Harris (Yale)         Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
    Understanding Hadronization, Fragmentation & Medium
             Modification from Jet Quenching?
Measure fragmentation functions           Each flavor parton contributes differently to
inPresently: non-specific modification of
   pp & modifications in AA.                        fragmentation function
 fragmentation function (e.g.Gyulassy et (see Bourrely & Soffer, hep-ph/0305070)
           al.,nucl-th/0302077)
Study z = phadron/pjet and x dependence : should lose different amounts of energy in
                                                       opaque medium.
0.2 < z < 1  7 < p < 30 GeV/c

0.1 < x < 0.001  0 < h < 3
 0.1 < x < 0.001  0 < h < 3

High pT
Identified particles
Intra- and inter-jet particle correlations
Large h acceptance
g-tagged jets

  Essential for real “jet tomography”
          Induced Gluon Radiation
          “Softened” fragmentation                            z                   z
                                           2 GeV/c proton in 10 GeV jet
                                           Aside – effect of heavy quark propagation p/p ratio?
John Harris (Yale)             Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                 Expression of Interest -
          A Comprehensive New Detector at RHIC II
                     P. Steinberg, T. Ullrich (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
                                 M. Calderon (Indiana University)
                                  J. Rak (Iowa State University)
                                S. Margetis (Kent State University)
                           M. Lisa, D. Magestro (Ohio State University)
                      R. Lacey (State University of New York, Stony Brook)
                                     G. Paic (UNAM Mexico)
                                    T. Nayak (VECC Calcutta)
         R. Bellwied, C. Pruneau, A. Rose, S. Voloshin (Wayne State University)
                                               and
          H. Caines, A. Chikanian, E. Finch, J.W. Harris, M. Lamont, C. Markert,
                           J. Sandweiss, N. Smirnov (Yale University)

      EoI Document at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/pac0904/bellwied_eoi_r1.pdf

John Harris (Yale)             Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
         Detector Requirements for RHIC II Physics
High rate (40kHz) detectors, readout, DAQ, trigger capabilities.
•  High pT Physics (particles, jets, intra- and inter-jet correlations)
    – Excellent Dp/p up to pT = 40 GeV/c (ycm)
    – Electromagnetic / hadronic calorimetry over ~4p phase space
    – Particle identification out to high pT (p ~ 20-30 GeV/c)
    – Hadron (p,K,p) and lepton (e/h, m/h) separation central and forward
    – Forward acceptance for x-dependent measurements and correlations
• Flavor dependence:
    – Precision vertex tracking (displaced vertices c/b-decays)
• Quarkonium Physics
    – Large solid angle coverage (eta, xF) for electrons, muons, photons
         • Precision Tracking + Muon Detectors + EMCAL + PID
    – Large forward acceptance for g
         • to measure cc decay & cc  J/y + g feed-down to J/y
Essential for jets, high pT correlations, heavy flavor, quarkonium, spin programs
          large acceptance (mid- forward-rapidities), large B-field
          tracking + PID + HCAL + EMCAL
John Harris (Yale)         Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
              Comprehensive New Detector at RHIC II
                                               Central detector (|h|  3.4)
                                                                  Central detector                        (|h|  3.4)
Large magnetic field (B = 1.3T)
                                                                                        HCal and m-detectors




                                                                    HCal & m-dets
                  HCal and m-detectors
    - 3.4 < |h| < 3.4 inside magnet m-detectorsSuperconducting coil (B = 1.3T)
                             HCal and
                                                                                           EM Calorimeter
     – Tracking                                 Superconducting coil (B = 1.3T)                                             Forward tracking:
                                                                                                                              2-stage Si disks
     – PID out to 20 – 30 GeV/c EM Calorimeter
     – EM/hadronic calorimetry                                                                                                     Forward magnet




                                                                                                                                 h = 1.2 – 3.5
                                                                                               RICH
                                                                                          ToF Aerogel
                                                                                                                                       Forward
                                                                                                                                    (B =(h = 3.5spectrometer:
                                                                                                                                         1.5T) - 4.8)
     – m chambers                                                                                                                                magnet
                                                                                                                                                 tracking
     – Triggering                                                                                                                                RICH
                                                                                                                                                 EMCal (CLEO)
4p acceptance                                                                                 |h|  1.2
                                                                                                                                                 HCal (HERA)
                                                                                                                                                 m-absorber
Vertex tracking
3.5 < h < 4.8 forward spectrometer
                                RICH
      –
Tracking: External magnet                              ToF                                • Quarkonium Forward spectrometer:
                                                                                                         physics
                                                             Aerogel
                                                                                          • Jet physics (h = 3.5 - 4.8)




                                                                                                                 h = 1.2 – 3.5
 Si, mini-TPC(?),
      – Tracking
 m-pad chambers                                                                                           RICH
     – RICH                                                                               • Forward low-x physics
                                                                                                          EMCal (CLEO)
PID:
     – EM/hadronic                       calorimetry                                      • Global observables in 4p
                                                                                                          HCal (HERA)
                                                                                                         m-absorber
 RICH
 ToF – Triggering                                                                         • Spin Physics
                                                                                    SLD magnet
 Aerogel                                                |h|  1.2


John Harris (Yale)                             Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                      High-pT Particle ID (p, K, p) and Jets
      PID acceptance factors over upgraded RHIC detectors: f=72 (PHENIX), f=3 (STAR)
         2p
                                                     STAR, 3-4 GeV

                      pq,g > 10 GeV/c                                        pq,g > 10 GeV/c
                                                         10GeV               all h
                                                       PHENIX
         f coverage




                                                  New detector, 20 GeV




                                                          4 GeV

               |h| < 0.5
         0




                           -3           -2   -1            0         1   2       3 rapidity
Jets at RHIC II (30 nb-1)  180k at 40 GeV 15
        Multiply pp events by factor of ~ 8 x 10 for AuAu events in 30 nb-1 RHIC year
 g+jet at high ET g

           for ETg = 20 GeV  19,000 g + jet events (1000 @ 30 GeV) in 30 nb-1
           with high pT PID overWorkshop on Nuclear Dynamics –-3.4 < h < 3.4 Feb. 2005
John Harris (Yale)        Winter full away-side acceptance Breckenridge, 11
         A Quarkonium Physics Program at RHIC II
Quarkonium melting T’s  Suppression (AA)
         Tmelt(Y’) < Tmelt((3S)) < Tmelt(J/Y)  Tmelt((2S)) < TRHIC < Tmelt((1S))?
• Measure cc feed-down to J/y
• Production mechanism studies (pp, pA)                 xF dependence:
• Nuclear absorption/shadowing studies (pA)
New Detector                                                          h<4

Resolution:                                                                  R2D




                                                                            h<3



New Detector
Acceptance  Rates
   Precision Tracking + Muon Detectors + EMCAL + PID
          electrons and muons |h| < 3.4, Df = 2p
          x (Yale)
John HarrisF coverage    Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
         Charmonium cc Feed-down in this Detector
                             cc  J/y + g
          g spectrum                             hg distribution




                                                       R2D




      To measure cc decay & determine feed-down to J/y
       cc  J/y + g, must have large forward acceptance for g

John Harris (Yale)     Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
                 Quarkonium Rates in this Detector
Au+Au min bias, 30 nb-1 :                                                  J/Y
  – plepton > 2 GeV/c for J/Y , 4 GeV/c for 

                     100,000,000
                      10,000,000
                       1,000,000
  New Detector          100,000
  PHENIX                 10,000
                                                                           
                           1,000
                            100
                             10                ?    ?


                                                      Y
                                  i'




                                                                 '
                                                           Y'
                                          Xc

                                               Xc
                                   i




                                                                Y'
                                Ps

                               Ps
                              J/




John Harris (Yale)           Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
    Future of Jets, Heavy Flavor and EM Probes at


                                        and
                                                II


Significant capabilities only with RHIC II (~2012) & new detector(s)
    B-physics,  (1s),  (2s),  (3s), g-jet, flavor-tagged jets, fragmentation fctns
RHIC II Physics and Detectors to be determined in the next 1 ½ years
                     (RHIC Community discussions and decision)



John Harris (Yale)         Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005
      Foundations of RHIC II Physics Program
 Degrees of Freedom of sQGP (Deconfinement)
      Quarkonium Resolution, Acceptance, Rates & Feed-down Acceptance
      Jet and PID High Pt Measurements (g-jet, jet-jet)

 Origin of Mass (Hadronization & Chiral Symmetry)
      PID at High pT, Correlations, Large h acceptance, g-tagged jets

 Origin of Spin (of Proton)
      Large h acceptance, jets, g-jet, High pT identified particles, correlations

 Phase(s) of Matter (CGC  QGP)
      High-pT identified particle yields to large h
      Multi-particle correlations over small & large Dh range



John Harris (Yale)        Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics – Breckenridge, 11 Feb. 2005

				
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