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					Chapter 17 Legal and Ethical Issues
17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 Copyright Infringement Data Privacy Hacking Other Internet Crimes Spam 125 127 128 129 130

Chapter 17 Legal and Ethical Issues

17.1 Copyright Infringement
 A. Copyright  B. Licenses and Types of Software

17.1 Copyright Infringement

17.1.1 Copyright (1)
 A. Copyright Right held by the author to
reproduce, publish, and sell his/her work

Copyright Law aims to
protect creativity

Besides computer software, things on the Internet are also copyright protected, including:
Articles, graphics, animations, music, movies and even e-mail messages

Anyone using other’s material should
seek for permission and state the source clearly.

17.1 Copyright Infringement

17.1.1 Copyright (2)
 Copyright Infringement illegally reproducing someone’s copyrighted work Mere possession of an infringing software is a criminal offence  Software Piracy Using or selling illegal software

17.1 Copyright Infringement

17.1.2 License and Types of software (1)
 Software license Document that permits authorised users to use the software NOT selling the copyright to users License for individuals
allows installing the software on one computer only

Site license
software is accessible from all the computers within the organisation

17.1 Copyright Infringement

17.1.2 License and Types of software (2)
1. Commercial software
Paid software e.g. word processing and graphics applications Normally allows installing the package on only one computer • Should read and observe the terms The license and the serial number should be kept safely

2. Shareware
Distributed free on a trial basis • Pay for it later With built-in expiration date, or Limited version with certain capabilities disabled • e.g. cannot save data file. Examples : • WS_FTP, MusicMatch Jukebox etc.

17.1 Copyright Infringement

17.1.2 License and Types of software (3)
3. Freeware
Distributed without charge. Copyrighted: ownership is retained by the author User cannot modify the program Examples: • Netscape browser, MS Netmeeting etc.

4. Public Domain Software
Uncopyrighted, also called Open Source Software Authors intend to share it with everyone else Source code is available for everybody • Can reuse the code in developing new programs Examples: software in Linux community

Chapter 17 Legal and Ethical Issues

17.2 Data Privacy
 Data Privacy Protection of personal information
including name, address, telephone number, sex, age, occupation, identity card number, credit card numbers, password etc.

 Impersonation personal information stolen and used by identity thief to commit fraud,
e.g. opening new charge accounts, ordering goods or borrowing money

Personal Data Ordinance
The law that protects personal information: Organisations can only use personal information for the original purpose. Cannot disclose information to unauthorised persons

Chapter 17 Legal and Ethical Issues

17.3 Hacking
 Hacker Unauthorised access to remote computer system
e.g. via the Internet

Types of crimes :
Attacking system causing damage of files Stealing personal information Changing the content of Web site Disrupting the operation of a Web server – by flooding it with a lot of unwanted material For profit, hatred, pleasure of intellectual challenge Criminal offence Many hackers are young persons Sometimes do not realise committing criminal offences 1. 2. 3. 4.

Chapter 17 Legal and Ethical Issues

17.4 Other Internet Crimes
 Besides Copyright infringment, Impersonation and Hacking, other common Internet Crimes are:  A.  B.  C.  D. Internet Fraud Shop Unlawful Gambling Publishing Objectionable Materials Online Harassment

17.4 Other Internet Crimes

17.4.1 Internet fraud shop
 Internet Fraud Creating a fake company on the Internet to illegally swindle money from other people Other Internet fraud is Impersonation

17.4 Other Internet Crimes

17.4.2 Unlawful gambling
 According to the Law in HK, gambling is allowed only for adults through certain kinds of games and in certain places All kinds gambling on the Internet are unlawful Participating in unlawful gambling is a criminal offence Common gambling on the Internet
Results of a football game

17.4 Other Internet Crimes

17.4.3 Publishing objectionable materials
Objectionable materials include:
pornographic, racist, violent, drug-related materials Filtering software may block some of them, but Unlikely to be 100% successful.

Publishing obscene/indecent articles on the Internet is an offence
Law is set up to • protect the well-being of young people

Government censorship is not effective, because
Internet is a worldwide network Difficult to limit access to the Internet

17.4 Other Internet Crimes

17.4.4 Online harassment
 Online harassment sending rude, suggestive, or threatening e-mail or online messages to harass another person

Chapter 17 Legal and Ethical Issues

17.5 Spam
 Spam Junk e-mail
commercial: promoting goods or services.

Spammers may send thousands of mails every minute
Flooding the Internet with unwanted mails Wasting people’s time in deleting junk mails

Spammers always forge their e-mail addresses
and change them frequently impossible to block spam completely by setting e-mail software

Do NOT reply any spam
Otherwise will help the spammer verify your address


				
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posted:11/9/2009
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