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INDIA AND THE COLONIES_

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OCT. 31, 1896.]                                     INDIA AND THIE COLONIES.                                                                   359

                      HEALTH OF ENGLISfH. TOWNS.                                                  LEAD POISONING FROM WATER.
IN thirty-three of the largest English towns, including London, 6,775         IT is reported that a serious outbreak of lead poisoning has occurred at
births and 3,655 deaths were registered during the week ending Saturday       the village of Mosbro, in Derbyshire, between Chesterfleld and Sheffield.
 October 24th. The annual rate of mortality in these towns, which had         The gathering ground for the water supply is at High Point, on the
been I6.7 and 16.3 per x.ooo in the two preceding weeks, rose again to        Derbyshire moors, and the water is supposed to dissolve lead from the
 17.6 last week. Tne rates in the several towns ranged from II.5 in           pipes by reason of the presence of humic and other acids which develop
 Croydon, 12.2 in West Ham, and 14.0 in Ruddersfield and in Newcastle-        when water charged with decayed peat moss comes into contact with
 upon-Tyne, to 20.8 in Liverpool, 22.8 in Salford. and 23.4 in Preston. In    lead pipes. Indignation meetings are being held to force the hands of
the thirty-two provincial towns the mean death-rate was 17.9 per z,ooo,       the local authorities, and samples of the water have been sent to the
and exceeded by o.8 the rate recorded in London, which was 17.1 per           Local Government Board.
 i,ooo. The zymotic death-rate in the thirty-three towns averaged I.
per r,ooo; in London the rate was equal to 1.4 per I,o0o, while it averaged        PUBLIC VACCINATORS AND THE SUPERANNUATION ACT.
I.9 per x,ooo in the thirty-two provincial towns, and was highest in Man-     A CORRESPONDENT has-written to us on the question of the participation
chester, Birkenhead,and Liverpool. Measles caused a death-rate of r.x
in Nottingham and in Bradford, I.2 in Hull, and 2.3 in Plymouth; scarlet       in, or exclusion from, the benefits accruing under the Poor Law Officers
fever of i.o in Birkenhead; whooping-cough of I.o in Birkenhead; and            Superannuation Act of Public Vaccinators, saying that it has been held
diarrhcea of x.r in Gateshead and 1.7 in Bolton. The mortality from            by Mr. Rutherglen that these " officers-" are not such for the purposes of
"fever" showed no marked excess in any of the large towns. The 89              the Act, since they serve under contracts determinable on twenty-eight
deaths from diphtheria in the thirty-three towns included 57 in London,
6 in West Ham, and 5 in Leiceister. 5 in Liverpool, 3 in Bristol, and 3 in     days' notice.
Birmingham. No fatal case of small-poxwas registered either in London            *** This is so; the fact that public vaccinators are simply contractors
or in any of the thirty-two large provincial towns. There was only I
small-pox patient in the Metropolitan Asylums Hospitals on Saturday            for i certain work to be performed at a stipulated fee, removing them
last, October 24th, against 3, 4, and 2 at the end of the three precedin       from the scope of the Statute. Public vaccinators have been regarded,
weeks; no new cases were admitted during the week. The number of               in fact, as supplying an article in return for money value. We deplore
scarlet-fever patients in the Metropolitan Asylums Hospitals and in the        this ruling, not only for the sake of the gentlemen affected solely as
London Fever Hospital, which had been 4,020, 4,105, and 4,073 at the end
of the three preceding weeks, had risen again to 4,164 on Saturday last;       vaccinators, but also on account of the fact that the fees secured
448 new cases were admitted during the week, against 454, 424, and 372 in      under a contract cannot be reckoned as " emoluments" by district
the three preceding weeks.                                                     medical officers, who, being also public vaccinators, may have con-
                                                                               sidered themselves as entitled to regard vaccination fees as part of their
                       HEALTH OF SCOTCH TOWNS.                                 remuneration for purposes of suiperannuation.
DURTNG the week ending Saturday last, October 24th, 959 births and 552
deaths were registered in eight of the principal Scotch towns. The
annual rate of mortalityin these towns,which hadincreased from 14.6 to 17.9                            VACCINATION IN CABUL.
perr,ooo in thefourpreceding weeks, further rose to I8.9 last week, and ex- ACCORDING to the Indian Lancet, when Miss Lilias Hamilton, the
ceeded by 1.3 per ,oo the mean rate during the same period in the thirty- private physician of the Ameer of Afghanistan, was in .England in
three large English towns. Among these Scotch towns the death-rates the suite of the Shahzada, she obtained a model of a stable oft calves,
ranged from I5.2 in Greenock to 21.4 in Paisley. The zymotic death-rate which are used for the purposes of obtaining calf lymph for vaccination.
 in these towns averaged 2.3 per I,ooo, the highest rates being recorded in On her return to Cabul she showed it to the Ameer, and explained to
 Perth and Paisley. The 27$ deaths registered in Glasgow included 12 him the principle and methods of vaccination from the calf. It seems
from measles, io from diarrhoea, 8 from whooping-cough, 5 from that Afghanistan is every spring visited by an outbreak of virulent
 "fever," 4 from scarlet fever, and 3 from diphtheria.                         small-pox, in which no less than one-fifth of the children are killed.
                                                                               The Ameer was so impressed by the fact of the protection offered by
                    ISOLATION HOSPITAL CHARGES.                                vaccination, that he has publicly announced his intention of establish-
                                                                               ing calf lymph vaccine stations, and has asked his subjects to give him
THE Committee of the Cambridge Town Council charged with the task of their aidand co-operation in making the vaccination of children universal.
reporting on the matter of isolation hospital expenses. especially with To Miss Hamilton will fall the
reference to the levying of charges on patients, have had their report and into the country, and of establishing calf vaccine stations. vaccination
                                                                                                                  great task of introducing The Ameer
recommendations under consideration. Two of their recommendations has already given orders for two stables to be built. Miss Hamilton has
have to do with the rescision of resolutions passed in 1894 and last April, already                                  Cabul, which is attended every day
the former as to a fixed scale of charges, and the latter as to freeing the by from established a dispensary at she is assisted by a trained nurse,
                                                                                                             In this
hospital to all cases receiving treatment within the institution. Still, whom the150 to 450 patients. her to take-back with her. This nurse and a
                                                                                          Ameer allowed
charges are recommended, except in cases as to which the medical officer Pathan compounder form her staff. The patients are roughly divided
of health should certify at the time of their removal that they were being by a
isolated on public health grounds. But we may ask: Will not the pro- cases guard of soldiers into eye cases, wounds, and diseases. The eye
portion of cases removed on public health grounds be a very high one, if into are mostly cataracts, soft and hard. These Miss Hamilton takes
not, indeed, cent. per cent. ? The primary idea of such a hospital is not vide her own house after operation. The workshops of the Ameer pro-
                                                                                    a plentiful crop of accident cases.
the good of the individual, but the ultimate safety of the community.
The one is a necessary corollary of the other, but the safety of the
individual is only the efect of a cause operating for the well-being of the                       VACCINATION AT DARLINGTON.
many. Much discussion of the question at issue followed the reading of                                                on October 26th the subject of vac-
the report, and one member of the Council, who took a somewhat more AT the Darlington Board of Guardians before a full Board. The town of
                                                                               cination was again brought forward
moderate view of the charge system than did some of his colleagues, Darlin gton has long been a centre for agitation against vaccination, and
suggested that the charges be looked upon in the light of ordinary com- especially against compulsory vaccination. All kinds of arguments
mercial debts, and recovery sought only so far as the parties In question were brought forward, and repeated, against the good of vaccination,
seemed worth "powder and shot" in the way of iniLtial expenses for and                           of the Special Commission was largely used to support
securing payment. In the end the whole matter was allowed to stand thesethe report one of the chief of which was that sanitary improve-
over for two months to allow inquiries to be made as to the general ments arguments.cause of fewer deaths from small-pox. Dr. Eastwood,
                                                                                       were the
  rinciple in force in other districts, whilst the question of the validity of                                   of the Board, as well as others, tried to
freeing the sanatorium is to be submitted to the Local Government J P.. the only medical member was favourable to all diseases, but that
                                                                               show that improved sanitation
Board. whose auditor has, however, allowed the expenses attending the it would not destroy the peculiar poison of small-pox. He also pointed
free administration of this hospital to pass. If we mistake not greatly,                                  between natural and modified small-pox in the
the whole attitude of the Local Government Board is in favour of render- out the great difference the danger to life. The result of the voting
                                                                               severity, after-effects, and
ing all hospitals free to residents and ratepayers in the area to which the was a tie, ig voting each way, and the Chairman, Mr. J. Feetham, J.P.,
institution belongs. Counsel's opinion, say the Cambridge committee, was neutral. This result means that no steps will be taken by the
is opposed to the legality of opening hospitals free: on what grounds we Darlington Guardians to carry out the Vaccination Act; and that parents
do not at present know. We are quite content to believe that at White-                                   whether they have their children vaccinated or
hall the freedom of our sanitary hospitals is warmly advocated, and that will please themselves
all experience points to the practical advantage of this course from the not.
public aspects of the matter.
                     OYSTERS AND TYPHOID FEVER.
 IN the quarterly report by the medical officer of healthfor Aberystwyth,
                                                                                       INDIA AND THE COLONIES,
 attention was drawn to the danger arising from the consumption of shell-                                        INDIA.
 fish exposed to sewage contamination. Dr. Thomas stated that there was THE HOSPITALS OF THE CITY OF BOMBAY.-Tlhe report of the eleven civil
 a fatal case of typhoid in July, which he was able to trace directly to the medical institutions of Bombay for the year 1895 by the Surgeon-General
 eating 9f oysters. In opposition to this view, it was urged by one of the (Dr. H. Cook) indicates good work. Of the eleven institutions, three are
 councillors that at that time of the year (July) oysters were "out of general hospitals, in one of which Europeans and Eurasians are treated,
 season," apparently implying that this was sufficient to account for any and in the other two natives* two are reserved for women and children
results which might ensue. This is a favourable explanation given by one is an ophthalmic hospitai and dispensary for all classes, one a eentrai
those interested in the oyster trade when any case of illness arising from school hospital, one a dockyard dispensary, one a police hospital, one a
the consumption of the mollusc is brought under their notice. It is ex- leper asylum, and one a general dispensary. Ample provision thus exists
plained that the oysters must either have been.in a " spawny " condition, for medlcal relief, and the names of most of the institutions Indicate that
or had been kept too long, instead of admitting that they had become con- they owe their existence to the liberality of wealthy natives. There were
taminated with the germs of specific infective disease. We have, how- z6 836 indoor and 91,309 outdoor patients, treated.. These numbers are less
 ever, as little ground for believing that an oyster eaten out of season will than those of I894, but the year seems to have been a healthy one; 58'per
give rise to typhoid fever, as we have to trace the outbreak of an attack of cent. of the natients were males. 29 per cent. females, ana- 13 per cent.
Asiatic cholera to the eating of unripe fruit. It is, indeed, very doubtful children. There was a decided decrease in cases of malarious fever and
if cases of disturbance of the general health have been in any case traced -cholera, and it was found possible to reduce the number of beds in some
to the eating of oysters ini a spawning condition, although it is no doubt- of the hospitals. It would enhance the value of the report if some
undesirable to partake of them at: this season.
 I360
        M,DICAL J,)rAIL                                 MEDICAL NEWS.                                                [OCT6   31, i89.
information were given regarding the salubrity of [the town. There were
2,515 major and 31,386 minor operations performed. Nearly one-half of the A CORONER'S JURY ON UNQUALIFIED PRAC1ICE.-At the
former were ophthalmic, and a large proportion of the remainder were inquest on Sophia Louisa Holliday, who died at Battersea on
trivial, such as opening abscesses and tapping and injecting hydroceles- August 31 st, after being treated for cancer by an " Americarn
The death-rate among indoor patients was 9.5 per cent. of total treated,
and the mortality of major operations was 4.8 per cent. The cost of main- doctor" named Ferdinand, who, it was alleged, professed to
taming these hospitals was about 4 lakhs ofbalance of which Government be able to cure the disease, after five days' inquiry the verdict
                                             rupees,
contributed about 3 lakhs, most of the               being obtained from was arrived at that the deceased died from cancer, and
municipal funds, the Tort Trust, and paying patients (Rs.33,450).
                                                                the jury added the following as a rider: "We agree that
                                                                John Ferdinand's treatment of the deceased was of a bad
                                                                and reckless nature, but we do not consider the evidence
                                                                sufficient to prove him guilty of manslaughter. The jury, in
                    MEDICAL NEWS,                               regretfully recording this verdict, desire to earnestly direct
                                                                the attention of the authorities to the impunity with which
                                                                                         no education or medical
  WE learn, as we go to press, that the number of under- persons of apparently advertising, promise cures skill can, by
                                                                          of
graduates newly entered at Cambridge in the medical school means and thus defraud the working classes, whoincurable
                                                                diseases,
                                                                             extensive                               of
                                                                                                                         have no
Is 146. The number at Oxford is 25.                             facilities for investigating their qualifications, of large sums
  DR. T. CRAWFORD HAYES, Physician for Diseases of Women of money, and probably in some cases hasten death; and the
to King's College Hospital, has been appointed by the Council jury recommend most strongly that there should be some
of King's College Professor of Practical Obstetrics.            legislation giving the police power to interfere with such
                                                                practices. The jury desire to add an appeal to the coroner to
  THE next meeting of the International Congress of Criminal direct the attention of the police to the wilful perjury which
Anthropology will be held, by invitation of the Dutch Govern- John Ferdinand has committed in this court, and it is the
ment, at the Hague in I90I.                                     jury's opinion that he has been guilty of obtaining money
  THE title of Excellency has been conferred on Professor under false pretences."
Max von Pettenkofer, the distinguished hygienist, of AT a meeting of the Select Committee on Medical Defence
Munich.                                                         of the Civil Rights Defence Committee, on October i6th, a
   H.R.H. THE PRINCESS OF WALES has sent a donation of /20 in letter was read from the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons
aid of the Extension and Improvement Fund of Queen of Glasgow stating that it had instructed its representative
Charlotte's Lying-In Hospital, Marylebone Road, of which on the General Medical Council in the sense of the instruc-
she is a vice-patron.                                           tions given by the Royal College of Surgeons of England. A
                                                                      of thanks was
  THE Local Government Board has given its sanction, sub- vote British Medical passed to the British Guianaexpressing   Branch of
                                                                                                           resolution
ject to certain reservations, to the purchase by the Metropoli- the, sympathy withAssociation for its his prolonged defence
                                                                strong                   Mr. Anderson in
tan Asylums Board of 136 acres of land at West Croft, Car- of his rights against
shalton, as a site for a southern convalescent fever hospital £0o from the funds of the Branch, as well as for for its vote of
                                                                                         judicial-oppression and
                                                                                                                    subscriptions
for about 700 patients.                                         amounting to £8 ios. from its members. It was resolved to
  IN view of the spread of leprosy in the Transvaal it is re- make representations to the Association of Fellows and to the
ported that the Transvaal Government are about to erect a Society of Members of the Royal College of Surgeons of
suitable establishment for the accommodation of this class. A England inviting them to co-operate in moving and support-
site has been selected west of Pretoria, in the neighbourhood ing at the annual meeting at the College in November a
of the present leper asylum.                                    request to the Council of the College for a grant from its
  THE Royal University of Ireland on October 23rd conferred funds in aid of the Civil Rights Defence Committee in their
the degree of M.D. honoris causd on Sir Charles Cameron, the case of the rights of Fellows and Members was also re-
                                                                defence                                               involved in
Medical Officer of Health for Dublin. Sir Charles Cameron's ported that aMr. R. andAnderson, F.R.C.S. It had been for-
                                                                            of
                                                                                 letter
                                                                                        B.
                                                                                           explanatory statement
original contributions to medical, chemical, and hygienic warded to candidates for seats on the General Medical Council
literature have been numerous and important.                    who had expressed doubts as to the power and duty of the
  INSANITY IN PENNSYLVANIA.-Statistics of public institu- Council to apply its funds and exercise its powers in defence
tions in Pennsylvania, including State and private hospitals, of such rights.
almshouses, and gaols for the past twelve years show that the MALARIA IN THE TRANSCASPIAN.-Details are now to hand,
number of insane among the inmates has steadily increased. says the Times correspondent, of the terrible malarial fever
In the period I884-95, the sum of the annual increases was prevailing this year among the native population and the
3,587, being an average annual increase of 299.                 Russian troops in the Transcaspian. That region has been
  INSURANCE RATES FOR " THE LIQUOR TRADE."-In view of particularly unfortunate since the Russian occupation in pro-
the resumption of the sittings of the Royal Commission on ducing first the Panjdeh plague, then an outbreak of boils and
Liquor, it is stated that, compared with ordinary occupations, blains at Merv, and now a pecular kind of fever of a very
one great life office taxes publicans 25S. per cent. per annum; virulent nature, which began to attack the inhabitants of the
hotel and innkeepers, 20S.; licensed grocers in Ireland, 15s.; Merv oasis and the troops of the garrison in spring and in
and in Scotland, ios.                                           June, had attained the dimensions of an epidemic. In a great
                                                                many of. the Turkoman aouls or villages of kibitka tents not a
  MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL.-A laboratory built for single person escaped it. From the middle of March to the
the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, at a cost of over beginning of September 4,330 died out of the total population
20,000 dollars (£4,000) will soon be ready for use. The build- of the oasis, numbering 86,ooo, which is a mortality of 50 per
ing includes well-equipped laboratories of chemistry, bac- I,ooo during six months. The troops, both men and officers,
teriology, and histology. It is hoped that an additional sum also suffered severely, and a few cases were fatal. The cause
of 100,OOO dollars (£20,000) will be collected for an endow- of the epidemic is supposed to have been the extraordinary
ment.                                                           overflow last spring of the Murghab, and the effect of subse-
  MR. BANCROFT purposes devoting a great part of the quent excessive heat upon the inundated and sodden soil.
winter to reading Dickens's Christmas Carol in the cause of Measures of relief were -taken by General Kuropatkin by re-
charity, particularly on behalf of the great hospitals in moving the sick and the entire camp to healthier ground, and
London and the provinces. He hopes to continue these about 40,000 roubles were spent on extra medical assistance,
readings until he has visited all the principal towns in the improvements of diet, ambulance expenses, etc. Apparently
United Kingdom, and in every case the entire receipts will be the epidemic is by no means over, for a letter dated from
handed over to the authorities without deduction, except in Kerok, on the Amu-Daria, at the end of last month, says:
payment of local charges, such as rent of building and cost of " Malaria is raging here. Hundreds of persons are attacked
printing. Mr. Bancroft will commence his good work on daily, and quinine, which is served out in enormous quan-
November 23rd in Queen's Hall, in aid of the cancer wards of tities, cannot be procured fast enough. There have also been
Middlesex Hospital.                                             cases of yellow fever."

				
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