AP-Euro-Review-for-Test.ppt - TeacherWeb

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					AP Üro Review
         2010 Scores
     5    13,007       12.7%
     4    18,854       18.4%
     3    35,432       34.5%
     2    11,543       11.2%
     1    23,793       23.2%
 Total   102,629   Ave. 2.86
3 or
Higher    67,293       65.6%
   Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes
   55 Minutes for 80 Multiple Choice
    Questions
   130 minutes for 3 essays
    – 60 minute Document Based Question
      • Mandatory 15 minutes for Reading & Evaluating
        Documents
      • 45 minutes for writing
    – 35 Minutes for Free Response Essay
      Question
      • 5 minutes for planning
      • 30minutes for writing
    – 35 Minutes for Free Response Essay
      Question
      • Same
   Multiple-choice = 80 questions, measuring the
    student’s knowledge from High Renaissance-
    present.
    – ½ of the questions are from the period 1450 to the
      French Revolutionary & Napoleonic era.
    – ½ are from the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic
      era to the present.
    – Questions covering the 19th century & the 20th
      century are divided evenly (approximately 25
      percent of the total number of questions for each
      century)
   1/3 of the questions focus on cultural &
    intellectual themes
   1/3 focus on political & diplomatic themes
   1/3 focus on social & economic themes.
    Questions fall into 6 basic categories:

1.   Identification (45% of the test) - facts
2.   NOT/EXCEPT (10% of the test)-choose
     the answer that is incorrect
3.   Analytical (20-25% of the test) -
     relationships, see connections, place in order
4.   Quotation Based (10% or less of the test) -
     match the quote with the appropriate person
5.   Image Interpretation (10% or less of the
     test) - determine images relevance, purpose,
     or meaning
6.   Map/Graph/Chart Based (10% or less of the
     test) - identify what a map/data shows, or
     interpret it's purpose
                   Grading
   80 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2
    Score
    – ¼ point penalty for guessing has been
      eliminated
   Within the free-response section, the
    DBQ essay is weighted 45 percent & the
    two FRQ essays together are weighted
    55 percent
   For the total exam score, the multiple-
    choice & the free-response sections are
    weighted equally
                          Testing Verbs
1.Analyze: determine the component parts;
  examine their nature and relationship.
“Analyze the major social and technological changes that took place
  in European warfare between 1789 and 1871.’’
2.Assess/Evaluate: judge the value or character
  of something; appraise; evaluate the positive
  points and the negative ones; give an opinion
  regarding the value of; discuss the advantages
  and disadvantages of. “‘Luther was both a revolutionary
  and a conservative.’ Evaluate this statement with respect to
  Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day.’’
3.Compare: examine for the purpose of noting
  similarities and differences.
“Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany.’’
4.Contrast: examine in order to show
  dissimilarities or points of difference.
“Contrast the ways in which European skilled artisans of the mid-
   eighteenth century and European factory workers of the late
   nineteenth century differed in their work behavior and in their
   attitudes toward work.”
5.Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a
  word picture of.
“Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states
  affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to
  1715.”
6.Discuss: talk over; write about; consider or
  examine by argument or from various points of
  view; debate; present the different sides of.
“Discuss the extent to which nineteenth-century Romanticism was or
   was not a conservative cultural and intellectual movement.”
AP European M.C. Exam follows 3 major themes:
1. Intellectual & Cultural – 1/3 of questions
2. Political & Diplomatic – 1/3 of questions

3. Social & Economic – 1/3 of questions

Clusters of questions:
  Key Terms, Key Treaties & Agreements, Key,
   Intellectual Figures
  Russian History, Renaissance, Reformation,
   French Revolution, women’s history, & Cold
   War
    – For example: Karl Marx, the Edict of Nantes, &
      mercantilism have appear on almost every test
   Keep a general timeline – not specific dates
  UNIT 1
CHAPTERS 1-5
              Late Middle Ages
   The Black Death
   The Hundred Years’ War
    – Rise of nationalism in France & England
   Ecclesiastical power
    – Unam Sanctum 1302 – Pope Boniface VIII
    – Avignon Papacy – Great Schism
    – John Wycliffe & Jan Hus
   Kievan Rus
                      FRQ
   Discuss the pre-existing conditions that
    contributed to the Black Death during
    the late Middle Ages.
   Compare the experiences of peasants
    and artisans in the aftermath of the
    Bubonic Plague.
                 Renaissance
   Treaty of Lodi: Defined Northern Italy’
    borders
   Florence
    – Cosimo de Medici, Lorenzo de Medici
    – Girolamo Savonarola
   Humanism
    – Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio
   Machiavelli’s The Prince is often asked
    – Quotations sometimes used
    – Machiavelli’s cynical view of human nature &
      ruthless pragmatic advice
            Renaissance & Discovery
   Art
    – Chiaroscuro, linear perspective, triangles/
      pyramid configuration, Classical forms
      combined with Christian subjects
   Artists
   Focus on key masterpieces that
    illustrate Renaissance ideals & the
    impact of humanism
    – Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa
    – Raphael – School of Athens
    – Michelangelo - David
             Northern Renaissance
   Low Countries, France, England, &
    Germany
   Christian humanists
    – Far more concerned with religious piety than
      Italian counter
   Literature
    – Gutenberg, Erasmus, Thomas More
   Impact of the printing press on European
    life & thought
    – Freedom of expression, spread of
      information, challenged authorities
            Northern Renaissance
   Art
   First to use & perfect oil painting
   More detail
   Artists
    – Albrecht Dürer, Jan Van Eyck
                       FRQ
   Compare the northern Renaissance with
    the Italian Renaissance in terms of
    scholarly, literary, and artistic
    production.
   Discuss the importance of the printing
    press on the Northern Renaissance.
   To what extent did the women of Europe
    experience the Renaissance ?
                  Age of Exploration
   Explorers
       Henry the Navigator, Diaz, da Gama,
        Columbus, Vespucci, Magellan
   Columbian Exchange: many questions
    – Agricultural products, animals, diseases, &
      human populations involved in the exchange
    – Effects of the exchange on European
      population & economy.
   Economics: Putting-out system, Joint-
    stock Companies, & mercantilism
              Protestant Reformation
   The Great Schism
    – Resolved by Council of Constance 1414
   Sale of indulgences, nepotism, simony, clerical
    immorality, absenteeism
   German Peasants War
   Peace of Augsburg 1555 – “cuius regio, eius
    religio”
   Protestant Leaders:
    –   Martin Luther
    –   Ulrich Zwingli
    –   John Calvin
    –   Thomas Müntzer - Anabaptists
            Protestant Reformation
   Focus on Luther’s 95 Theses & his
    dramatic stand against indulgences
   Also, keep in mind Luther’s response to
    the German Peasants War
    – Sometimes used as an essay topic
       • Social & political consequences of the Protestant
         Reformation
   English Reformation
    –   Sir Thomas More
    –   Henry VIII
    –   Thomas Cranmer
    –   Thomas Cromwell
    –   Edward VI
   Counter-Reformation
    – Charles V – HRE
    – Council of Trent 1545-1563
    – Jesuits – Ignatius Loyola
                      FRQ
   Consider what family life was like in early
    modern Europe during the Reformation.
    Focus on marriage, family size, birth
    control, education, and childcare.
   Defend or refute this statement: The
    Protestant Reformation was a unified
    movement of dissent against the Roman
    Catholic Church.
   Compare & contrast the policies of the
    Catholic Church before and after the
    Council of Trent.
   Philip II: rules Spain, & Spanish
    Netherlands
   English Queen Elizabeth I: assists the
    Dutch with $ & troops
   Spanish Armada set to invade England
   Sir Francis Drake defeats the Armada
   Spanish influence declines, England rises
               French Religious Wars
   Huguenots
   St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572
   The Politiques: moderates of both religious faiths -
    Huguenots & Catholics
   Henry Navarre
   Edict of Nantes – Know the terms
   The Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648
   Protestant League, Catholic League
   Peace of Westphalia 1648
    – Consequences: Decline of HRE & the delay of
      German unification, independent Netherlands
                     FRQ
   Describe the experience of the
    Huguenots in 17th century France.
   Analyze some of the existing conditions
    that led to the Thirty Years’ War.
   Analyze the achievements &
    disappointments of the Thirty Years’
    War.
                    17th Century
   Economy: Dutch Republic
    – Amsterdam – Europe’s leading commercial center
      during the 17th Century
   English Civil War
    – Focus on causes & consequences of the changing
      relationships between the monarchy & Parliament
   Glorious Revolution
   Constitutional Monarchy – English Bill of Rights
               Age of Absolutism
   Henry Navarre
   Nobles of the Robe, Nobles of the Sword
   Louis XIII
   Cardinal Richelieu
   The Intendant system – weaken the nobility
   Louis XIV
   Cardinal Mazarin
   The Fronde uprising
   Intendant system & the Fronde generate many
    questions
               Age of Absolutism
   Louis XIV – the “Sun King”
   "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State")
   War of Spanish Succession
   Treaty of Utrecht 1713
   Hapsburg Austria
   Rise of Prussia
   Pragmatic Sanction – Maria Theresa
   Rise of Russia – Romanov dynasty
   Peter the Great – modernization programs
    generate numerous questions
  UNIT 2
CHAPTERS 6-10
                Scientific Revolution
   Old assumptions – geocentric
    – Aristotle & Ptolemy
    – Catholic Church
   New – Heliocentric - Copernicus
   Tycho Brahe & Kepler – planetary motion
   Galileo
   Scientific Method - Sir Francis Bacon &
    Descartes
   Physical Laws – Newton
   AP Euro exam expects you to discuss how pivotal
    figures of the Scientific Revolution adopted a new
    view of nature that challenged long held views of the
    relationship between humanity & the universe.
                  The Enlightenment
   The Philosophes
    – Dedicated to exposing social problems & proposing
      reforms based upon implementing natural laws.
   Main ideas: Reason, Natural laws, Happiness,
    Progress, Liberty, Toleration.
   Deism
   Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, Rousseau
   Voltaire & Rousseau generate the most
    questions.
    – Understand:
       • Voltaire supported religious toleration & opposed
         superstition & ignorance.
       • Rousseau: concept of the general will & views of education
         (Emile)
                 The Enlightenment
   Economic
   French Physiocrats: first to question
    mercantilism
   Suggested laissez-faire policies of government
   Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations
    1. Laissez-faire
    2. Free markets
    3. Self interest = the “invisible guiding hand”
   Students may be asked to compare the
    economic policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert &
    Adam Smith
    – Colbert supports mercantilism to strengthen
      France.
                      FRQ
   Evaluate the political, social , & cultural
    reforms Enlightenment thinkers sought
    in 18th century European society.
   Discuss the attitudes of Enlightenment
    thinkers towards organized religion.
                 Rivalries 1740-1763
   Great Britain prospers
   Colonization & trade, Robert Walpole: 1st PM
   France - Louis XV, prosperity continues, but
    debt continues to mount
    – 7 Years’ War 1756-1763 – Treaty of Paris 1763
   Prussia – Hohenzollerns
   Austria – Hapsburgs
    – War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748
    – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
               Enlightened Despots
   Divine-right monarchy evolved into enlightened
    despotism
   Urged by the philosophes to use absolute rule
    for the good of the people
   Combat ignorance & superstition
   Promote religious toleration
   George III – England
   Louis XV – France
     – Both had little or no interest in either the
      philosophes or concept of enlightened despotism
               Enlightened Despots
    Catherine the Great – 1762-1796
    Reforms:
1.    Supported Russia’s first private printing
      presses
2.    Restricted use of torture
3.    Permitted toleration to Jewish communities
4.    Commissioned new “enlightened” law code
     – Nobles refused
    Pugachev’s Rebellion – 1773-1775
    Territorial expansion into Ottoman & Polish
     lands
                Enlightened Despots
    Frederick the Great – 1740-1786
    Reforms:
1.    Supported scientific agriculture
2.    Prepared a unified national code of law
3.    Abolished torture
4.    Encouraged immigration by Huguenots & Jews
      into Prussia
    Strengthened Junkers
     – Students are often asked to make comparisons
       between Peter the Great & Frederick the Great –
       goals & policies
                Enlightened Despots
    Joseph II– 1780-1790
    Reforms:
1.    Abolished serfdom & feudal dues
2.    Abolished forced labor
3.    Religious toleration for Christians & Jews
4.    Reduced influence of the church
5.    Reformed judicial system
6.    Abolished torture & ended the death penalty
    Nobles bitterly opposed reforms
     – Most policies repealed following death of Joseph
                     FRQ
   Enlightened despots have generated MC
    & FRQs.
   Discuss the extent to which Catherine
    the Great, Frederick the Great, &
    Joseph II succeeded & failed as
    Enlightened despots.
             Agricultural Revolution
   Innovations in the Low Countries:
   Enclosed fields
   Use of manure as fertilizer
   Planting variety of crops
   Drainage to reclaim marshes for farmland
   England
   Charles Townshend: crop rotation
   Jethro Tull: seed drill
   Robert Blakewell: selective livestock breeding
   Enclosure system: England & the Low Countries
    – Successfully resisted in France & Germany
                     18th Century
   Population growth
   List factors
   Marriage & family life in the 18th century
   Rise & fall of Witchcraft
    – AP Euro exam: important to remember that
      witchcraft trial & executions most often affected
      elderly widows & mid-wives. Know the reasons for
      the growth & decline of witchcraft.
               Industrial Revolution
   England
   Textiles
   Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, the Steam
    Engine, increased iron production.
   The Growth of Cities
   Jewish populations: the age of the Ghetto in
    Eastern Europe.
                      FRQ
   Consider how popular consumption was
    affected by the Industrial Revolution &
    the shift of populations to urban
    centers.
   Describe some of the ways in which the
    Industrial Revolution transformed the
    workplace for women.
        Trans-Atlantic Economy & Revolution
   The Treaty of Utrecht 1713
   Colonies
   Americas, West Indies, Indian subcontinent
   Spanish colonial system
   African Slavery, the Plantation System
   War of Jenkins Ear
   Seven Years’ War 1756-1763
    – Treaty of Paris 1763
   American Revolution 1775-1781
    – Treaty of Paris 1783
                     FRQ
   Discuss how slavery was linked to the
    economies of Europe, the Americas, &
    Africa.
   To what extent was the War of the
    American Revolution a European conflict?
           French Revolutions – 1789-1815
   Ancien Regime
   3 Estates
   Peasant distress
   Government debt
   Aristocratic resistance
   Royal weakness
   Estates General
   Tennis Court Oath
   The National Assembly
   Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
   Rights of women
            French Revolutions – 1789-1815
   Women’s March on Versailles
   Civil Constitution of the Clergy
   The Legislative Assembly
   San-culottes, Jacobins & Girondists: goals
   Declaration of Pilnitz
   September Massacres
   The National Convention
   Execution of Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
   European reaction
   Reign of Terror
   Termidorian Reaction
           French Revolutions – 1789-1815
   The Directory & the rise of Napoleon
   First Consul
   The Napoleonic Code
   The Concordant of 1801
   Napoleonic Empire 1804
   Submission of Europe – Battle of Austerlitz
   Battle of Trafalgar
   Confederation of the Rhine
   The Continental System & the Fall of Napoleon
    – Focus on the impact Napoleon’s conquests had on
      spreading nationalism & in dissolving the HRE.
                      FRQ
   To what extent was the Third Estate
    responsible for altering the course of
    the French government?
   Analyze the political, economic, & social
    factors that helped bring about the
    French Revolution as well as those that
    led to its downfall.
                    Restoration
   Forces of the Past:
    – Traditional
       • Monarchy, Aristocracy, Church, Patriarchal family
    – Conservatism-belief that tradition is essential & any
      change should be gradual
   Forces of the Future:
    – Industrialization
    – Liberalism-belief in gov’t protection of citizen’s
      natural rights
    – Nationalism-belief that a nation consists of people
      sharing traditions, history, & language
                    Restoration
   Congress of Vienna
    –   Prince Klemens von Metternich
    –   Principle of Legitimacy
    –   Balance of Power
    –   Territorial settlements
    –   Evaluation
   Concert of Europe
   Quadruple Alliance
   Reaction:
    – Young Germans protest – Metternich issues
      Carlsbad Decrees
    – Russia – Decembrist Revolt 1825
                       Romanticism
   Reaction to Enlightenment Reason
   Key: Primacy of Emotion
   Inspired by the power & majesty of nature
   Comparison: Enlightenment vs. Romanticism
   E: mechanical view of the universe & human nature
   Rejected faith, sought reason to explain relationships
   R: belief in a loving, personal God, stressed emotions,
    inner faith, & religious inspiration
   Writers: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor
    Coleridge, Johan Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo,
    Brothers Grimm
   Artists: Friedrich – Wanderer above the Mist,
    Francisco Goya – The Third of May 1808
   Composers: Beethoven, Wagner
                    Romanticism
   Writers:
    – William Wordsworth – Prelude
    – Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Rhime of the Ancient
      Mariner
    – Johan Wolfgang von Goethe - Faust
    – Victor Hugo – The Hunchback of Notre Dame
    – Brothers Grimm - Grimm’s Fairy Tales
   Artists:
    – Friedrich – Wanderer above the Mist
    – Francisco Goya – The Third of May 1808
   Composers:
    – Beethoven – Ninth Symphony
    – Richard Wagner – The Ring of Nibelung
                      FRQ
   Analyze the differences between
    nationalism, conservatism, & liberalism as
    these ideologies were expressed in the
    early 19th century.
   Using examples from the works of at
    least two English Romantics, describe
    the philosophy of the Romantic
    movement in literature.
    – Many AP Euro questions are generated for
      Romanticism, & its comparison to
      Enlightenment ideals
              Industrial Revolutions
   1st - 1700-1800: textiles, iron, coal & steam,
    railroads
   Creation of the factory system
   Division of labor
   Increased demand, lower wages
   Social changes: urbanization, pace of life,
    standardization of work, & heightened class
    consciousness
   2nd - 1820-1900: steel, electricity, oil, gasoline,
    chemicals
   Communication
                Industrial Revolutions
   Reactions:
   Thomas Malthus – population
   David Ricardo – wages
   Luddites
   Early labor unions
   Robert Owen – utopian socialism
   Marx & Engels – Communist Manifesto
    – Marxism is one of the most frequently tested
      topics. Quotes & concepts are often posed.
       • Ex. Class conflict, dictatorship of the proletariat, &
         classless society
                      Liberal Reform
   England
    –   The Reform Bill of 1832
    –   Repeal of the Corn Laws
    –   The Chartist Movement
    –   Feminists
    –   Suffragette Movement
         • Emmeline Pankhurst
   France
    – Revolution of 1830
    – Charles X overthrown
    – Louis Phillipe elected: “Citizen King”
                   Science & Art
   Louis Pasteur
   Robert Koch
   Joseph Lister
   Charles Darwin
    – Theory of Evolution
   Social Darwinism
   Art
   Impressionism
   Cubism
                  Revolutions of 1848
   Causes:
    – Conservatives responding to industrialization &
      socialization
    – Working class radicals & middle class liberals
    – Nationalists in France, Germany, Austria, & Italy
    – Widespread crop failures
   Key points:
    – France: Louis Philippe's gov’t collapsed, Louis
      Napoleon elected, Second Republic established
    – Revolutions of 1848 failed: internal divisions, a lack
      of popular support outside the cities, and the
      continued strength of conservative order
    – Peaceful reforms enabled England to avoid revolts
    – Repressive policies stifled reform in Russia
                      FRQ
   Consider various forms of 19th century
    prison reform.
   Discuss the continuities & changes in
    societal roles for women during the
    Second Industrial Revolution.
                      Crimean War
   Causes:
    – Weakness of the Ottoman Empire
    – Fighting for control over territories held by the
      Ottomans
    – Austria threatened by Russian expansion
    – B & F opposed changes in regional balance of power
   Consequences:
    – Russia suffers humiliating defeat
    – Tsar Alexander II launches ambitious reforms
       • Emancipation of the serfs
    – Creation of zemstvos
                        Unification
   Italy:
    – Revolutionaries: Mazzini, Cavour, Garibaldi
    – Victor Emmanuel rules conquered areas
       • Problems: economic differences between rich north & poor
         south
       • Heavy Debt
   Germany:
    – Prussian leadership: William I, Otto von Bismarck –
      realpolitik, Blood & iron
    – War with Denmark
    – War with Austria
    – War with France
    – Declaration of the German Empire
    – Reaction: Austria-Hungary unite – Dual Monarchy
   France:
    – The Paris Commune 1871
    – The Dreyfus Affair
       • Emile Zola – J’Accuse!
   England:
    – William Gladstone & Benjamin Disraeli
    – The Irish question
   Russia: Nicholas II
    – Bloody Sunday
    – Revolution of 1905
    – October Manifesto
    – Bolsheviks & Mensheviks
   Germany:
    – William II
                      FRQ
   Explain how anti-Semitism developed,
    despite advancements made by Western
    European Jews following the French
    Revolution.
   Describe the steps taken by feminists in
    the late 19th century & early 20th
    century. What issues did they tackle &
    what was the outcome? Were they
    successful in their causes?
   UNIT 3
CHAPTERS 11-15
                        Imperialism
   Old:
    – 16th & 17th centuries
    – Dutch, Spanish, English, & French colonialism
       • Coastal Africa, Indian, Indonesia, & the Americas
   New:
    – Beginning in the 1870s
    – Direct economic & political control over Africa &
      Asia
       • Scramble for Africa, Berlin Conference
       • British Raj in India
   Only Liberia & Ethiopia remained independent
                       Imperialism
   Motives:
    –   New sources of raw materials & new markets
    –   Power & prestige
    –   Social Darwinism
    –   Christian missionaries – “civilizing mission”
   Consequences:
    – Damaged or destroyed native cultures
    – Created global economy
    – Intensified European rivalries
                     FRQ
   Analyze the causes & effects of the
    European Imperialism of the 19th
    century.
                               WWI
   March towards war:
    –   Germany & the new Balance of Power
    –   Britain & France out produced by German industry
    –   Sharp increase in German population
    –   Bismarck’s network of Alliances:
         • Austria-Hungary & Italy (Triple Alliance) & 1887 treaty
           with Russia
    – William II – “One master of the Reich”
   Reaction:
    – 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance
    – Britain abandons “splendid isolation” policy
    – Formation of the Triple Entente
                          WWI
   Balkan Powder Keg:
    –   Ottoman’s power decreases
    –   Nationalism rising
    –   Pan-Slavism (with Russian support)
    –   1908 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia &
        Herzegovina
   Spark:
    – June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip assassination of
      Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo
    – Germany’s “Blank Check” to Austria-Hungary
                               WWI
   Aspects of war
    –   The Schlieffen Plan
    –   Stalemate (Trench Warfare)
    –   War Technologies
    –   Total War
    –   The role of Women
    –   All Quiet On The Western Front
   Russian Revolution
    –   End of Romanov Rule
    –   The Provisional Government
    –   Lenin & the Bolshevik Revolution
    –   The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    –   Civil War
                             WWI
   The Peace Settlement
    –   American intervention
    –   William II abdicates
    –   11-11-1918 Armistice
    –   Wilson’s 14 Points
   The Paris Peace Conference
   The Treaty of Versailles
    – German War Guilt
    – Germany loses 13% of its land
    – German territories in Africa & the Pacific mandated to
      Britain, France, & Japan
    – Poland gains independence
    – German army limited to 100K, no war industry allowed
    – Demilitarization of the Rhine
                        WWI
   New Map of Europe
    – Austria-Hungary dissolved, Hapsburg monarchy
      eliminated
    – Creation of Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia
    – Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania emerged
    – Elimination of Monarchies in Austria-Hungary,
      Germany, & Russia
   The Paris Peace Conference
    – Created the League of Nations
    – Created a legacy of bitterness between both the
      victors & the defeated
                        FRQ
   The AP Euro test devotes few questions to the
    extreme details of the events that led to the
    outbreak of WWI.
    – Spend the majority of time studying the
      consequences of the war for the countries involved.
   Lenin’s pivotal role in the Russian Revolution
    has generated a significant number of MC
    questions. Be sure to study Lenin’s key ideas.
    – Often, comparisons will be made between Lenin’s
      power & leadership with the weakness of Tsar
      Nicholas II & Alexander Kerensky.
   UNIT 4
CHAPTERS 16 & 17
                  Impact of WWI
   Caused unprecedented death & destruction
   Overthrew established monarchies & social
    orders
   Led many people to question the optimistic
    belief in reason, progress, & individual rights
   Uncertainties:
    – Widespread feeling of disillusionment, uncertainty,
      & anxiety
    – New doubts about the ability of individuals to
      control their lives
    – An intellectual crisis that affected every field of
      thought
                    Modern Philosophy
   Friedrich Nietzsche – 1844-1900
    – Expressed contempt for middle-class morality
       • Saying that it led to a false & shallow existence
    – Argued that conventional notions of good & evil are only
      relevant for the ordinary person
    – Rejected reason & embraced the irrational
    – Believed that the “will to power” of a few heroic “super men”
      could successfully restructure the world
   Existentialism:
    – Reason & science are incapable of providing insight into the
      human condition
    – God, reason, & progress are myths; humans live in a hostile
      world, alone & isolated
    – A person is the sum of their actions & choices
                 Modern Philosophy
   Albert Einstein – 1879-1955
   Theory of Relativity: E = mc2
    – Energy = mass x the square of the speed of light
   Energy & mass are interchangeable
    – The foundation for the development of nuclear
      power
   Implications:
    – The universe has few certainties
    – Everything is “relevant” or dependent on the
      observers frame of reference
    – Upsets the optimistic view that the universe was
      predictable & orderly
                 Modern Philosophy
   Sigmund Freud – 1856-1939
   Believed the human psyche includes three
    distinct parts: id, superego, & the ego
    – Id: inborn sexual & aggressive urges
    – Superego: acts as a conscience seeking to repress
      the id. Drives desires into the subconscious, which
      is irrational & recognizes no ethical restrictions
    – Ego: the center of reason. Attempts to find
      balance between the id & superego
   Freud’s theories:
    – Undermined the Enlightenment’s belief in human
      rationalism
    – Had significant influence on modern art & literature
      Searching for International Order
   Problems:
    – Germany resented the Versailles Treaty’s
      harsh terms
    – The United States rejected the Versailles
      Treaty & followed a policy of isolation
    – France was determined to enforce the
      Versailles Treaty & make Germany pay war
      reparations
    – Communist Russia remained outside the
      international system
   Germany: the Weimar Republic
    – Reparations: 30 billion dollars
    – Proposed a 3 year moratorium on payments;
      France occupied the Ruhr Valley
    – Inflation: Hyperinflation
      • Printed vast amounts of paper money
    – By 1923, one dollar was worth 4 trillion
      German marks
   Inflation destroyed savings & incomes of
    German middle class
    – Felt betrayed by their government, would
      later be susceptible to Nazi propaganda
   Hope for Peace:
   The Dawes Plan-1923
    – American plan to reestablish a sound
      German currency & reduce reparations
   The Locarno Pact-1925
    – France, Germany, England, Italy, & Belgium
      sign; guarantees national borders
   The Kellogg-Briand Pact-1928
    – 62 countries promised “to renounce war as
      an instrument of national policy”
   Conservative Authoritarianism
    – Committed to existing social order
    – Opposed popular participation in government
   Totalitarianism
    – Total control over the lives of citizens
    – Used modern technology & communication to
      manipulate & censor information
    – Used education to mold loyal citizens &
      demonize scapegoats & enemies
           Forms of Totalitarianism
   Fascism:
   Led by one leader or party
   Condemned democracy
    – Rival parties undermines national unity
   Supported state sponsored capitalism
   Glorified war & aggressive nationalism
   Exercised control over the media
           Forms of Totalitarianism
   Soviet Communism:
   Led by one party: the dictatorship of the
    proletariat
   Condemned capitalism
    – It exploits the workers
   Supported state ownership of the means
    of production
   Glorified the working class
   Exercised control over the media
                 Soviet Union
   Lenin:
   The NEP (New Economic Policy) revived
    Russia’s economy
   Lenin dies in 1924
   Stalin vs Trotsky
    – By 1928, Stalin was USSRs undisputed
      leader
   Stalin:
   Five Year Plans
   The Great Terror (purges)
                 Fascist Italy
   Postwar Italy:
    – Betrayal by Treaty of Versailles
    – Severe economic crisis: inflation,
      unemployment, massive national debt
    – Fear of Bolshevik influence & revolt
   Benito Mussolini
    –   1922 March on Rome
    –   Fascist State
    –   State Corporate Economy
    –   The Lateran Accord: independence for
        Vatican City
                   Nazi Germany
   Adolf Hitler
    – Weakness of Weimer Republic helped
      prepare German public for a bold leader
    – Nazis used political process to legally claim
      power
   Hitler was a spellbinding demagogue
   Nazi ideology:
    – Nationalism
    – German Master Race
    – Anticommunist, anti-Semitic
   Spanish Civil War
   The Munich Conference 1938
   Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”
   August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact
   September 1, 1939 – German invasion of
    Poland
   Holocaust - factors
    – Jews were a small & vulnerable minority
    – Hitler’s propaganda convinced Germans of
      Jewish inferiority
    – German secret police successful at stifling
      dissent
                      Cold War
   Containment
   Truman Doctrine
   The Marshall Plan
   NATO Alliance
   The Warsaw Pact
   The Berlin Airlift
   Revival of Western Europe
   Treaty of Rome 1957
    – The European Economic Community
      • Eliminated trade barriers
                   Cold War
   Stalin dies 1953
   Khrushchev 1953-1964
   De-Stalinization
   1957 Sputnik
   1961 The Berlin Wall
   1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
   Brezhnev 1964-1982
   Stagnation
   Richard Nixon & détente
   The Helsinki Accords 1975
              End of the Cold War
   Gorbachev 1985-1991
   Glasnost
   Perestroika
   Demokratizatsiya
   Poland & Solidarity
   Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989
   Collapse of the Soviet Union
   The Maastricht Treaty
    – Created the EU & European Central Bank
                   FRQ
   Analyze the effects of glasnost &
    perestroika during Mikhail
    Gorbachev’s presidency in the
    Soviet Union.
   To what extent did the Solidarity
    movement in Poland help bring about
    the fall of communism & the Soviet
    Union?

				
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