# Lab Report - Circuit Analysis For A Linear Network And One Nonlinear Element by xfactornos

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```									Laboratory Report Number 4 Circuit Analysis For A Linear Network And One Nonlinear Element

ETEE 3153 Fall 2009 Laboratory Experiment Number 4

Completed: Due Date:

September 22, 2009 October 6, 2009

Submitted by: Matthew Tindall Lab Partner: Jose Aguilera Instructor: Deborah Sharer, Ph.D.

Report prepared with Microsoft Word 2007 Charts prepared with Multisim v. 10.1 Circuits simulated with Multisim v. 10.1 Schematics prepared with Multisim v. 10.1

Equipment List
-Agilent E3630A Triple Output DC Power Supply (Serial Number 00006932) -Agilent 34401A Digital Multimeter (Serial Number 00021816) -Breadboard -Resistor, (1) 10Ω -Resistor, (1) 50Ω -Resistor, (1) 100Ω -Resistor, (1) 500Ω -Resistor, (1) 1kΩ -Diode, (1) 1N4148 -Diode, (1) 1N914 -(1) LED

Abstract
The experiment will demonstrate the analysis of a linear circuit and nonlinear elements. The Characteristic (voltage vs. current) of the device must be experimentally determined by the user.

Introduction
In this lab, the element being tested will always be placed into the circuit as the load. There will be one linear element and three none linear elements. Various currents will be applied to the circuit while measuring elements voltage and current. The dc characteristic for the element is a straight line for linear elements. The equation of the load line can be determined by points (ISC,0) and (0,VOC). Each “load” element will placed in series with an adjustable resistor to attain a desired current.

Experimental Procedure
Open and Short Circuit Characteristics & Load Elements

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Figure 1: Test Circuit Figure 1 should be tested without the presence of a load, the open circuit voltage and current from terminal A to B should be measured and recorded: IOUT = 0A VOC = 2.02V One should test terminal A & B while short circuited, the short circuit current and voltage of terminal A to B should be measured and recorded: ISC = 4.8mA VOUT = 0V One should place each resistor (one at a time) in the circuit as the load. The voltage across each resistor should be measured. One should note the observed voltages as seen in table 1. The current should be calculated by using (voltage / resistance).
Voltage (volts) 0 .0484 .220 .3937 1.423 1.432 1.85 1.94 ** Resistance (ohms) 0 10.5 50.6 100 506 1k 5k 10,004 INFINITY Current (mA) ** 4.618 4.359 3.937 2.814 1.432 .370 .194 0

Table 1: Voltage Drops Across Varying Resistances With the power supply removed and the source voltage short circuited the resistance between terminals A&B were measured. The thevenin resistance is shown below: RTH = 410.92Ω With the power supply placed back in the circuit, the diode (IN914) was placed in as the load. The voltage across the diode and current traveling through it were then measured. The measured values are listed below. 3

IDIODE = 3.2mA VDIODE = .668V The diode was removed and the LED was placed in as the load. The voltage across the LED and current traveling through it were then measured. The measured values are listed below. ILED = .709mA VLED = 1.65V The LED was removed and the 1kΩ resistor was placed in as the load. The voltage across the resistor and current traveling through it were then measured. The measured values are listed below. I1KΩ = 1.293mA V1KΩ = 1.43V

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Figure 2: Adjustable Resistor Circuit Figure 2 above has a varying current depending upon the voltage supplied and the adjusted resistance. The resistance should be adjusted to achieve the desired current, as long as the source voltage is high enough to produce that particular current. One should place the (IN914) Diode in as the element (Figure 2). The measured values are listed below(table 2).
Desired Current (mA) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 Actual Voltage (V) .54 .58 .59 .61 .63 .64 .66 .66 .68 .71 .73 .75 .77 .80 .84

Current (mA) .210 .406 .607 .777 1.00 1.25 1.51 1.75 2.01 3.01 4.01 5.00 6.07 8.03 10.07

Table 2: Current And Voltages For The (IN914) Diode

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Graph: Diode One should remove the (IN914) Diode and place an LED in its place. The measured values are listed below(table 3). The LED should turn on around 1.5mA.

Desired Current (mA) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Current (mA) .23 .414 .641 .812 1.00 1.252 1.507 1.754 2.094 3.006 4.003 5.022 6.031 8.073 10.08

Actual Voltage (V) 1.60 1.63 1.67 1.67 1.70 1.70 1.71 1.71 1.73 1.75 1.77 1.80 1.83 1.86 1.92

Table 3: Current And Voltages For The Light Emitting Diode (LED)

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Graph: LED One should remove the LED and place an 1000Ω resistor in its place. The measured values are listed below(table 4)

Desired Current (mA) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Current (mA) .23 .414 .620 .804 1.02 1.257 1.509 1.759 2.016 3.005 4.007 5.021 6.025 8.035 10.011

Actual Voltage (V) .22 .42 .62 .81 1.03 1.27 1.52 1.78 2.04 3.04 4.06 5.09 6.11 8.16 10.17

Table 4: Current And Voltages For The 1000Ω Resistor

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Graph: 1000Ω Resistor

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Hypothetical Nonlinear Element

Figure 3: Hypothetical Circuit Through the use of Multisim, test a hypothetical element by creating a voltage-controlled voltage source to create the equation V = (2E06)*I(V1)*I(V1)*I(V1)). The input is a 10mA current source in series with a 0V voltage source and a 1Ω resistor. The output is the voltage of the voltage controlled voltage source on parallel with a 10M resistor. Current (A) 0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 0.0035 0.0040 0.0045 0.0050 Voltage(V) 0 0.00025 0.002 0.00675 0.016 0.03125 0.054 0.08575 0.128 0.18225 0.25 9

0.0055 0.33275 0.0060 0.432 0.0065 0.54925 0.0070 0.686 0.0075 0.84375 0.0080 1.024 0.0085 1.22825 0.0090 1.458 0.0095 1.71475 0.0100 2 Table 5: Current And Voltage For Hypothetical circuit

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Conclusion
This lab illustrated the technique of analyzing the distinct difference between linear and nonlinear elements. In this experiment one should find that only the resistor is linear. The LED and hypothetical element were nonlinear. The LED and Diode should not have much change in voltage. The diode’s voltage maxed at .84 and the LED maxed at 1.92 with no significant changes as the current was amped up from 0 to 10A.

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Raw Data

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