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Babysitting Beginnings

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					Babysitting Beginnings Session Outline

Session 1......................................................... Session 2......................................................... Session 3......................................................... Session 4......................................................... Session 5......................................................... Session 6.........................................................

Babysitter's Responsibilities The Business of Babysitting Understanding Children Fun with Kids Sitting Safely Babysitting in Action

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Session 1 Babysitter Responsibilities Babysitting is a very important job. Parents place the children they love in the care of the babysitter. They expect the best care of their children from the babysitter. Wherever there are families with young children, babysitters will be needed. Through this book you will learn the skills you need to be a responsible sitter. What Will I Learn? • Responsibility while caring for young children may help you grow and develop your thinking skills ability to solve problems and learn new skills. Accepting the responsibility of caring for young children is an obligation that you will do your best to keep the children safe and happy while they are in your care. • As a babysitter, you will interact and relate to others, parents and children, and develop relationships and friendships. You must be interested in caring for children and like to be around young children. Things you learn in this project can help you if or/and when you become a parent. You may also learn things in this project that will help you in future career planning decisions—you may become interested in being a camp counselor, a fulltime childcare provider, or an elementary school teacher. Babysitting may be a way for you to earn money that you can use to help reach goals that you have set for yourself. Skills with money management will be useful throughout your life.

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What Can I Expect? The first time you baby-sit for children is the most important for building trust with the children and the parents. The time you spend preparing for your first caregiving experience will make for a happier and safer time with the children. You are there primarily to take care of the children and to keep them safe till the parents return. You are selling the service of "caring" for the children that includes the way you feel and the way you act. Discuss with the parents if there are any expectations about handling other household chores. Remember that anything used for the child should be cleaned up-like toys and clothes picked up, and dishes cleaned. Be prepared to handle emergencies that may occur. You should have permission of your own parent/guardian before accepting any sitting jobs. As a Sitter, You should remember          You are in charge, but are not the parent To be responsible You must like children. Be prepared to entertain children by reading, playing games, doing activities from your "Babysitter's Kit." Your job is a business arrangement You should be neat and clean. Wear comfortable, washable clothes. To be reliable To follow instructions To never leave the children unattended To learn and practice safety

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Name ________________________

Club/Group_______________________

Babysitters Do Three of my favorite memories from early childhood were. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Babysitter Share (check when complete)  Share with your group or a friend why these were your favorite memories. Babysitters in Action  Role play a situation where you are the babysitter and a friend is the parent. You have just arrived. The babysitter and the parent should discuss expectations and rules.

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Session 2 The Business of Babysitting Communicating with Parents Don't be afraid to talk to the parents and ask questions. The more information you have before they leave, the easier your job will be. Arrive at least 15 minutes early so you have time to talk with a parent and ask questions. It is also a good time to allow the children become comfortable with you while their parent(s) is still there. Make a good first impression when you meet the parents and the children. Smile, look them in the eye, kneel down to the child's level and say their name. Be willing to tell parents about the other children and families that you have babysat for. Ask those families for references. Complete the BABYSITTERS CHECKLIST in this project for each family that you babysit for. Creative Job Hunting It is very important to know whom you are babysitting for. Don't take a job with complete strangers. Your parents should know the people or take the time to meet them before you go to a new home. Word of mouth is probably the best way to find babysitting jobs. Tell family and friends who have young children that you are willing to care for them. You may start out by watching children while the parents are at home. Make a business card that you can leave with parents or family and friends. Make sure your parents/guardians approve of any of your advertising methods. Doing a good job with the children is the best advertising for future work. If you have friends who are babysitting, you might be available to substitute for them. Your local pediatrician might recommend you to parents with young children. Check with community activity and service groups that have children's activities. Check with local exercise and fitness places to see if they need child care workers while parents attend class. Do children need to be supervised while they walk home or ride a bus from elementary school? Offer your services to walk them home. Can you watch an elementary-aged child in your home for a few hours after school? Team up with another sitter to work for two families who might go out together. Plan a party with other babysitters for children that you offer at a charge per hour or per child. Babysitting Dos and Don'ts  Don't accept a job when you are sick or have a cold.  Don't accept a job when a child is ill.  Don't accept a job when you have a lot of studying to do.  Don't try to combine a date with your sitting job.  Don't be late.  Don't accept a job from total strangers. Ask where they got your name. Then call that person and find out more about the family before accepting the job.  Don't empty the refrigerator.

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   

Don't play the TV or radio so loudly you can't hear the children. Don't leave the children alone. Don't' snoop through the house or personal items of the family. Don't forget what the parents have asked you to do.

Getting Paid There maybe times when you volunteer your time to baby-sit with a group of children to gain experience. This is a great way to gain practice before you start your babysitter career. Go to a local church, temple, or other community group with young families and ask if they need assistance in their child care activities. The valuable experience you gain may pay off in contacts for future jobs. Setting your fees for babysitting is very important because it can save embarrassment for both parents and babysitters. You are doing a service job for the parents and should expect an agreed upon pay fee. Ask your friends what they are charging for babysitting, and then you will be able to say "The hourly rate in this area is..." Things to consider: hourly fees, fees for more than two children, fees for late evening or nights, fees for extra chores. The more children you are in charge of, the more the fee should be. If parents do not pay you at the end of the babysitting time, or have other problems about paying, you can decide not to babysit for them any more. You may ask ahead of time for the payment to be in cash, not a check. Keep a calendar to list the dates and hours that you will be babysitting. This will help you keep records and not overlap jobs. You may open up a bank account for the money you earn while babysitting. Plan how you will use your money. Observation and Alertness to the Child's Environment Know how many children you can take care of at one time. Watching more than two children may require an older and more experienced sitter. If you have to make decisions about watching children, stay with the younger ones. Don't keep unexpected friends/neighbors if the parents did not ask you to. Know the ages of the children and any special nicknames. Ask about their favorite toys and games. Complete the BABYSITTING RECORD for each family who you babysit for. Before the Parents Leave Ask about where these items are located:  Smoke alarms  Electrical  Fuse box  First aid supplies  Flashlight  Ask to be shown how to lock the doors and windows.  Ask for instructions about operating the telephones on your first session.  Ask if there are any pets in the home and how to provide for their care. Family Rules and Routines Families make rules that set boundaries and clarify expectations so that the family can work together, be safe and healthy, and be happy. Ask what the rules are that will be in effect while you are babysitting. The following items cover some rules that you may deal with: Telephone - Don't call your best friend just to chat. Use the phone only for emergencies. Ask the parents how they would like the phone to be answered. If an answering machine is available, parents may want that to be used.

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Visitors - Your job is to be in charge of the children, so this is not the time for your boyfriend or girlfriend to visit. Ask if the parents are expecting any visitors or deliveries. Ask about rules if the children say they want to visit friends or have friends come over. Do not open the house door or let anyone into the house that you do not know. Keep doors and windows locked. If you hear a suspicious noise or have an unexpected visitor who will not leave, call a neighbor or the police. Food - Parents may tell you what snacks or beverages are available to you and the children, but don't raid the refrigerator. You may want to bring along some snacks for yourself to enjoy after the children have gone to bed. Television - How long can the children watch? What type of programs? Bedtime - Time? Bathing? Check on sleeping children several times throughout the evening. If the parents are going to out very late at night, are there sleeping arrangements for you, the sitter. Behavior - Getting along with brothers and sisters. How to handle misbehavior. When a parent returns home Give the parents a report of what happened while they were gone-tell about any accidents, phone calls, problems, and unusual events. If something went wrong or the children misbehaved, don't be afraid to admit it. When you accept a babysitting job, ask about the transportation arrangements, especially if it is too far to walk or ride a bike or late at night. Make sure your parents know the transportation arrangements. If the parents are late returning, call your parents to let them know you are still on the job. Be alert for any signs that the parents are not able to drive, especially from alcohol, and call your parents to make other arrangements to get home. Don't let yourself be forced into riding with someone that you are unsure of. Protect yourself. Expect to be paid when the job is finished on the parents' return. Babysitters Do Check off the activities you did at home or with your babysitter's group;      Role play a new family who wants to hire a babysitter. Complete the Babysitting Record/Customer Roster for a family that you babysit for. If you aren't babysitting yet, complete with a parent or guardian to practice. This is where you can keep track of information about your experiences, including how much you were paid. Begin a portfolio of your babysitting work. A portfolio is a collection of notes, pictures, journal entries, drawings, photographs, and/or projects that relate to children you care for. You can use big envelopes, a scrapbook, manila folders, or a box to store your portfolio items. Complete the family rules worksheet in this project. What rules does your family have? Practice making a time schedule for a babysitting job. Use the form in this project to help you. Babysitters Share Share with the group or a friend the rules in your family and why you have them. Babysitters in Action Use the Babysitting Record/Customer Roster and The Babysitter Information Form when you babysit. Complete a Time Schedule for your next babysitting job.

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Name__________________________

Club/Group________________________

A Plan for My Babysitting Time Activities I want to do with the children Activity How Long Will it Take

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Notes about my babysitting job: Things to tell parents _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Problems I had _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

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BABYSITTER INFORMATION FORM (Make a copy for each new family.) Family's name Children's name(s) and ages Where parents can be reached:    Name/Location Telephone/cell phone number (if available) Time parents expect to return

House rules:  Who can visit?  How long can they stay?  Who can the children visit?  What are the TV rules?  When is bedtime?  What is the bedtime routine? Where are the following located?  Telephone  Thermostat  Flashlight  Emergency kit Emergency numbers  Relative or friends  Fire Department  Police

Are there any specific instructions (medicine, etc.)?

Other chores to complete?

Food allowed . . .  For children  For babysitter

(This should be a form with spaces or lines for each entry.)

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BABYSITTING RECORD/CUSTOMER ROSTER Use a copy of this form for each family you babysit for. Don't write on this copy in your project book. Do not submit these records for exhibit or judging.

Employer information    Parent's name Telephone Address

What you agreed to do     Date and time of arrival Length of assignment Number of children Children's name(s) and age9s)

Travel arrangements

(This should be a form with spaces or lines for each entry.)

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Name_________________________

Club/Group_____________________

MY FAMILY RULES Think about the rules or traditions that you have in your family. List a rule if you have one in each of the categories and why you think the rule is important or needed. You may not have rules in your family for all of these categories.

About Bedtime _________________________________________________________________ About Television _________________________________________________________________ About Visitors _________________________________________________________________ About Friends _________________________________________________________________ About Homework _________________________________________________________________ About Social Events _________________________________________________________________ Other Rules _________________________________________________________________

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Session 3 Understanding Children You may babysit children of different ages for families that you agree to work for. You should be prepared to take care of children from babies through school age. Babies have very different needs than older children and require extra special care. Toddlers like to be entertained and require lots of energy. Preschoolers love games and activities and school-age children still need your attention and guidance. Read on to find out what to expect from children at different ages. Table 1: Ages and Stages of Children INFANT (birth-1 year):  Crying can mean hunger; diapers need a change, loneliness, etc.  never leave baby alone on dressing table  Know how to change diapers, bathe, and feed infants.  Handle baby carefully, supporting head.  Be careful not to "toss" baby up in the air.  Babies need constant attention - needs warm support, nourishment, and play.  Likes to be with other people. Because infants grow and change so rapidly, their needs and wants change throughout the first 18 months. Look at Table 1, "What are Infants Like" for more information. TODDLER (1-3 years):  Snacks frequently.  "Into everything."  "No!” stage.  Toilet training usually taking place.  Wants to do his own thing.  Constant attention needed.  May like cuddling.  Initiate play.  Hide and seek, guessing games are successful.  Often seems as if they aren't listening.  Can often get what you want done without making a big effort out of it.  Begins to use some words i.e., tata - bye-bye. PRESCHOOLER (4-6 years):  "Why" stage.  Imaginary playmates common.  They like to think they are in charge.  Child shouldn't be left alone.  Child requires comforting or distraction when parent leaves.  Requires more watching.  Sleeps less.  Is more independent.  Bedtime resistance common.  May have bedtime ritual.  Like quiet activities before bed.  Check every 1/2 hour.  Not completely toilet trained.  May have bad dreams or fears and need comfort until back to sleep.  Can make a game of tasks that need to be done.

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SCHOOL AGE CHILD (6-10 years):  Usually the age with the greatest challenge.  Developing many interests.  "That’s not fair!" period.  Like to assume responsibility.  Enjoy activities such as making popcorn, games, and crafts.  Like to talk about their interests.  May not want a babysitter.  May be jealous of time and attention given younger children.  Need definite plans for amusement. FOR ALL AGES:  Show love and acceptance.  Develop self-confidence by praising and making them feel useful and important.  Know how to handle snacks, food at bedtime, sickness, putting to bed.  Understand things from their point of view.  Make each child feel special.  Gain cooperation of older children in caring for others.  Let them know your limits. Reprinted with Permission, University of Massachusetts Extension 4-H Youth and Family Development (1996). "Babysitters' Program." Amherst, MA. University of Massachusetts Extension.

Table 2: How Babies Grow and Develop ONE MONTH Physical Can see, hear, feel, taste, and smell at birth. Uses reflexes. Intellectual Cries to communicate. Limited interest in learning. Emotional Startles at loud sounds. Quiet when content, crying when not. Social Likes soft, high-pitched voices. Likes to look at faces. TWO MONTHS Physical Focuses eyes. Eats every 3 to 4 hours. Intellectual Follows light or objects with eyes. Emotional Reacts to distress by crying. Social Smiles.

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THREE MONTHS Physical Holds head up. Intellectual Recognizes mother or primary caregiver. Emotional Social Coos and gurgles. FOUR MONTHS Physical Tries to grab with hands. Tries to roll over. Intellectual Can use eyes and hands together. Emotional Cries different ways for different reasons. Social Laughs out loud. SIX MONTHS Physical Sits with support. Teeth appear. Intellectual Reaches for and grasps objects. Emotional Shows signs of fear, anger or disgust. Laughs and chuckles. Social Tries to talk to image in mirror EIGHT MONTHS Physical Sits alone. Intellectual Transfers objects for hand to hand. Puts objects in mouth. Social Responds to name. Pats image in mirror. 10 MONTHS Physical Creeps or crawls. Pulls self up. Intellectual Can pick up small objects.

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Emotional Seeks attention by yelling. May show shyness, fear of strangers. Social Plays peek-a-boo. 12 MONTHS Physical Eats three meals. Has tripled birth weight and grown about 10 in. Drinks from a cup. Stands and takes steps. Intellectual Says 1 or 2 words. Points to desired objects. Imitates animals. Emotional Shows controlled anger directed toward a person or a thing. Social Waves good-bye. Plays pat-a-cake. Cooperates. Responds to adult more than to other infants. 15 MONTHS Physical Walks alone with feet wide apart. Runs on toes. Walks sideways and backwards. Tries to go up and down stairs. Intellectual Uses 6 to 20 words. Short attention span. Can stack blocks on top of one another. Can hold pencil and scribble. Emotional Unpredictable. Normal to be fearful, anxious, resentful. Self-centered. Social Plays alone. Recognizes other children and tries to get attention. Copies others. 18 MONTHS Physical Can throw objects. Walks up stairs with hand held. Intellectual Drinks alone. Is curious. Says "NO." Understands words. Emotional Shows affection. Selfish. Cries when toys are taken away. Social Tends to be rebellious. Points to objects and pictures named. Reprinted with permission from the National Network for Child Care - NNCC. Lagoni, L. S., Martin, D. H., MaslinCole, C., Cook, A., MacIsaac, K., Parrill, G., Bigner, J., Coker, E., & Sheie, S. (1989). Good times with infants. In *Good times with child care* (pp. 1-12). Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.

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Dealing with Children's Behavior Once you understand what children are like at each stage of development, behavior problems are easier to understand and deal with. Here are some tips on working with children and how to avoid behavior problems before they start! Provide a variety of things to do. Understand what the child is like at various ages. Review the information distributed during your Babysitter's Program. It will help to read about the age you will be sitting for just before you go to your job. Expect good behavior. Requests and suggestions bring about better results than orders or commands. We all feel the same way; we respond better to positive suggestions than to negative ones. Example: Walk over here with me instead of "Don't walk on the grass. Give an older child fair warning before you do something. Be gentle but firm. Don't let the child talk you out of your decision. Example: "In a few minutes it will be time to put up your truck and go with me to the store," or "As soon as this TV show is finished, it will be time to get ready for bed." Remember that children will test each new babysitter to find out what rules wil1 be established and enforced. Finding out the rules you will enforce is a form of security for the child. Temper tantrums are a temporary loss of control. Most children have them occasionally. Stay calm. Recognize a temper tantrum as a normal childhood experience and don't let your temper flare. Don't walk off and leave the child. The best thing to do may be to let the child cry or maybe a hug is what the child needs. Don't refer back to the tantrum unless the child brings it up. Discipline is helping the child learn self-control. It is not punishment which is physically, emotionally, or verbally hurting a child. Try to discipline by using consequences. "We'll have to put your trike away if you continue to bump into people." Of course, you must follow through. Toddlers may just need a time out. A general rule is one minute for each year of age. Often you can avoid a discipline situation by planning ahead. If you see there is only one cupcake left and two children, cut it into two pieces or don't offer it. Bedtime does not have to be a difficult time for a babysitter. Problems may not occur if you let children know 15-30 minutes ahead of time that the bedtime is approaching. It is important to have quiet activities such as quiet games, songs, or stories before bedtime. Excitable games tend to wake the child up more and make it difficult for him to relax. Snacks, if any, should be light, i.e. a cookie or fruit and a small glass of milk. If a child refuses to sleep, allow quiet activity in bed such as reading for a short while. Hints on Working with Children 1. Do not do for a child what he/she can do for him/herself. A. Consider the child as an individual. 1. Consider the child's age. 2. Let him know what is expected and see that he does it. B. Be kind and positive. 1. Affection and thoughtfulness are important. 2. Be quiet spoken and pleasant. 3. Be honest with the child about your feelings. Expect to get angry on occasion, but let the child know what angered you. 4. Accept the child's feelings and respect them. 5. Give the child alternatives and options - avoid commands and scolding. C. Be quick to size up the situation and do what is necessary.

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D. Be firm but fair in making decisions. 1. Do not overindulge the child. 2. Do not let a situation get out of hand. 3. Do not frighten a child. 4. Do not threaten a child with unreasonable punishment. 5. Never spank or slap a child. 6. Be consistent about what a child can or cannot do. E. If you need extra help in controlling the child, call the child's parents or your own parents for valuable suggestions. Permission to reprint, University of Massachusetts Extension 4-H Youth and Family Development (1996). "Babysitters' Program." Amherst, MA. University of Massachusetts Extension. Babysitters Do Check off those activities you did at home or with your babysitter's group;  practiced changing a baby's (or doll's) diaper.     calculated how much it would cost to take care of a baby for one month discussed with my helper or a friend what to do if I babysit children of different ages. role played with my helper or a friend how to get a child to go to bed who doesn't want to turn off the T.V. prepare a nutritious snack for a child. I made_______________________________

Babysitters Share Have you ever noticed that children are not all alike?? Talk with a friend about the differences you noticed between children you babysit for, younger sisters or brothers, or children that you know. Were they different ages? Write down some of the differences you discussed. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Babysitters in Action Write at least two new things you learned about children's behavior: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ How will what you learned about children's behavior help you when you are babysitting? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Session 4 Fun with Children Playing with Children Play is a child's work. As a babysitter, it is important that you play with the children you are babysitting and not just "watch" them. Play activities should be not too hard or too easy for the age of the child. Follow these five rules of play when you are babysitting.     Watch children without interrupting their fantasy world. Observe their interests and level of skills. Which playthings are a child's favorite and why? Join in and play at the child's level. Let the child lead. If you try to teach complicated ideas too quickly, it might confuse the child and disappoint you. Ask children to tell you about what they are doing. Do not pass judgment, ask what the project is, or force the children to draw conclusions about their work. After playing for while at the children's pace, introduce a slightly more difficult stage of play. For example, if a child can handle a one-piece puzzle, get out one with three pieces. If a child likes building with blocks, show how to use cars with blocks. Then back away and watch again to see if and how the child explores this new activity. After children learn to do something new by themselves, you can get involved again and suggest another new activity.

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Babysitting Basics: First Rate Sitters, Treva Williams, Ohio State University Extension and Freda Corey, Portsmouth City Health Department, 1997. Language and Reading with Children Some children have had much more experience with stories and music than others. For this reason, it is not possible to say that one book or song will always be preferred by a three-year-old, another by a fiveyear-old. Whenever you select a book for a child, you need to know something about the child and his interests. You should do your best to select a book or song that you think will interest the child for whom it is intended. The following suggestions may help you: A child from one to two years old usually prefers a story that is told. He especially likes a story or song about himself. It takes only a few simple ideas accompanied by actions to make a "story" for him. The story might go something like this: "Johnny is a fine boy. He has blue eyes (point to them). He has curly brown hair (point). He likes to eat his cereal . . . etc." Dressing, eating, and playing all make good ideas around which to build a story that a very young child enjoys. The story may be spoken or it may be "sung." Children from a year on like to look at picture books. The pictures should be large and there should be only one picture on a page. They should be good examples of what they are to represent: that is, a picture of a ball should look like a ball; one of a cat should look like a cat, etc. Young children also like to turn the pages of a book. They sometimes like to tell stories that they make up about the pictures. Turning pages and talking are activities that the child enjoys and are an important part of "having a story" read to him. As the child gets older she likes longer stories, but still likes them to be about things with which he is familiar. . . mother, father, brothers and sisters, animals, playthings, food, etc. She likes to imagine some things for himself. The stories may either be read or told. A child likes to see the pictures in a book that is being read. A single child usually likes to sit in the lap and help hold the book. If you are reading the story to a group of children, have them sit in front of you and hold the book in your left hand with it facing the children. You read the story by looking at it sideways.

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This is not difficult to do with simple stories that you know well. A child often likes to talk about what is happening in the story before it is all read. It's a good idea to let him get some of his ideas out. Sometimes a child has an idea that he doesn't like stories. One way to get a child interested is to do a few "action" stories with him. Then try other short, simple stories. Whenever possible, let the child pick his own story from among two or three. You might say, "Here are two books. Which would you like me to read?" Then read the story he chooses. Encourage a child to play out some of the things that he had heard from stories. Reprinted with Permission, University of Massachusetts Extension 4-H Youth and Family Development (1996). "Babysitters' Program." Amherst, MA. University of Massachusetts Extension. Finger Play Language Activities Home Sweet Home A nest is a home for a robin; (cup hands to form a nest) A hive is a home for a bee; (turn cupped hands over) A hole is a home for a rabbit; (make a hole with hands) And a house is a home for me. (make roof with peaked hands) Quiet Cats We are little pussy cats (use hands, crawl, or tip toe) Walking round and round. We have cushions on our feet (whisper) And never make a sound. Taller, Smaller When I stretch up, I feel so tall; When I bend down, I feel so small. Taller, taller, taller, taller; Smaller, smaller, smaller, smaller, Into a tiny ball. The Apple Tree Way up high in the apple tree, (point up high) Two little apples smiling at me; (make two circles with hands) I shook that tree as hard as I could; (wrap hands around "trunk" and shake) Down came the apples and (two circle hands come down) Mmmm, they were good! (rub tummy) I'm a Little Teapot I'm a little teapot, short and stout. Here is my handle Here is my spout When I get all steamed up, hear me shout, "Tip me over and pour me out!" The Eentsy, Weentsy Spider The eentsy, weentsy spider climbed up the waterspout Down came the rain And washed the spider out Out came the sun And dried up all the rain And the eentsy, weentsy spider climbed up the spout again Music and Movement To children, music means activity. The young child likes to move his body and arms to music. If she is forced to sit still, she will not hear the music because she is giving all her attention to trying not to move.

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Pre-school children like singing action games about familiar happenings. They usually like to play "Farmer in the Dell," "Here We Go 'Round the Mulberry Bush," and "Duck, Duck, Goose." By five or six, children like singing games with more complicated actions, such as "In and Out the Window," and "Lobby Loo." You need to help the pre-school child choose actions that seem suited to the music. You can do this by saying, "This is marching music," or "This music is soft, so we tip-toe quietly." Sometimes you can say, "Listen to the music and do what it tells you to do." Children like to do different things with music . . . skip, walk, hop, beat rhythms. When the child is four, five, or six years old, he can be introduced to music to which he can "just listen." Select short records or play only parts of long records at first. As the child becomes more interested he will want to listen for a longer time. Making Musical Instruments or Toys Small muscles are developed as children help make and use musical instruments. Children may have more interest in using and experimenting with instruments that they have created. Some of these examples are too hard for small children to make by themselves. You'll have to patiently help them and be satisfied if their results are less than perfect. Drums        Tape the top securely on an oatmeal box, or a margarine container. Cut the ends off a large can, cover both ends with rubber inner tubing and lace the tubing together, or use a plastic snap-on lid on each end. The end of any cylinder-shaped container can be covered with construction paper or fabric scraps. Try any surface that is available. Compare the differences in the sounds they make. Drumsticks can be your hands, spoons, pencils, dowels, or sticks. You may want to wrap one end of the dowel or stick with cloth, or tie cotton on it to make a different sound.

Tambourines  Remove corks from bottle caps.  Flatten the caps, and punch holes in them.  Make sure there are no sharp edges.  Tie caps to the edges of aluminum pie pans or paper plates.  Lace two paper plates together and tie small bells to the edges.  Put bottle caps, buttons, or stones in an aluminum pie pan.  Place another pie pan face down over it.  Punch evenly spaced holes around the rim and lace together tightly. Shakers        

Use film containers, plastic eggs, baking powder cans, oatmeal boxes, or boxes with lids. Experiment with different sounds by putting dry beans, macaroni, rice, buttons, stones, etc. in them. Tape together securely. Little children like to put things in their mouths, so be sure they can not get to the contents of the shaker. Staple paper plates together with something that rattles inside. Use fairly large objects inside, and place the staples very close together so the contents will not fall out. Place tape over staples, or whip edges with yarn after holes are punched. Attach tie strings for musical hats.

Rhythm Sticks  Use dowel rods or bamboo fishing poles.  Cut them 12 to 15 inches long.

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 

Paint or shellac gives them a different sound. Chopsticks, spoons, or rungs from old chairs can be used.

Swish or Sandpaper Blocks  Glue sandpaper to one side of 2-by 2 by 1-inch wooden blocks, rough side up.  Rub sandpapered sides of the two blocks together for sound effects.  Be sure the blocks are smooth and do not have splinters. Cymbals and Bells  Make cymbals from jar lids, saucepan covers or aluminum plates.  A spool may be attached as a handle.  Finger cymbals can be made by punching two holes in the center of two matching jar lids, large buttons or bottle caps.  Fold a fat rubber band in half and push each end through the holes.  Put your thumb and forefinger through the loops and clack away.  Sew small sleigh bells to elastic and make a wrist band of bells. Kazoos and Horns  Tape waxed paper over one end of a cardboard tube (from paper towels or toilet paper).  Hum into the open end with your mouth open a little.  This may take a little practice.  A different sound is made if you make three holes in the tube with a pencil.  The waxed paper can be held in place with a rubber band.  Use different sized empty soda bottles and blow across the mouth of the bottle.  Different sizes give different tones. Banjos and Guitars  Cut a large hole in the middle of a shoe box lid and a piece out of the end of the lid and box.  Cut a slit in cardboard tube, and fit into place.  Stretch rubber bands around the box.  Space them far enough apart to get your fingers between them.  Slide a pencil or short piece of cardboard tube under them.  "Tune" the banjo by using different sized rubber bands.  Stretch rubber bands of different sizes around the partially opened box.  How can you make the sound change? Water Chimes  Put water in eight glasses.  Start with an almost full glass on the left, and end with a small amount of water in the eighth glass.  The tone of the full glass will be deep and clear.  Add or pour water from the other glasses until you have the eight musical notes of a scale.  Tap the glasses gently with a spoon, a pencil, or your fingernail.  If you want a short note, put your finger on the rim of the glass, and the sound will stop.  Fill a number of glass containers with different amounts of water.  By carefully striking the sides of the containers with different utensils, they will ring out with varying degrees of sound. Reprinted with permission from the National Network for Child Care - NNCC. Lagoni, L. S., Martin, D. H., Maslin-Cole, C., Cook, A., MacIsaac, K., Parrill, G., Bigner, J., Coker, E., & Sheie, S. (1989). Good times with music and rhythm. In *Good times with child care* (pp. 206-221). Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.

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Outdoor Play Take the children you are babysitting for a walk outside. As you walk, talk to the child(ren) about what you are seeing. Here are some ways you can do this:  Look for different shapes and colors of leaves.  Point out wild flowers. Discuss fragrance, shape, and color.  Listen to the different sounds in the out-of-doors.  Notice the birds...talk about the different kinds of birds.  Tell the children something about the birds...how they live, where they get their food, and other things of interest.  Observe the sky...cloud formations, sunrises, sunsets, different colors of the sky, rainbows (if and when), and the stars at night.  You and your child will think of other things as you walk. Remember: The safety of the child is of utmost importance, so study up on your safety rules before going for your walk. Adapted with permission, University of Massachusetts Extension 4-H Youth and Family Development (1996). "Babysitters' Program." Amherst, MA. University of Massachusetts . extension. Creative Activities What is Creativity Creativity means having the power or quality to express yourself in your own way. Children are naturally creative. They see the world through fresh, new eyes and then use what they see in original ways. One of the most rewarding parts of working with children is the chance to watch them create. They do it all the time, all by themselves. Caregivers need only encourage the natural creativity that exists. Children display creativity in all parts of play, but especially in four main areas: art, language, music, and fantasy. Art is a way of expressing ideas and feelings in visual form. It includes children's use of crayons, paint, scissors, glue, play dough, and other craft materials. Language is the expression of ideas and feelings through words, either written or spoken. It includes the stories children tell and their creative "plays" and "pretend" games. Music is the expression of ideas and feelings using bodily movements. It includes dancing, singing, playing instruments, and using the body to make movements such as leaping like a frog or exploring how many ways to make a circle with the body. Fantasy is expressing ideas and feelings through pretend. It can include playing "make-believe", daydreaming, talking with imaginary companions, and reading fantasy books. Accordion People Cut strips of construction paper about 2" wide and 12" long. Demonstrate a fan/accordion fold (or have a child who knows how demonstrate). Let children try it with a strip of paper. Then encourage them to think of creative ways of making heads and feet from a variety of art materials to attach to each end of the folded strip to make a person that can be short or tall. Uncooked Play Dough 2 cups flour 1 cup salt 2 cups water (approximately) 1. Mix together flour and salt. Add enough water to make dough the consistency of stiff cookie dough. Color by adding food coloring to the water before mixing or by kneading in dry tempera after mixing. The dry tempera gives deeper, more brilliant colors. This can be air dried or baked in a 225 degrees Fahrenheit oven for 2 to 3 hours if desired. Reprinted with permission from the National Network for Child Care - NNCC. Lagoni, L. S., Martin, D. H., MaslinCole, C., Cook, A., MacIsaac, K., Parrill, G., Bigner, J., Coker, E., & Sheie, S. (1989). Good times

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being creative. In *Good times with child care* (pp. 239-253). Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Activities with Food IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER Good cooks of all ages always wash their hands before cooking. Tell children to wait until the dish is done before sampling it. This will help prevent illness. Expect spills and messes. Children have short attention spans. Give them quick, simple jobs, and give instructions one at a time. 5. Children get excited and forget. Repeat directions as often as needed. 6. Young cooks need constant supervision. 7. Give children jobs to help with cleanup. Rice or Popcorn Cake Faces You will need:  Rice or popcorn cakes  Peanut butter  Bananas  Plastic knife  Raisins  Napkin or plate Spread peanut butter on cake. Use 2 slices of banana to form eyes. Shape a smiling mouth with raisins. Apple Smiles You will need:  Apples (washed)  Peanut butter  Miniature marshmallow  Knife or apple slicer  Plastic knife  Napkin or plate Wash apples before slicing. Leave on peel. Spread l apple with peanut butter. Add 3 or 4 marshmallows near the peel for teeth. Cover with another apple slice. Adapted from: University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Toys Infants Infants need bright-colored toys of many textures. They should be washable, nonbreakable, and have no sharp edges that might cut or scratch. Toys should be large enough so they cannot be swallowed and they should have no small attached pieces (like eyes on a stuffed animal or bells on a shaker) that could be pulled off and swallowed. At this age, babies put everything into their mouths as part of exploring their worlds. Any toy they are given must be safe when used in this way. Infants are interested in looking at toys, touching them with their hands and mouth, fitting pieces of things together and making sense of their worlds. Choose toys for them to look at, feel, chew on, hold, and drop. As infants begin to walk or crawl, they also will be interested in push-pull toys and balls. Appropriate infants toys include: rattles, squeak toys, blocks, crib mobiles, stacking toys and rings, push-pull toys, stuffed animals or dolls, nested boxes or cups, books with rhymes, simple picture books, noise making toys, small soft toys for throwing, strings of beads (large, plastic), and music-making toys. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Toddlers Toddlers are active and enjoy climbing, running, and jumping. They need toys to meet these needs. They also are interested in doing things with their hands as the small muscles in their fingers become more developed. However, toys for this age group should be simple and require little coordination. During this period, toddlers become interested in playing with others and in imitating grown-up activities. Toys like dress-up clothes are great for this! As a caregiver, be careful about imposing sex stereotypes on toddlers' toy choices. Boys will sometimes show interest in dolls or want to be "the mommy." Girls may want trucks or to be "Superman." That is okay. This exploration is normal and necessary for them to learn about the world. Toddlers also are interested in sensory materials such as paint, play dough, crayons, and chalk. They usually are not interested in drawing or painting a specific object. They like to scribble and mix colors. When talking to young children about their creations, it is better to say "Tell me about your picture," rather than "What is it?" Toddler's still put toys in their mouths, so you will need to watch for objects with small parts. Also, watch out for items, such as paint and chalk, as toddlers think it is great fun to eat these! Toys should be sturdy and should not have sharp edges or points. Toddlers enjoy balloons, but caregivers should be careful to keep uninflated or broken balloons out of reach. A child could suffocate if these are swallowed. Appropriate Toddler Toys  push-pull toys  pedal toys  truck/cars big enough to ride  wagons  balls and bean bags  balloons (with close supervision)  swings  climbing structures  books with simple stories  blocks  peg boards  puzzles  creative materials (crayons, playdough, paint)  water play toys  simple dress-up clothes  dolls and stuffed animals  boxes Preschoolers This is a dramatic and creative age. Many conversations between preschool-age friends start with "Let's pretend...." Children become social. They become interested in playing with each other instead of preferring to play alone. Many toys become props for cooperative play. Preschool-age children also are interested in active physical play. They have more control of their muscles at this age and this can be seen in the move from a tricycle to a two-wheel bike. Preschoolers also are increasingly curious about the world around them. They enjoy realistic toys such as farm and animal sets, grocery store prop boxes, model cars, and trains. As hand coordination increases, so does the child's interest in simple construction sets and more difficult puzzles. They can manage more difficult, creative projects, and enjoy cutting and simple sewing projects, in addition to the paint and play dough of earlier stages. Since children at this age also are busy learning to read and write, give them play equipment that encourages these interests.

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You may notice that preschool children play with many of the same toys as toddlers, but do so in different ways. As a caregiver, encourage them to be creative and to experiment. There are fewer safety concerns in this stage, but sharp or cutting toys and electrical toys are still too dangerous. Appropriate Toys for Preschoolers  puppets  farm and community play sets  transportation vehicles of all types  simple construction toys  creative materials  books and records  wheel toys  sleds  simple musical instruments  boxes  climbing structures  prop boxes  water play toys  puzzles  balls  cognitive games  dress-up clothes  housekeeping props  dolls and stuffed animals  character toys Early School-age Children This is the age that children start collections or hobbies. Toys occupy less time for this age group because children spend more and more time playing with friends in groups. Early school-age children start to show more awareness of sex role stereotypes, that is, what girls and boys are supposed to do. Often girls play with girls and boys with boys. Girls may play with dolls as "babies" and pretend they are doing "real" housekeeping. Often boys enjoy electric trains and construction sets. Encourage children to change these stereotypes. Boys can play with dolls and be happy, if they feel it is okay for them to do so. School opens a whole new world for early school-age children. They begin to make use of reading and writing skills, as well as their improved muscle control. They can do many things for themselves now; they previously needed your help with reading stories, doing more complicated, creative, and craft projects, and acting out stories by themselves. Your role may be "behind the scenes" or as a member of an audience more often than as a participant. This is the age of active games. Ball games, biking, swimming, and hiking are popular with this group. There also is an increased interest in table games that require two or more players. These include games that use simple number skills and increased coordination, such as dominoes, jacks, or marbles. Appropriate Toys for Early School-aged Children  board games  marbles  jacks  electric trains (UL approved)  construction sets  science kits  craft kits  larger bicycles  prop boxes and costumes  puppets  fashion and career dolls

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    

doll house and furniture jump ropes art materials of all kinds work bench with real tools roller and ice skates

Reprinted with permission from the National Network for Child Care - NNCC. Lagoni, L. S., Martin, D. H., MaslinCole, C., Cook, A., MacIsaac, K., Parrill, G., Bigner, J., Coker, E., & Sheie, S.(1989~. Good times with toys. In *Good times with child care* (pp. 193-205). Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Television viewing Check with parent(s) before he/she leaves as to what programs are permitted. Don't allow small children to play with controls. Be firm in turning set off at designated time. Don't watch programs of interest to you when children are still up. Stay away from frightening programs, i.e. monster and ghost movies. Babysitters Do Check off those activities you did at home or with your group;         practiced reading aloud to a younger child, a friend, or my helper. visited a library and talked with the librarian about children's books and reading to children. made a picture book for a child. learned and did a finger play with a child, a friend or my helper make playdough made a musical instrument prepared a nutritious snack for a child, a friend, or my helper to try bring in toys from home or a friends house and talk about what age child they would be best for. Babysitter's Share Talk with a friend about toys you have seen advertised on T.V. Do they help a child be creative? Share your discussion with the entire group. Share some toys and activities that you really liked when you were younger. Why did you like them so much? Babysitters in Action Invite young children to one of your babysitting sessions. Plan several activities to do with the children. If you can't have children come to your session, do this on your own with a younger brother or sister, neighbor, or friend. When you are finished talk with your helper about what went well and what you would have changed? Write your answers below: What went really well about my activity session with a younger child; __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Things I would have changed: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Session 5 Sitting Safely Handling Accidents and Emergencies: Accidents are one of the leading causes of injury and death. Children are not often aware of the dangers that are present nor do they think of what might happen to them or others. Children are curious and sometimes excitable and impulsive. The best way to handle emergencies is to use prevention strategies! First, make sure your child's tool kit is safe with no small items that could choke a child. Loose button eyes should be sewn on tight, plastic toys should be wiped clean and all broken toys fixed or discarded before you enter the home. Carry nothing into the home that could potentially harm a child—-a sharp pair of scissors, medicine or even cosmetics. Take a copy of the Red Cross Babysitter's Handbook or similar guide as a reference for unusual emergencies. Make sure you have a clear idea of where the parent(s) are and where they can be reached by phone. Also, locate the doctor, poison control and emergency phone numbers. In most communities, the emergency medial system can be located by dialing 9-1-1. Be sure to know where the phones and any emergency supplies (especially the Syrup of Ipecac and activated charcoal) are located in the home. Do a safety check of the home while the parents are still there—-look for stacks of items above the refrigerator, extension cords --anything on the floor that could cause a fall, dangling curtain corns or plastic bags (esp. dry cleaner bags) that could prevent a child from breathing, cleaning products, knives that are setting out, sharp coffee table edges, and the location of outlets in the play area. Get yourself settled in—remove your coat, use the bathroom, etc. while the parents are still there—so you can give the utmost attention to the children in your care. Do not do anything that will distract you from them. Some of the most common accidents in the home are: poisoning, choking, burns, electrocution, and injuries, falls. Poisons and Choking There are many types of poisons in a home: pills, household cleaning supplies, many houseplants, laundry detergents, cosmetics, and some arts and crafts materials can be problems. Young children and infants, especially, like to pick things up and put it in their mouths. They do this naturally. You may have to get down to their level to determine some of the hazards that are in their path. Also, be wary of giving children any food that smells or looks old, though some food poisoning may not be detectable to any of your senses. Children also may have allergies to certain foods. The best practice is to give only the medicine or food the parent says to give them. Likewise ask the parent what you may eat as a snack. Prevent food poisoning by washing your hands carefully before and often during food preparation. Soap up your hands completely in warm water, working the soap in and among your fingers and under your nails. Singing the "alphabet" song is a good way to know you are spending enough time scrubbing. Washing hands is important as many germs are carried by hands. Also washing your hands carefully after using the bathroom or changing a diaper, is very important.

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Certain foods are associated with choking. Some of these are hot dogs, cherry tomatoes. Cut foods too large for the child to eat. Try to keep mealtime calm and watch the children chew their food. Keep the servings small—allowing them to have more as they need it. In an Emergency In an emergency, the first thing is to stay calm and to focus on the situation as you will be making decisions. Let the child and other children in the house know that you are competent and in control of the situation. They will look to you. Try to call a neighbor or someone to watch the other children or sit them down in a location that is away from the injured person but so you can watch them. Talk in low soothing tones and smile—even if you don't feel confident at the moment. Determine if you should call the parents or the emergency medical system first. But you need to do both right away. When in doubt, call the emergency medical system (9-1-1 in most communities) or the poison control center first and tell them you are the babysitter. Be ready to give information on how to locate the parents. HERE IS WHAT TO TELL THEM Stay calm on the phone. Speak clearly and give them information so they can picture what is happening. They will help you! Say, This is an emergency. My name is_________________ and I am a babysitter. I have (have/not) called the parents yet. I am at__________________(give an address or directions) and the phone number is______________ (just in case you get cut off). Answer any questions, keeping in mind the tone of your voice and your actions are as important to the child as the medical person talking to you on the phone. Children must know you are calm and confident even if you don't feel that way at the moment. Medical persons will likely ask you: 1. What kind of emergency 2. How many people are involved 3. What is the injury, what the person looks like, try to observe the child's color, the hot or coolness of their skin, how fast their heart is beating, etc. Listen to what they say. They may want to keep you on the line. If you do feel that you need to drop the phone or hang up and call the parent, let them know this before you do. So you can cooperate with the emergency medical staff, here is a checklist of skills you might learn to be prepared. 1. How to clean and dress a cut.  How to make and apply a cold compress.  How to make and apply a warm compress.  What Syrup of Ipecac looks like and how to use it.  Read household product labels for instructions on poisons emergencies, recognizing all poisons are not treated the same way.  Cover a child, talking to them calmly, smiling, listening.  How to use the Heimlich maneuver for a baby and an older child  How to apply pressure to stop bleeding  How to explain the situation to emergency personnel.  How to recognize and prevent shock.

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Practice the following role plays until you feel confident. You may want to ask a nurse, emergency technician or other competent medical staff to guide you in this exercise. Situations                

A young child got some shampoo or a fleck of dirt in their eye. The child has a nose bleed. The child is vomiting. The child has taken a prescription medicine. The child is standing there with a bone poking out of his arm. A child stops breathing. The child has an earache. The child is choking. The child has gum in their hair. You suspect the child has drowned in a pool or fallen in the bathtub. A young child has cut himself/herself on a sharp object. A young child fell in the swimming pool and is no longer breathing. A child fell into a swimming pool and is thrashing in the deep end and you do not know how to swim. The child was stung by a bee or the child sees a bee on their arm. A child put his/her hand on a hot stove. What is important to tell parents when they come home.

Some General Guidelines for Treating Some Emergencies Rule number one: Force yourself to be calm, you will think more clearly, you'll be able to handle the situation better, describe the situation to medical help and you will reduce the panic and possible shock symptoms of the child. Walk (don't run) to the nearest exit outside away from the home. If the house is dark and smoking, move on your hands and knees as there will be some air close to the floor. Do not open any door that is warm or hot to the touch. If the child is on fire, have them stop, drop to the floor and roll back and forth until the fire is out. Fire prevention is important. Do not leave anything unattended on the stove. To stop bleeding, use a clean 4 X 4 bandage, towel or compress and apply steady pressure. Do not move anyone who has fallen or you suspect has broken a bone unless there is greater emergency (such as a fire) which would further injure them. In this case follow the emergency medical directions for moving someone. Do not allow the child to rub a wound or eye injury. If you need to rinse a chemical from the eye, lower the affected eye to prevent transfer to the other eye, rinse in cool running water. Minor burns should be treated by running cool water to the injured areas. Do not give an unconscious person anything to eat or drink. Babysitters Do Check off those activities you did at home or with your group;    Made a first aid kit to take into a home or use at a playground. Participated in a first-aid training session Role played at least four emergency situations

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Babysitter's Share Discuss emergency situations you have heard about or been involved in? How did the people involved respond? What responses were good? What responses could be improved? Babysitters in Action Share what you learned about handling emergencies with your parents, a school class, a parent that you babysit for, or another adult.

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MAKE A BABYSITTERS TOOL KIT
Why a Babysitter's Kit? When a carpenter builds a house, she uses tools. Babysitter's tools are the things you need to play with and care for young children. A tool kit can supply you with the necessary materials and equipment. Parents will likely feel that you are a serious and interested person when they learn you are prepared. Children will like the tool kit because it will have new and different items for them to use. You may want to save your kit items as a surprise or for a special time with the children. What is a Tool Kit? The tool kit can be a cardboard box, a small canvas bag, an old show box, a shopping bag, or a brown paper bag. Any kind of container will work as long as some of the items will fit inside—even a small suitcase or a backpack. You may not want to take all of your kit items on every job. Select items that are specific for the age of child you are caring for. Inside the Kit Include creative and fun ideas, activities and toys. You can make some of the items in the kit or you may include used toys of yours or your brother or sister if they are clean and safe. Part of the fun is building your kit! It doesn't need to be expensive! You can find good used toys at garage sales or thrift stores. Suggestions for Kit Items:          Crayons Balls Pencils Blunt scissors Soft toys Colored paper String Colored yarn          Pipe cleaners Old magazines for cutting Notebook Old envelopes and stamps Small plastic toys Story books Flashlight Doll Fabric scraps Puppets

Evaluate your kit As you build your kit, think about safety, creativity, and ages of the children. Also make sure everything in your kit is clean and sturdy. Babysitters Do   made a babysitter's tool kit Babysitter's Share Share your tool kit at a meeting or with another group of youth or adults. Babysitters in Action  took my kit on a babysitting job

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Jan Scholl, Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education E-Mail: jscholl@psu.edu The Pennsylvania State University College of Agricultural Sciences 323 Agricultural Administration Building University Park, PA 16802-2601 814-863-7444

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