Christina Liberto, M.S.
Plans for today:
Introductions Review Syllabus Scientific Method
•Meeting times: MON, WED 6:00 - 6:50 PM, Lecture 7:00 – 8:50 PM, Lab TU, TH 6:00 - 6:50 PM, Lecture 7:00 – 8:50 PM, Lab
•LECTURE ROOM: Aberdeen Hall 139, Lecture Aberdeen Hall 128, Lab
•Email: firstname.lastname@example.org •Office Hours: By appointment •REQURED TEXT •Grading Policy •Exams
Tips on test taking DO NOT wait until the last minute to study Study nightly
Eat and sleep well the night before the test
Take your time on exams: Read questions carefully, do not rush and check your answers before turning in the exam Have a positive attitude! Remember: SCIENCE IS FUN!!!
Biological chemistry Biological molecules Cells, Cell theory Characteristics of living things Living systems Evolution Diversity of plants and animals Biotechnology
Course Procedures Set aside time each week to study and complete assignments If you don’t understand a concept taught in class, get help from either me, someone else in the class, or from the tutoring center
Read each assigned chapter prior to coming to class
Ask for help if you need it!!
Biology is the study of life Science is a body of knowledge, a collection of unified insights about nature So…why does this matter to me?? What does this have to do with my life??
Hierarchal Organization of Life
The living world is organized in a hierarchy, from simple to complex with each level building upon the level(s) below it.
Ecological: population, community, biosphere
Organismal: tissues, organs, systems, species
Cellular: organelles, cells
Chemical: atoms, molecules
Atom • Smallest unit of an element • Building blocks: electrons protons neutrons
• two or more atoms
• includes carbs, lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA
Cell • smallest unit that can live AND reproduce on its own • outer membrane and DNA
Tissue •Organized cells
Organ • Two or more tissues interacting in some task
• Organs interacting physically, chemically, or both, in some task
Multicelled Organism •Individual made of different types of cells
Population •Group of single-celled or multi-celled individuals of the SAME species occupying a specified area
Ecosystem •A community interacting with its physical environment •Has inputs and outputs of energy and materials
•All regions of the Earth’s waters, crust and atmosphere
Having reviewed how life is organized, what exactly characterizes life?
What is Life? Characteristics of all living things: a. assimilate energy, capacity to do work b. respond to their environment, i.e. with receptors c. maintain a relatively constant internal temperature (homeostasis) d. posses an inherited information base (DNA) that allows them to function e. reproduce (parental transmission of DNA to offspring)
f. are composed of at least one cell
g. are evolved from other living things h. are highly organized
• There are MILLIONS of living species!!
• How can we organize and classify all of these species?
• in three domains:
PROKARYOTES = NO NUCLEUS
EUKARYOTES = NUCLEUS
•SINGLE CELLED!! •NO membrane-bound organelles •DNA is found in the nucleoid region; NOT contained in a membrane-bound nucleus •LACK internal membrane systems and NO internal compartmentalization •Includes Bacteria and Archaea cells
•SINGLE OR MULTI CELLED •Have a nucleus •Larger and more complex then prokaryotes: •Organelles are immersed in the cytosol •Extensive internal membrane systems •Exhibit internal compartmentalization •Includes plants, animals and fungi
Science is a body of knowledge, a collection of unified insights about nature
How do we arrive at this body of knowledge? Through the collection of facts How do we collect these facts that encompass science? Through investigation, experimentation and reasoning
Therefore…Science is a DEFINED way of learning reached by using OBSERVATIONS and the testing of HYPOTHESES
A way in which one can make predictions tested by experiments to reject one alternative Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Observations 2. Ask a question 3. Formulate a hypothesis – a tentative, testable answer to your question 4. Experiment 5. Gather results 6. Make conclusions based on results
Experiments have two components
Control Group • A standard for comparison Experimental Group • Includes the variable being studied
• Identical to the experimental group EXCEPT for the variable being studied
Does Olestra® cause intestinal cramps?
The Limits of Science
• A hypothesis cannot be proven 100% correct • Cannot provide answers to subjective questions i.e. Why do we die at a particular moment? • May conflict with supernatural beliefs
1. The diversity of life is separated into ________ kingdoms. 2. A series of steps used to answer scientific questions is called the _________.
3. A group of individuals living together is referred to as a(n)
a. Population. d. Ecosystem. b. Community. e. Biome. c. Species.