VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 13 POSTED ON: 11/9/2009
OHT 1 An approach to teaching an argument Lesson 1 Deconstruction - Teacher and learners examine what an argument is (its social function) - Teacher models an argument with the class - Learners record model with structure and language features highlighted Lesson 2 - Teacher and learners revise the model Joint Construction - Learners work in small groups to research and/or brainstorm arguments on a topic provided by the teacher - Groups record arguments Lesson 3 - Teacher jointly constructs text with students - Teacher and learners discuss and record language choices - Elaboration of points is discussed Lesson 4/5 Independent construction - Learners construct their own text using a common class topic Lesson 5/6 - Learners construct their own text using a free choice topic OHT 2 The teaching – learning cycle OHT 3.1 It’s Good to Wear Glasses Schematic Structure Position Statement argument a I think it‟s good to wear glasses Firstly they protect your eyes argument b Secondly glasses are a fashion item argument c Thirdly they hide bumps on your nose Concluding statement Therefore wearing glasses is an advantage OHT 3.2 elaboration against foreign objects such as splinters, dust and glass fragments elaboration as they add colour and style to your image elaboration so your profile looks more acceptable as they elaboration protect your eyes and enhance your appearance OHT 3.3 Language features mental process relating process rhetorical conjunction timeless present tense generalised participants Rhetorical conjunction Linking conjunction relating process Rhetorical conjunction Linking conjunction Rhetorical conjunction Binding conjunction OHT 3.4 It’s Good to Wear Glasses Schematic Structure Position Statement argument a elaboration I think it‟s good to wear glasses Firstly they protect your eyes against foreign objects such as splinters, dust and glass fragments Language features mental process relating process rhetorical conjunction timeless present tense generalised participants argument b elaboration Secondly glasses are a fashion item as they add colour and style to your image Rhetorical conjunction Linking conjunction relating process argument c elaboration Thirdly they hide bumps on your nose so your profile looks more acceptable Rhetorical conjunction Linking conjunction Concluding statement elaboration Therefore wearing glasses is an advantage as they protect your eyes and enhance your appearance Rhetorical conjunction Binding conjunction OHT 4 It’s Good to Wear Glasses Wearing glasses is beneficial for a number of reasons. Firstly, glasses provide protection from foreign objects such as splinters, dust and glass fragments. Secondly, glasses are a fashion accessory, providing the addition of colour and style to the wearer‟s image. Thirdly, glasses have a cosmetic function, hiding facial irregularities to provide a more acceptable profile. Therefore, wearing glasses is an advantage. Modelling a genre - primary INTRODUCTION Explain to participants the purpose of this segment as follows: The aim of this segment is to demonstrate an approach to teaching a particular genre, an argument, to primary learners. This approach can also be used for junior primary and secondary learners. AN APPROACH TO TEACHING AN ARGUMENT Background to the approach Discuss the definition of an argument as: „To put forward a point of view, or argument‟ (“ESL in the Mainstream”, Workshop 6) Explain that an argument is often in spoken form when the speech is between two people who each present their own views. However, in the written form it is possible for the writer to simply present their point of view without needing to include the views of others. Explain possible contexts in which the approach could be used e.g. English – fairy tales: Are fairy tales valuable? Health – canteen food, sun protection: Canteens should sell healthy food Society and Environment – recreational facilities: Our schools needs a new playground. Science – water pollution: We should clean up the River Murray Show OHT1 An approach to teaching an argument and explain that this approach will take six lessons approximately. This approach is based on „The Teaching-Learning Model‟ which can be found in the „Teaching Factual Writing‟ series of books produced by the Metropolitan East Disadvantaged Schools Program. Show OHT 2, The Teaching-Learning Model. Modelling the approach D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\35763c60-8fbb-4f48-9184-ee69f100096f.doc 8 Explain that you will model the approach by going through the stages of Deconstruction, Joint Construction and Independent Construction. Explain that at each stage, the teacher needs to set the context and build the students field knowledge, or knowledge of the topic. DECONSTRUCTION Explain that the social function and purpose of an argument is to put forward a of view persuasively. Discuss situations in which arguments would be used. Show examples of arguments. Show OHT 3.1 It’s Good to Wear Glasses. The teacher needs to decide whether students are familiar with the field of the topic. If not, this needs to be developed. Discuss the schematic structure of the text. Point out the language features (rhetorical conjunctions) which organize the text. Firstly...... Secondly.... -- to introduce arguments (or reasons) Thirdly...... Therefore ... to introduce the conclusion Overlay OHT 3.2 .It’s Good to Wear Glasses Discuss how the points of an argument can be elaborated to provide: -evidence (statistics, dates …) -additional information (and, as well as ...) -examples (such as …) -reasons (because, so …) Overlay OHT 3.3 It’s Good to Wear Glasses to illustrate language features of the text. Point out the language features which are typical of an argument. (ie What are the language features which realise the text in this context?) Language features shown include: generalised participants eg glasses, foreign objects, fashion items, style. Compare the text version with: “Firstly, they protect my eyes from getting a splinter” timeless present tense eg it is, protect, hide. Facts or scientific truths are presented in timeless present tense to indicate something is true now and always will be. 9 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\35763c60-8fbb-4f48-9184-ee69f100096f.doc conjunctions eg rhetorical conjunctions to order the text: firstly, secondly, thirdly, therefore binding conjunctions to link dependant and independent clauses: as, since, because linking conjunctions to link independent clauses: and, or, but processes relating – is, looks – to present information or attributes mental – I think – used in this case to indicate subjectivity action – wear, protect, hide, add – compare with the nominalised text JOINT CONSTRUCTION Explain that the next step is for the teacher to jointly construct an argument text with their learners. Alternatives are discussed and the teacher guides the learners into making appropriate language choices. The final text is jointly constructed by the learners and the „teacher as expert‟. Choose a topic and viewpoint. For example, “It‟s Good to be Bald”. (See background notes for other choices of topics). Research and/or brainstorm possible arguments and record ( a maximum of 10). Categorize the arguments under appropriate headings. For example, categories may be: - environmental - economic - health - social - convenience Prioritise the order in which they should be presented Again show the structure and language features of the argument in OHT 3.4 It’s Good to Wear Glasses Discuss alternative language choices e.g conjunctions One reason First of all Also D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\35763c60-8fbb-4f48-9184-ee69f100096f.doc 10 Another reason Finally Last of all In conclusion Model the process of joint construction, focussing on the range of language choices and their impact in the jointly constructed text Refer to examples of jointly constructed texts in the Background Notes. (Optional) Show OHT 4 It’s Good to be Bald. Ask participants how this text differs from the previous text. Point out examples of nominalisation and use of third person. INDEPENDENT CONSTRUCTION Explain that learners are then given a common class topic. Learners research independently and write an argument text in consultation with the teacher, conferencing, editing and drafting. Refer to Background Notes for examples. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\35763c60-8fbb-4f48-9184-ee69f100096f.doc 11 Background Notes: Modelling a genre - argument Useful Picture Books to introduce argument to Junior Primary Shock Monday by Gillian Bradshaw Thomas C. Lothian Vic 1999 The Pirate who wouldn‟t wash by Michael Solomon Lamont Pub.1986, reprinted 1998 Animals should definitely not wear clothes by Judi Barrett Kaye & Ward 1981, reprinted 1989 Animals should definitely act like people by Judi Barrett Kaye & Ward 1981, reprinted 1989 (The animal books are available from Pegi Williams Bookshop.) Suggested Argument Topics Homework is necessary Homework is not necessary School uniforms are necessary School uniforms are not necessary Advertising materials are junk mail Advertising materials are not junk mail Santa Claus should be banned Santa Claus should not be banned There is too much sport on television There should be more sport on television Dogs make better pets than cats Cats make better pets than dogs Daylight saving is false economy Daylight saving is worthwhile We should speak our minds We should not speak our minds It is better to be short It is better to be tall D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\35763c60-8fbb-4f48-9184-ee69f100096f.doc 12 Examples of joint constructions It’s beneficial to have big feet I think big feet are beneficial Firstly it‟s easier to put cream between your toes if you have tinea Secondly you wouldn‟t need to use snow or water skis because your toes would skim across the surface Thirdly you make bigger noises when you stomp So having big feet means you can do things better. It’s good to be bald I think it‟s good to be bald Firstly you don‟t get nits Secondly it saves money on hair products such as brushes, shampoo and hairspray Thirdly it saves time because you don‟t need to wash, brush or style your hair Therefore being bald is convenient It’s Good to be Bald Baldness has substantial benefits including cost savings, raised social standing and functionality. Personal savings are achieved through less frequent haircuts, reduced shampoo use and reduced wear on brushes. Increased social standing is another benefit. Baldness is distinguished looking and is often chosen as a fashion statement as resulting sec appeal is undeniable. The functional aspects of baldness are many and varied, including time savings in terms of care and grooming for the busy businessman, improved aerodynamics for the olympic swimmer or a ready palette for the tattoo artist. The benefits of baldness are undeniable, with money saved, social standing increased and a variety of conveniences for the diverse spectrum of the follically challenged. For those members of the community who. through genetics, find themselves baldly confronting life, it is good to be bald. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\35763c60-8fbb-4f48-9184-ee69f100096f.doc 13
"Modelling a genre OHT"