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History of the Flame Test Experiment - Academic Computer Center

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					SPRAY FLAME SPECTROSCOPY
   STEM Collegian Center Project
           Presented by
         Njimikara Abianui
               and
      Leke Abondem Atabong

        7 December 2007

          Supervised by
       Prof. William A. Boyle
THE FLAME TEST EXPERIMENT
 It is one of the earliest analytical techniques in
  chemistry.
 It identifies elements by the colors they
  produce in flames.
 There are many ways of performing this test;
  each of which has its pros and cons.
 Wooden splint, cotton swab, loop, spray bottle
  methods.
 This project considered two of these methods:
  the loop and the spray bottle methods.
LOOP METHOD

 Involves the use of a wire inoculation loop
  (platinum wire is desirable), a Bunsen burner
  and solutions of salts containing the elements.
 The wire inoculation loop is cleaned between
  tests by keeping it in the flame until all the
  color due to the element is gone.
 Inadequate cleaning of the loop can make color
  identification difficult.
SPRAY BOTTLE METHOD

 Introduces a mist of
  the element
  solutions directly into
  the flame.
 Time saving.

 No problems of color
  contamination from
  previous tests.
MATERIALS

 5%   solutions of
   Li2CO3,

   NaCl,

   CuSO4,

   KCl

   Sr(NO3)2

 60 mL spray bottles.
 Bunsen burner
                     COMPARISON

       LOOP METHOD                       SPRAY BOTTLE METHOD

   High cost of platinum          Affordable spray bottles.
    wires.
                                   Easy to clean and maintain.
   Difficult to eliminate
    element contamination          Uses comparable amounts
    from nichrome-steel wire        of solutions as the loop
    (a less expensive               method.
    substitute for platinum).
                                   No flame color
   Flame color                     contamination.
    contamination.
   Time consuming.                Faster to use.
RESULTS
LITHIUM
SODIUM
POTASSIUM
COPPER
STRONTIUM
CONCLUSION

 The loop method was time-consuming and
  prone to errors in the colors produced.
 The spray bottle method is faster and produces
  the clean colors of each element.
           ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The plastic spray bottles used in this experiment
  were kindly provided to PGCC courtesy of
    B.F. Ascher & Co., Inc., Lenexa, KS, USA.
            http://www.bfascher.com/
                    REFERENCES
   Dogancay, Deborah. "Flame Tests Performed Safely: A
    Safe and Effective Alternative to the Traditional Flame
    Test." The Science Teacher 72.6 (2005): 34-38.
    Science Resource Center. Thomso Gale. Prince
    George's Community College Library. 6 Dec. 2007
    <http://galenet.galegroup.com>.

   Johnson, Kristin, and Rodney Schreiner. "A Dramatic
    Flame Test Demonstration." Journal of Chemical
    Education 78.5 (2001): 640-41. 6 Dec. 2007
    <http://www.eric.ed.gov>.

				
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