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How the World's Best Performing School Systems Come Out on Top

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					Life After the RAE




Research and Teacher
     Education
        Education UOA – the good news


 C 2000 individual entries
 81 institutions
 75% ‘international’
 One quarter had a quality profile in which 50% or
 more was internationally excellent or world leading
                 The Good News


‘It is clear that the best
departments can compete on
equal terms with the
strongest departments
anywhere in the world…The
high international standing
of education in UK
universities was strongly
endorsed by the international
members of the main panel’
                   But…..
Education – one of the largest social sciences
                  Excellent But….

 Nearly 3000 people not entered at all
 Many of those institutions – even highly successful
  ones – had a hidden and sometimes long tail.
 Some very small entries - 30% of entries listed fewer
  than 10 category A staff – median number is 13
 81 institutions entered – there are 97 ITE education
  in the UK
 6 of those entered don’t do ITE therefore 22 HEIs
  that offer ITE not entered at all
  Variation of entry rates by institutions across
            different parts of the UK


 Scotland – all but one ITE institution entered and
  overall numbers were large
 Northern Ireland – 3 out of 4 ITE institutions
  entered
 Wales – 6 entries out of 7 institutions but only 37
  individuals
 England – over 25% of ITE institutions not entered
  and early 20% of ITE in England goes on outside
  HEIs entirely .
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

                       Numbers Submitted in Successive RAEs and Institutions
                                           Submitting
                 350

                                      321
                                            11
                 300

                                                                           8
                                                                                     258
                 250
 No. Submitted




                 200                                               6

                                                         162                               Wales
                 150
                                                                                           Scotland
                                104
                                                                                           N.Ireland
                 100                                77
                                            7
                                                                       6
                                                                           6
                  50                                                            37
                                      44                 39                          38
                                            2                  2
                                                                                3
                  0
                               1996                2001                        2008
                                                   Year
   A further concern – research capacity


‘Of the 7,000 new students
during the period, less than
4% were funded by
OST/Research Council
studentships….
Given the significance of
research council studentships
for ensuring the long term
future of the discipline the 4%
figure is strikingly low’
%age of academic and research staff with PhDs

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     Education   Psychology



                                Source HESA 2005/6
   Challenges and implications




The REF???????
       Challenges and implications



Maintaining a commitment to research based
professional education.
        Challenges and implications


The key challenge for Teacher Education now and in
the future is to answer the question: ‘What is the
essential contribution of HE?’ Developing and
maintaining a scholarly culture is essential.
                   Topics and methods

                                    Why might that be the case?
 ‘Some more traditional areas      Panel noted a ‘broadening of
  were less strongly represented     the field’
  than previously e.g. … teacher     o    HE
  education’                         o   Community and domestic
                                         arenas
                                     o   Applied linguistics
                                     o   Some expansion of the
                                         psychological field
                                     o   Methodology – more
                                         sophisticated quantitative
                                         analysis and increased use of
                                         longitudinal studies
                                     o   Evidence based systematic
                                         reviews.
                   Explanations



The neo-liberal university   ‘Driving these changes is a
                             redefined internal economy in
                             which under-funding drives a
   Coming together of        ‘pseudo-market’ in fee incomes,
                             soft budget allocations for
        human                special purposes and contested
     capital theory          earnings for new enrolments
                             and research grants’ (Marginson 2007)
           +
  economic rationalism
  Research funding is a highly sensitive market

 £316 million in total – staggering £101K per head
 £182 government – 57%
 Research councils £55 million 17% (including TLRP’s
 £38m)

 Government money is strongly policy driven
 Teacher education itself, as I have argued elsewhere,
 is no longer the key policy issue that it was for
 government funding
                  Agendas have moved on


 Can see evidence of the research economy in the neo-
  liberal university
 From government
     Evidence based policy movement with its emphasis on large
      scale data sets
     ECM
 Other sources
   Applied linguistics

   ‘Foundation’ disciplines

 A highly sensitive market
           Two worries arise from
    the dominance of government funding

‘The quality of the best government sponsored and
targeted research was excellent - both rigorous and
effective in informing policy and with enough
funding to sustain large multi-disciplinary teams
over many years. However, other areas suffered in
quality through being too closely tied to shifting
government and government agencies’ priorities,
tight timescales, a focus on description rather than
analysis and limited theorisation. This loosened the
links with social science and sometimes involved
over-simplistic assumptions about teaching and
learning.’
The other worry
Researching Teacher Education

No longer a significant funding priority for UK
                 governments

                     But

      Highest priority internationally
   Tony Blair’s biggest educational legacy
             Teachers Matter



‘All countries are seeking to improve their schools and to
respond better to higher social and economic expectations. As
the most significant and costly resource in schools, teachers
are central to school improvement efforts. Improving the
efficiency and equity of schooling depends, in large measure
on ensuring that competent people want to work as teachers,
their teaching is of high quality and that all students have
access to high quality teaching’. (OECD 2005, 1)
    The McKinsey Report (2007) says:

Three things matter most:

   1.   Getting the right people to become teachers
   2.   Developing them into effective instructors
   3.   Ensuring that the system is able to deliver
        the best possible instruction for every child
    Getting the right people to be teachers


   36,000 more teachers
   10% increase in starting salaries
   TV campaign
   Entry requirements raised
   Diversification of routes
   GTP
   Teach First
  Developing them into effective instructors

 Initial teacher training and early professional
  development are key:
 Internationally a strong interest in increasing
  government control of the structure and content of ITE

  ‘All of the better school systems we studied had
  integrated the practicum into their training programs.
  Boston England, Finland and Japan went further in
  increasing the amount of intensive practical support to
  new teachers and in finding ways to ensure that the
  support they are given is effective’
Ensuring that the system is able to deliver the best
       possible instruction for every child




  The Strategies + Targets + Performance Related Pay
Researching teacher education



     The continuing agenda.
   10 key questions for teacher
      education in England
                   Question 1
What is the role of ITE in improving the quality of
     teaching and learning in our schools?
                      Question 2
       Is the teacher supply model fit for purpose?


Can it deal with:
 the impact of the economic downturn on supply;
 hidden and suppressed shortages;
 implications of changing gender and age structure
  within the profession;
 local pressures on school funding;
 impact of the collapse of the housing market on job
  mobility?
                  Question 3
  How do we get the right routes into teaching?

 32 different routes
 Do they really bring different populations into teaching?
 What is the right balance of different populations
  entering the teaching profession?
 Is the quality the same for each route?
 Why do these routes have to be so separate – why are
  SCITT and EBITT still set up ‘in opposition’ to HEI based
  routes?
 And what, if anything, is the essential contribution of
  HE?
                     Question 4
Do we get the best quality intake into the profession?
Is it time to abandon the BEd or dramatically
               increase its quality?
                      Question 5
    What do we know about the current quality of
                   provision?


 The vast majority of programmes are now rated by
  Ofsted/TDA as ‘good’ -
 To what extent are courses different in terms of their
  aims, objectives, practices and outcomes?
                     Question 6
        Is our quality control fit for purpose?


 Can the current approach to quality control
 (standards, regulatory assessment frameworks, self
 assessment documents ) actually enhance quality
 beyond ‘good’?
                    Question 7
Is there a link between teacher education quality and
                 educational research?
         Question 8
Who are our teacher educators?
                      Question 9
 What makes for effective initial teacher education?


 Research shows:
 (a) expertise is very closely bound up with tacit
  thinking that in the normal course of events is not
  put into words; and
 (b) expertise is highly personal and it is highly
  complex
The contradiction
The weakness of the professional knowledge base
               of teaching itself
                   Question 10



 How do we promote more innovation in the system?
 What sorts of innovation might prove productive?

				
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