CUMMINS HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE EMISSION CONTROL STRATEGIES by mifei

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									CUMMINS’ Diesel Engine Technology Development in Reducing Emission Since Euro-I

Presented by Lok Chi Fai (Ivan) Cummins Hong Kong Ltd.

CUMMINS, INC. PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Cummins Inc.
• Founded in 1919 by Clessie Cummins • Based in Columbus, Indiana USA • The world’s largest independent diesel engine manufacturer

• Global organisation with manufacturing facilities & parts distribution centres in various strategic locations worldwide
• Comprehensive sales & service network with 150 distributors & 5000 dealer location in 130 countries

Cummins Hong Kong Ltd.
A fully owned Cummins subsidiary of Cummins Inc. in Hong Kong and Southern China. Founded in 1990. This is the only Cummins distributor in Hong Kong and Southern China with full marketing, technical and service capability to support all products from Cummins, Fleetguard, Nelsons, Holset, and Newage.

Market Coverage

Construction

Power Generation Mining

Agriculture

76 HP to 2700 hp
Pumps Marine Trucks Bus

Cummins Worldwide Manufacturing Plants
USA Columbus: N14 Jamestown: L10/M11 RockyMount: B/C Charleston: B/C Walesboro: B Seymour: K19/Quantum United Kingdom Daventry: KV Darlington: B/C Shotts: L10/N14 France Wartsila (JV) Quantum Engines Turkey BMC Sanayi B/C (Licensee) Russia KamDizel (JV) Chelny: C/L10 China Chongqing (Licensee) NH/K19 China Dong Feng (Licensee) B Engines South Korea Ssangyong Ind. N14/K19 Japan Komatsu Ltd. (JV) B-series

Mexico San Luis Potosi : C/N14

Pakistan ESL (JV) B/C Engines India Telco (JV) B Engines

Brazil Sau Paulo: 6B/C/N14 Zimbabwe Harare: 4B/6B

India Kirloskar: B/N14 V28/K19 KV

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards U.S. EPA
20
Oxides of Nitrogen (g/bhp-hr)
Steady State Test NOx + HC NOx (Unregulated) Transient Test NOx NOx + HC PM (Unregulated) NOx PM
NOx + NMHC

2.0
Particulate Matter (g/bhp-hr)

15

1.5

10

1.0

5

0.5

0 1970 1975 1980

Urban Bus PM

PM

0.0 1995 2000 2005 2010

1985

1990
Model Year

Engine Emissions Control Technology Stages
1970-1984
1985-1989 1990 1991-1993 1994-1997 1998-2003 2004-2007

Emission Requirements Four Time Periods
NOx (gms/bhp-hr) Time Frame Current 2002-2006 2007-2009 Diesel 4.0 2.5 1.2 Natural Gas 2.0 1.3 0.6 PM (gms/bhp-hr) Diesel .05 .05 0.01 Natural Gas .02 .02 0.005

2010+

0.20

0.10

0.01

0.005

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards (Global On-Highway)

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (30-40%)

Selective Catalytic Reduction or Other

Exhaust Gas Recirculation

Engine Design

1970-1984: Emission Regulation Changes
• Implementation of smoke test for smoke opacity control
• Implementation of 13-mode test for gaseous emissions control • From unregulated emission levels to: NOx + HC: CO: HC: 10 g/bhp-hr 25 g/bhp-hr 1.5 g/bhp-hr

Smoke A (“Acceleration”):
B (“Lug”): C (“Peak”):

20% opacity
15% opacity 50% opacity

On-highway Regulation types Certification Test Procedure Comparison

1970-1984: Engine Modifications
• Air handling system  Turbocharging  Water-to-air aftercooling; intake manifold temperature approximately 210°F • Fuel handling system  Air-fuel ratio controller  Fixed-timed mechanical fuel injection; peak injection pressure approximately 14,000 psi
• Combustion system  Cylinder components/overhead stiffened

Air Handling System Changes

Intake Manifold

Aftercooler/Intake Manifold Exhaust Manifold

Exhaust Manifold
Compressor

Turbine

Naturally Aspirated Turbocharged and Aftercooled

Air Handling System Changes

T’Stat

2000F Oil Cooler 2100F Aftercooler 3700F Liners & Heads

T’Stat

2000F

Radiator

Radiator

Bypass Oil Cooler

Bypass 1350F

Liners & Heads

1300F

800F

800F

Pump

1900F

Pump

1920F

Naturally Aspirated

High Flow Water-To-Air Cooling [Jacket Water Aftercooling (JWAC)]

1985-1989: Emission Regulation Changes
• Implementation of the transient emissions test
• Emission standards NOx: CO: HC: PM: 10.7 g/bhp-hr 15.5 g/bhp-hr 1.3 g/bhp-hr 0.6 g/bhp-hr

Smoke A:
B: C:

20% opacity
15% opacity 50% opacity

1985-1989: Engine Modifications
• Air handling system Higher boost pressure High flow water-to-air aftercooling; intake manifold temperature approximately 160°F
 

•

Fuel handling system Low sac volume nozzles Rate control injection camshaft Dual spring air-fuel ratio controller Fixed-timed mechanical fuel injection; peak injection pressure approximately 16,000 psi
   

•

Combustion system Higher compression ratio Early intake valve closing Higher peak cylinder pressure capability
  

Fuel Injector Changes

Plunger Tip

Plunger Tip

Cup Section

Cup Section

Spray Holes

Spray Holes

High Sac Volume Nozzle

Low Sac Volume Nozzle

1990: Emission Regulation Changes
• Emission standards

NOx: CO: HC: PM: Smoke A:

6.0 g/bhp-hr 15.5 g/bhp-hr 1.3 g/bhp-hr 0.6 g/bhp-hr 20% opacity

B:
C:

15% opacity
50% opacity

1990: Engine Modifications

• Air handling system  Low flow water-to-air aftercooling; intake manifold temperature approximately 140°F  Smaller turbine inlet housing • Fuel handling system  Retardation of injection timing  Mechanical fuel injection, two-step timing control; peak injection pressure approximately 17,500 psi

Air Handling System Changes

T’Stat Oil Cooler 2100F Aftercooler 3700F
Liners & Heads

2000F

T’Stat

2000F

Radiator

Radiator

Bypass 1350F

800F

Liners Oil & Heads Cooler

90%

1500F

1500F

800F

Pump

1920F

Pump

10% Aftercooler 1600F 1400F 4000F

High Flow Water-To-Air Cooling [Jacket Water Aftercooling (JWAC)]

Low Flow Water-To-Air Cooling [Low Flow Cooling (LFC)] [Optimized Aftercooling (OAC)]

1991-1993: Emission Regulation Changes

• Emission standards NOx: CO: HC: PM: Smoke A: B: C: 5.0 g/bhp-hr 15.5 g/bhp-hr 1.3 g/bhp-hr 0.25 g/bhp-hr 20% opacity 15% opacity 50% opacity

1991-1993: Fuel Modifications
• Certification Fuel:  0.08% - 0.12% by weight sulfur  27% aromatic content minimum
• Commercial Fuel:  0.2% - 0.5% by weight sulfur  25% - 40% aromatic content

1991-1993: Engine Modifications
• Air handling system Charge air (“air-to-air”) aftercooling; intake manifold temperature approximately 115°F Leaner air-fuel ratio; in the range of 30:1 to 35:1
 

•

Fuel handling system Introduction of full authority electronics on some engine models; peak injection pressure approximately 21,000 psi Mechanical fuel injection on remaining models, some with two-step timing control; peak injection pressure approximately 21,000 psi
 

•

Combustion system Articulated pistons with higher top ring Oil ring taper changed Reduced liner bore distortion Valve stem seals introduced Reduced dead air space Improved lube oil control
     

Air Handling System Changes
1250F T’Stat 2000F T’Stat 2000F

Aftercooler

Radiator

Radiator

Liners Oil & Heads Cooler

90% 1500F

Liners & Heads 800F

Water Filter Oil Cooler 1500F

1500F

800F

Pump

10% 1600F

Aftercooler

Pump
1400F

1900F
4200F

4000F

Low Flow Water-To-Air Cooling [Low Flow Cooling (LFC)] [Optimized Aftercooling (OAC)]

Charge Air-to-Air Cooling (ATA)

Combustion System Changes

Standard Piston Articulated Piston

Combustion System Changes Dead Air Space

Conventional Piston Ring Positioning

Reduced Dead Air Space (1991)

1994-1997: Emission Regulation Changes
Emission standards
NOx: CO: HC: PM: Smoke A: B: C: 5.0 g/bhp-hr 15.5 g/bhp-hr 1.3 g/bhp-hr 0.10 g/bhp-hr 20% opacity 15% opacity 50% opacity

Separate standards for urban bus engines NOx: 5.0 g/bhp-hr CO: 15.5 g/bhp-hr HC: 1.3 g/bhp-hr PM: 0.07 g/bhp-hr* Smoke A: 20% opacity B: 15% opacity C: 50% opacity *PM: 0.05 g/bhp-hr in 1996

•

Fully electronic controlled Cummins M11 Celect Plus engine for the Hong Kong bus market. Three major components of the Celect Plus fuel system are the fuel pump, the Celect Plus Engine Control Module and the Celect Plus injector.

•

•

In the Cummins Celect and Celect Plus M11 engines, both the engine timing and fuel metering are variable according to the power demanded to optimize emission. Determination of metering and timing is precisely controlled through the actuation of a solenoid-operated control valve. This valve is integrated into the Celect and Celect Plus injector assembly.

•

1994-1997: Engine Modifications Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines
• Air handling system  Charge air (“air-to-air”) aftercooling; intake manifold temperature approximately 115°F  Improved “breathing”  Greater turbocharger efficiency Fuel handling system  Exclusive use of electronics  Higher injection pressure  Improved injection timing schedule

•

•

Combustion system  Reentrant piston bowl, wide rim top  Tapered liner  Improved air motion in the chamber
Reduced engine friction Redesigned water pump for lower pumping losses Improved air compressor

• • •

1994-1997: Engine Modifications Medium Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines
• Air handling system  Charge air (“air-to-air”) aftercooling; intake manifold temperature approximately 115°F  Wastegated turbochargers Fuel handling system  Higher injection pressures, approximately 19,800 psi  “Quick spill” end of injection  Improved injector spray geometry Combustion system  Reentrant piston bowl  Piston ring changes  Improved valve stem seals  Reduced dead air space  Compression ratio tailored to ratings Aftertreatment system  Oxidation catalyst

•

•

•

Wastegated Turbocharger

1 - Actuator Bracket 2 - Actuator 3 - Linkage 4 - Wastegate Valve

1998-2003: Emission Regulation Changes
Emission Standards NOx: 4.0 g/bhp-hr CO: 15.5 g/bhp-hr HC: 1.3 g/bhp-hr
PM HDDE: Urban Bus: 0.10 g/bhp-hr 0.05 g/bhp-hr Smoke A: 20% opacity B: 15% opacity C: 50% opacity

Separate standards for certain centrally fueled fleets NOx + HC: 3.8 g/bhp-hr CO: 15.5 g/bhp-hr HC: 1.3 g/bhp-hr PM: 0.10 g/bhp-hr

Smoke A: 20% opacity B: 15% opacity C: 50% opacity

1998-2003: Engine Modifications
• Heavy heavy-duty diesel engines  Evolution of 1994 technologies in the areas of – air handling – fuel handling – combustion system


Medium heavy-duty diesel engines – Full authority electronic fuel injection systems with injection rate control – Centralized piston bowl and injector location – 4 valve head for better breathing – No aftertreatment (except CFFV versions of ISB Series)

2004-2007: Emission Regulation Changes
• Emission Standards NOx + NMHC: CO: PM:
Smoke A: B: C:

2.5 g/bhp-hr 15.5 g/bhp-hr 0.10 g/bhp-hr 0.05 g/bhp-hr for urban buses 20% opacity 15% opacity 50% opacity

• Modification to Averaging, Banking and Trading • Feasibility Review in 1999

2004-2007: Potential Fuel Modifications
• Reduced sulfur content
• Higher cetane • Lower aromatic content

2004-2007: Potential Engine Modifications
• Air handling system Wastegated turbochargers Exhaust gas recirculation Variable geometry turbochargers
  

•

Fuel handling system Fuel injection systems capable of still higher injection pressures (28,000 psi)


•

Combustion system Stiffened to allow higher cylinder pressures (2,600 psi)


Controlling Heavy-Duty Engines Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Charge Air Cooler EGR Cooler EGR Valve Electronic Control Module

Intake Manifold

Exhaust Manifold

Compressor

Turbine

Coolant Temperature Sensor

Throttle Position Sensor

Controlling Heavy-Duty Engines Variable Geometry Turbocharging
Actuator control signal Control pressure sensor Turbocharger speed sensor Compressor Boost pressure Exhaust Manifold Pressure Electronic Control Module

Intake Manifold
Actuator Nozzle ring

Exhaust Manifold
VG Turbine

Moving Nozzle Ring
Electro-pneumatic Control valve High pressure air source

Stationary Restrictor Plate

End of presentation

Thank you for your attention


								
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