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					PANEL 2
Culture and public relations disasters: Quo vadis Africa? Chris Skinner Ronel Rensburg Kingsley Eyita

• INTRODUCTION: SETTING THE SCENE Chris Skinner

Title: Culture, public relations and the 2010 World Cup. What are the challenges for PR in South Africa Author's name: Chris Skinner Institution / Organisation:University of KwaZulu Natal Country: South Africa

• This event is about much more than sports – it is about Africa and Africa‟s ability to host the world. It is about getting out from underneath the welter of negative press coverage our continent receives. It is informing the world that we have much to offer, that our people are ready to receive the world, ready to host those who come to the World Cup and that when they come they will receive a wonderfully unforgettable African experience … „Ke nako, Celebrate Africa‟s Humanity‟..” (Address by Minister in the Presidency, Dr Essop Pahad, on the occasion of the opening session of the 2010 National Communication Partnership Conference, Sandton, Gauteng, South Africa 29 July 2008).

The expectations! Short term • $5.5 billion to the economy • 415 000 new jobs • 480 000 foreign tourists • 35-40 billion TV viewers. Long term • Greatly improved tourism infrastructure • Enhanced reputation for service • Quality travel experience • A set of legacy projects of benefit to the continent as a whole

The key PR challenges • Getting the various role players together in a concerted team effort • Publicising government efforts to address key issues such as electricity supply, an accessible and safe public transportation system, crime ,safety and security • Developing close and harmonious media relations both locally and internationally

• Generate amongst the public at large a genuine commitment to hosting next year‟s World Cup. • Be prepared to make it a wonderfully unforgettable African experience

The German experience • At the same critical juncture in the build up to the 2006 competition Germany faced: • Xenophobia • Highest unemployment rate since World War 2 • Match fixing • Elimination from Euro 2004

Two years and one World Cup later the country, once divided by the infamous Berlin Wall, was transformed. The hosting of World Cup 2006 is believed to have been one of the leading catalysts in this transformation

Can South Africa also turn the FIFA World Cup to its advantage? Dr Nikolaus Eberl, author of Brand Ovation: How Germany won the World Cup of Nation Branding believes South Africa can also transform itself just as Germany did by hosting a successful FIFA World Cup.

“I believe African and South African communicators and the media, as well as the people of South Africa prior to and during the competition will be responsible for changing international perceptions of the country and the continent. But in order to be successful, South Africa needs to tap into its culture of Ubuntu in order to win the hearts of international visitors in 2010 much as Germany‟s friendly visitors campaign did. South Africa and Africa also needs to make its heroes known to the world”

In the final assessment it will therefore, be through the planning efforts of the 2010 National Communication Partnership and other initiatives combined with the warmth and spirit of the African welcome that will make next year‟s World Cup a unique and unforgettable experience. „Ke nako, Celebrate Africa‟s Humanity‟

View of Table Mountain and the new Greenpoint stadium

Title: New dimensions in community relations: the role of culture and public relations in Nigeria Author's name: Kingsley Eyita, MNIPR, CPRP Institution / Organisation: Kee Kommunications Limited Country: Nigeria

• Introduction and background:
“In

Nigeria, the host government and the oil corporations are partners in the exploration and exploitation of the resources, but there has been no significant policy change toward the welfare of the oil producing areas... the strength of their common economic interest overrides all local rights to the mineral resources ... They have little or no regards for local (community) welfare”

• Community relations:
In the Nigerian oil and gas industry, a good number of literature show that researchers have studied the guiding paradigms for this concept (Evuleocha, 2005; Ite, 2004; Amaeshi et al., 2006; Turner et al., 2004; Idemudia, 2007). Their verdicts relate more with what this paper calls the philanthropic model which is expressed through CA (community assistance) and CC (community compassion). This model merely portrays the host community with a bowel in hand begging for crumbs to be dropped for its survival. The problems with this model are numerous.

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Demands from host communities were simply fulfilled by offering scholarships for secondary and tertiary education which the industry liberally granted; Environmental awareness both internationally and in Nigeria was comparatively lower; Concerns for human rights in host communities where oil exploration went on was very minimal; Nigeria was not subject to the kind of international scrutiny being witnessed today; Industry-community relationships were characterised by respectful deference and calm (Omole, 1998:2-3).

•

In such a peaceful, largely illiterate and rural operating environment, these companies probably failed then to: 1) Interpret the prevailing socio-political and economic culture that weighed heavily against the oil rich Niger Delta communities; 2) Predict how such culture would evolve in the future to influence their public relations strategy and organisational culture(s).

Traditional Nigerian „public relations‟ strategies were deeply ingrained in coercive theory as Professors Opubor and Nwuneli have observed. Modern Nigerian persuasive ideology is not yet free from various forms of coercion as compliance-gaining strategy. That explains why terms like: “obey before complain”, “with military alacrity”, “with immediate effect” and many others are still relevant in our parlance. Military officer‟s cars display their stickers, berets, horse-whip (“koboko”) all to scare the public and gain advantage over others on the roads.

Products Groundnuts Cocoa Palms produce

Region of origin North West East

% of derivation paid 50 50 50

Then the culture of true federalism applied. But when oil and gas extracted from the Niger Delta (which by some curious coincidence, is made up of minority ethnic groups) began to yield huge revenues, the derivation principle was revised, changed and finally dropped by government. That explains why forces from the minority ethnic groups are agitating for true federalism in Nigeria as a sure solution to the Niger Delta crisis. But what is the way out?

• Omole (1998) reveals that in this 21st century and further: • The challenge for the public relations practitioner will not be how best to successfully launder image, but how well he (she) can expose superior performance, and how credibly he or she can manage and explain contemporary challenges and emerging issues...the manager will not be hired to clean up the mess resulting from bad policy or unacceptable behaviour – as such unwholesome events would be exposed sooner than later given the pervasive nature of global information technology – he/she will be hired to enhance the ability of the employer to formulate good policies and behave in a manner acceptable to the small, more open and prying world of the 21st

• Challenges confronting the African PR practitioner: • Also, courtesy of the satellite communication technology, the global village theory is now a modern reality. People or interest groups in distant countries and continents now have instant access and chances to learn, interact, exchange and share ideas. In an era of instant, worldwide communication, information is readily available and accessible as the media now rapidly spread the news to audiences once unimaginable. • More and more people are enlightened courtesy of formal and informal education. On the basis of all these PR practitioners worldwide, would have to adopt what this paper calls the „PerT-A-C‟ concept of public relations. Here, he/she is expected to help management to Perceive issues and their trends, and then Think extensively on their significance and consequences as a base for Actions which must be followed by Communication.

• The concept of Glasnost and Perestroika in the new dimensions in community relations:
• As guest speaker in the 1993 NIPR event, Mr Joachim Schroder from Switzerland, said and I want to quote: “In the past few years four messages had a significantly stronger impact than any international public relations campaign: „New Thinking‟, „Glasnost‟, „Perestroika‟, and „We are the people‟!” According to him these four messages “broke through all barriers and have had a lasting effect on global communication”.
My thinking is that the new dimensions in community relations in Niger Delta also revolve around these principles. As literature reveals, „Glasnost‟ means new openness and „Perestroika‟ restructuring. The new dimensions in community relations place strong demands on stakeholders in the Niger Delta. In the light of new realities, they have need for new thinking in their community relations strategies. One of the ways is for them to embrace the culture of openness to themselves and to the communities. With that comes the need for a holistic restructuring.

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For instance the issue of true federalism, as was the case when Agriculture was the hop of Nigeria‟s economy, deserve mention here. Added to that is the place and role of democracy as an ideology, where the wishes of the people dictate who qualifies to rule and why. To pretend that these issues, which are components of Nigeria‟s socio-political culture, do not affect the practice of public relations in Nigeria is like giving Satan awards to saintly activities.

The following provides a sound cultural foundation for successful PR practice in Africa. This too is how to enhance excellent corporate-community relations in this 21st century and after:

Thank you very much for your time and attention.

Kingsley Eyita, MNIPR, CPRP. Keekommunications Nigeria Limited.
keekommunications@yahoo.com; kingsley.eyita@gmail.com.

Title: President Jacob Zuma, Umshini Wami (“Bring me my machine gun”) and a country’s reputation tarnished abroad – rebranding South Africa Author‟s name: Ronel Rensburg Institution / Organisation: University of Pretoria Country: South Africa

T H E N E G A T

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OBJECTIVES OF PRESENTATION
• What is acceptable of South Africa’s reputation? • What is wrong with South Africa’s reputation? • How can PR be utilised to cope with culture and to brand South Africa?

WHAT IS ACCEPTABLE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S REPUTATION?

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T
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ECONOMIC POWERHOUSE OF AFRICA WINE INDUSTRY GOLD AND DIAMONDS ECOTOURISM AFFORDABLE BEAUTIFUL NATURE THE WEATHER LARGE BUSINESSES AND INDUSTRIES A CRITICAL MASS OF STRAIGHT THINKERS HOPEFULLY NOW A STRONGER POLITICAL OPPOSITION A WORLD IN ONE COUNTRY -“ALIVE WITH POSSIBILITIES” GOOD RUGBY AND CRICKET OSCAR WINNING MOVIE – TSOTSI AND CHARLIZE THERON LADYSMITH BLACK MABASO - MUSIC A GREAT FUTURE? 2010 AND A SUCCESSFUL FEDERATIONS CUP 35 DIVERSE CULTURES

WHAT IS WRONG WITH SOUTH AFRICA’S REPUTATION?

CRIME!!!!!

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S
• • • • • • • • • • •

M FOREIGN POLICY STINKS – ROBERT MUGABE; QUIET DIPLOMACY O HEALTH STRATEGY DISASTER DENIAL OF HIV/AIDS R JULIUS MALEMA – NEW ANC YOUTH LEADER CORRUPTION AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE E RAPE MOST LEADERS ARE ON SUSPENSION AND OTHERS ARE … “ACTING” THE LEADERS ARE DISABLING AND NOT ENABLING … TAXI UPHEAVAL RECENT
THE DALAI LAMA THE ANC IS VIEWED AS AN OVERPOWERING “GREY IMMANENCE” – THE PARTY 38

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• THE USA HAS OBAMA • SA HAS ZUMA: 1. Up for corruption 2. Involved in rape charges 3. Polygamist 4. Populist 5. President 6. Traditionalist 7. Different messages for different audiences

HOW CAN PR BE UTILISED TO COPE WITH CULTURE AND BRAND SOUTH AFRICA ON THE GLOBAL STAGE?

Executives all over the world believe that country reputation or brand is harder to manage than organisational reputation or brand

45

•PR can begin by being relevant, responsible and responsive •PR must be mindful of brand citizenship in a multicultural stakeholder environment •Brand citizenship is the ability of an organisation or country to use the power of its brand to make a difference in society (Arvidsson 2006)
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•Branding is “virtual space” and built on a fluid foundation •It is experience and trust •The contexts of brand citizenship includes: society; natural environment; corporate governance; political issues; global challenges – such as the current global financial crisis
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• IN 1996 SIMON ANHOLT COINED THE TERM “NATION BRANDING”

• NATION BRAND INDEX (NBI) IN 2005 TO MEASURE THE IMAGE AND REPUTATION OF THE WORLD’S NATIONS AND TO TRACK THEIR PROFILES AS THEY RISE OR FALL

• A COUNTRY CAN BE BRANDED AND ITS REPUTATION MANAGED BY PR

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A U D I • DIAGNOSE THE CURRENT SITUATION – BRAND/ T REPUTATION
• DIAGNOSE THE FUTURE SCENARIO

• MANAGE THE TRANSITION – DE-BRAND
• DETERMINE THE BRAND/ REPUTATION DRIVERS • RE-BRAND (IMAGINEER) • COMMUNICATE THE REVISED BRAND

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• • • • • • • • • •

C O U PRODUCTS/ SERVICES/ EXPORTS N PEOPLE T R ENVIRONMENT Y SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ‟ GOVERNANCE S VISION AND LEADERSHIP FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE B R EMOTIONAL APPEAL A CULTURE/ HERITAGE N INVESTMENT AND IMMIGRATION D ?
50

New standards for brand building
What do you want to accomplish?
Substance • What social issues does the country impact? • Which are priorities? • What actions will be taken to address them? • What are the goals? Emotion • What will the country stand for? • What human connection?
Source: Cone, 2007

Brand

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A corporate responsibility brand must…

Inform*
•Be Transparent
•Be Credible •Fact-based. and failure) (success

Inspire*
•Be Authentic
•Define clear goals and direction •Provide success stories in realistic context. •Be Human •Act with humility

Engage*
• Collaborate internally (operations, marketing, CC, and communications groups)
•Insure participation of external partners throughout communication process (Before concept and delivery) •Be the result of genuine two-way dialogue
Source: 52 Cone, 2007

•Use simple language to describe complex realities •Provide other views

•Practice restraint

PR IN SOUTH AFRICA….
MORE SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES ARE NEEDED IN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION; INFLUENCES OF RHETORIC AND THE ROLE OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY IT MUST CREATE EXCITEMENT

PR IN SOUTH AFRICA: TO SUMMARISE
IS ABOUT MULTILOGUE, NOT MONOLOGUE •IT IS ABOUT PUBLIC CREDIBILITY, NOT CONTROL •IT IS ABOUT INDEPENDENT ENDORSEMENT, NOT SELF-PROMOTION •IT IS ABOUT EDUCATION, NOT HYPE •IT ENCOMPASSES THE MYTHOS, ETHOS, LOGOS AND PATHOS OF COMMUNICATION •IN SOUTH AFRICA, COMMUNICATION IS NOT A “SOFT SKILL”, BUT A HARD AND PIVOTAL COMPETENCY •PR SHOULD IDEALLY BE THE VOICE OF VISIBILITY FOR ALL STAKEHOLDERS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
•IT

IN CONCLUSION
“Africa is ours; the continent is ours. The only continent in the world that is shaped like a question mark” Mzwakhe Mbuli People’s poet

CONCLUSIVE REMARKS AND SUMMARY Chris Skinner


				
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