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					MAKING A LIVING:
 GETTING FOOD
       ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES
1. Foraging
2. Horticulture
3. Pastoralism
4. Agriculture
5. Industrialism
 FORAGERS or GATHERERS AND HUNTERS

• Subsistence derived
  from a combination of
  gathering, hunting and
  fishing
• Foraging economies
  still survive because
  their environment is
  not suitable for food
  production.            A contemporary forager from
                          Australia’s Cape York peninsula
                          collects eggs from the nest of a
                          magpie goose.
        Correlates of Foraging
• Band-organization (30-50)
  people -- flexibility allows for
  seasonal adjustments.
• Mobile, at least seasonally
  nomadic -- Pattern of
  congregation and dispersal
• Bands flexible in composition.
• No permanent attachment to Ju/’hoansi (!Kung)
  group or land.
• Access to resources held
  communally.
• Individual ownership of food,
  tools and other goods but
  strong pressure to share.
• Little difference in wealth,
  few material goods
• Social and political
  organization are simple --
  at most, headman
  without authority
• Social control is informal
• Limited means of food
  storage
• No full-time specialists
• Little warfare (conflict
  between groups)              The Agta (Philippines) live by hunting,
                                 gathering, fishing and exchange with lowland
                                 farmers
• Typical gender-
based division of
labor with women
gathering and men
hunting and fishing,
with gathering
contributing more to
the group diet.



•All foraging societies distinguish among their members
according to age and gender, but are relatively egalitarian
(making only minor distinctions in status)
Wide Variation in characteristics across foraging societies

degree of dependence on hunting vs. gathering
gender roles/ gender status
technologies used
Political organization
                    Foraging




Worldwide distribution of recent hunter-gatherers.
   recent foragers have often been used to
       understand prehistoric humans
                   Caveats
• Now in least desirable
  environments:
  tundra, desert, rain
  forest
• Cultural changes in last
  20,000 years
• Natural environment has
  changed
• Affected by other people
                     Horticulture
• non-intensive plant
cultivation, based on the use
of simple tools and cyclical,
non-continuous use crop
lands.
• Slash-and-burn or swidden
cultivation and shifting
cultivation are alternative
labels for horticulture.
• About 300 million people
depended primarily on
swidden cultivation for
subsistence.                    slash-and-burn horticulture
                                Ranomafana, Madagascar.
               Horticulturists
–Slash-and-burn agriculture
   •Cyclical process
   •Burned vegetation, ashes
   nourish land
   •Land left fallow for several
   years
   •Tend to be less nomadic and
   more sedentary than
   foragers
–Cultures include:                 Women planting
                                    taro in New
   •Yanomamö                          Guinea
   •Tsembaga
   •Iroquois
Location of World Horticulturalists
• Groups range from 100 to more than 5,000
• Relatively settled, but nomadic within limits
• Location of villages is shifted periodically to keep the
near areas being cultivated but even so, villages usually
remain in each location for several consecutive years.
South American farmers. Women tend to be the
main producers in horticultural societies.
        Horticultural Adaptations
• Gardening, using tools that require
  human power
• Domesticated plants
• Shift in emphasis on role of women in
  kinship
• Sedentism
• Increased labor intensity
• Surpluses
• Social stratification
• notions of private property, and
  ownership of land
• warfare
                Pastoralists
– Subsistence based on
  care of domesticated
  animals
– Migration follows herds
– Examples: Bedouins,
  Nuer Lapps,
– East African cattle
  complex
   • Supplement diet with
     gardens
   • Largely eat blood
     and milk from cattle,     Bedouins
     not meat
                 Pastoralism




A female pastoralist who is a member of the Kirgiz
ethnic group in Xinjiang Province, China.
Pastoralism Around the World
        Pastoral Nomadism




all members of the pastoral society follow the
herd throughout the year. (Iran)
              Transhumance
Part of the society
follows the herd, while
the other part maintains
a home village (this is
usually associated with
some cultivation by the
pastoralists).
             East African cattle complex
members of such economies may get agricultural produce
through trade or their own subsidiary cultivation
                     Agriculture
•cultivation involving continuous use of crop land more
labor-intensive than horticulture due to needs generated
by farm animals and crop land formation
•Domesticated animals are commonly used in agriculture,
mainly to ease labor and provide manure.
 •Irrigation frees cultivation
 from seasonal domination.




       Egyptian shaduf
                              Agriculture




Irrigated and terraced rice fields used by the rice farmers of Luzon in the Philippines.

Irrigation provides nutrients and a continual source of water to crops,
allowing for continual use of fields (rather than shifting).
Terracing allows for cultivation of crops in mountainous areas.
        Agriculture: Costs and Benefits
• Agriculture is far more labor-intensive and capital-intensive than
  horticulture, but does not necessarily yield more than horticulture
  does (under ideal conditions).
• Agriculture’s long-term production (per area) is far more stable
  than horticulture’s.
• Intensified food production is associated with sedentism and rapid
  population increase.
• Larger, permanent populations
  and organization of labour
  results in a centralized political
  structure – states
• High degree of specialization
• Hierarchical social structure
         The Cultivation Continuum
•In reality, non-industrial economies do not always fit
cleanly into the distinct categories given above, thus it is
useful to think in terms of a cultivation continuum.
•Sectorial fallowing: a
plot of land may be
planted two-to-three
years before shifting (as
with the Kuikuru, South
American manioc
horticulturalists) then
allowed to lie fallow for a
period of years.

				
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posted:4/22/2013
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