Christa Jachym, BCBA Benhaven Learning Network March 22, 2010 PROBLEM BEHAVIOR IS AN ERROR IN LEARNING . THEREFORE, OUR JOB IS TO TEACH. Times are Changing • Parents are 5-6 times more likely to have negative interactions with their children than positive ones. • In 1930 parent-child contact averaged 3-4 hours per day. • In 1984 parent-child contact averaged 14.5 minutes • Of that 14.5 minutes, 12.5 minutes were spent in negative interactions (Latham, 2004) The Rules of Behavior • Behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences. • Behavior responds more favorably to positive consequences. • It is only known whether a behavior has been punished or reinforced by the course of that behavior in the future. • Behavior is largely a product of its immediate environment. The ABC’s of Behavior • Antecedents- 3 types – Immediate-What happened immediately before the behavior occurred? • Locations, people, instructions given, events, times of day, specific materials, etc. – Distant-What happened before the behavior occurred? • Previous events, cumulative events, etc. – Internal State-How is he/she feeling? • Hungry, Tired, Sick, etc. The ABC’s of Behavior • Behavior- What does the student do? What does it look like? – Be objective – Use observable language – Avoid vague terminology The ABC’s of Behavior • Consequence- 2 types – What happens immediately following the behavior? How do I/others react upon seeing or hearing the behavior? • Verbal feedback, reactions of others, items removed or attained, etc. – Reinforcement-increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again (pleasant). – Punishment-decreases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again (unpleasant) Behavior As Communication • People do things for a reason – to get something or to cause something to happen. We refer to this as the communicative intent of behavior. • Different messages can be communicated: – Escape or Avoid – Gain attention/reaction – Get something – Self-regulation Behavior as Communication • We need to understand what function or purpose the behavior is serving for the individual? • Assessment involves asking the questions: – What? – When? Most/Least likely to occur – Who? – How does the behavior work for the individual? – Why? • The answers should lead to prediction. Behaviors to Consider • Functional communication – How can he appropriately escape? – How can she gain attention? – How does he ask for help? – Can the she make choices? • Self Regulation – Understanding the Rules – Paying Attention – Emotions – Delayed Gratification Think Positive… • Begin with the end in sight… • Instead of focusing on what you want the child to STOP doing, focus on what you want the child to DO. • Avoid negative language (will vs won’t). Think Positive… • Shift from asking the question, “What can we do to stop behaviors?” to “What skills can be taught to increase the child’s chance for success?” Positive Programming • Fix the environment and you’ll fix the behavior. • 90% OF ALL BEHAVIORAL DIFFICULTIES CAN BE POSITIVELY AFFECTED BY THE ENVIRONMENT.
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