Passage One by wuxiangyu

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									                                 第二册补充练习
                                         Unit 1

Speaking
Topic: Talking about Taizhou University or your school
You may include:
1) location;
2) mission
3) facilities like teaching building, library, sports ground, laboratory, etc;
4) teaching quality;
5) student body;
6) scholarship


Reading
Passage One
      One of the most interesting paradoxes in American today is that Harvard
University, the oldest university of higher learning in the United States, is now
engaged in a serious discussion about what a university should be, and whether it is
measuring up.
      Should Harvard – or any other university – be an intellectual sanctuary, apart
from the political and social revolution of the age, or should it be a laboratory for
experimenting with these political and social revolutions; or even an engine of the
revolution?
      This issue was defined several years ago by Walter Lippman, a famous Harvard
graduate:
      “If the universities are to do their work,” he said, “they must be independent and
they must be disinterested… They are places to which men can turn for judgments
which are fair. Obviously, the moment the universities fall under political control, or
under the control of private interests, or the moment they themselves take a hand in
political affairs and leading positions in government, their value as independent as
disinterested sources of judgment is weakened…”
      This is the part of the discussion that is going on at Harvard today. Another part
is the discussion of the militant and even many conservative students that a university
is the keeper of our ideals and morals, and should not be “disinterested” but active in
bringing the nation’s ideals and actions together.
      Harvard’s men of today seem more troubled and less sure about personal,
political and study purposes than they did at the beginning. They are not even clear
about how they should discuss and resolve their problem, but they are struggling with
them privately, and how they come out is sure to influence American university and
political life.
1. According to Walter Lippman, a university must                     .

                                             1
A) depend on the government
B) take active part in political affairs and social issues
C) fall under the control of special and private interests
D) remain independent of our society
2. Those who disagree with Walter Lippman argue that a university should    .
A) be engaged in a serious discussion on the role it plays in the society
B) support our old and established universities
C) take an active part in solving society’s problems
D) not be interested in social revolutions
3. In regard to their goals and purposes in life, Harvard men of today are
becoming                        .
A) more sure about men
B) less sure about them
C) less interested in them
D) completely lost
4. The word “paradoxes” underlined in the first sentence of this passage
means                     .
A) a difficult problem
B) an out-of-the-ordinary condition
C) a self-contradiction
D) an unusual situation
5. According to the writer, the discussion going on at Harvard            .
A) will soon be over
B) will have no result
C) will influence future life in American
D) will cause little influence on other universities

Passage Two
      Each state has some local school districts with extensive authority and
responsibility for establishing and regulating public elementary and high schools.
Each local school district has a board of education, usually made up of five to seven
members, who have been appointed by higher officials or elected by citizens of the
school district. Within the limits of state policy, the board operates the local public
school system through the school superintendent and his or her staff.
      The functions of the board of education in determining education policies, and of
the superintendent of schools in executing these policies, include a broad range of
duties and responsibilities. Together, the board and the superintendent are responsible
for preparing the school budget. They usually have considerable freedom within broad
state policy to determine most elements of the curriculum. They are responsible for
hiring teachers and other school personnel, providing and taking care of school
buildings, purchasing school equipment and supplies, and, in most cases, providing
transportation facilities of pupils who live beyond a reasonable walking distance from
school. Their duties also include establishing rules and regulations consistent with
state law and regulations of the State Department of Education, which is in charge of

                                           2
operation of the schools.
Answer the following questions:
6. What does each state have according to the passage?
7. How many members make up a board of education?
8. What does the board do within the limits of state policy?
9. How many duties and responsibilities does the board of education have according
    to this passage?
10. What is the function of the State Department of Education?


Writing
Write a summary of passage A. Your writing should include the following points:
1) the location of Oxford University;
2) what Oxford University consists of;
3) roles played by Oxford University and its individual colleges respectively;
4) its mission;
5) what Oxford University does to support its aim


Translation
1. Oxford University is the oldest university in Britain and one of the world's most
famous institutions of higher learning.
2.The university provides some libraries, laboratories, and other facilities, but the
colleges take primary responsibility for the teaching and well-being of their students.
3.遵照医生的建议,我决定戒烟。
4.这所大学提供了我们所需的所有材料和设备。
5.我们需要开办更多的学校以满足每一个孩子受教育的需要。


                                       Unit 2



Speaking
Topic: Interviewing for a job
Some suggested questions for a job interview are listed as follows:
1) Do you have any experience in this type of work?
2) Why do you think you would like to work for this company?
3) What are your future career plans?
4) What salary do you expect?
5) What are your strengths?
6) How much education have you had?




                                           3
Reading
Passage One

      City planners are the people who guide the development of cities and towns.
They might advise local governments on ways to improve communities, or they might
design entirely new communities. In South Florida, for example, city planners are
working to improve existing communities. The population of the area is expected to
increase from 5.5 million to 7.5 million by 2020. The growth is headed to the west,
where there is still open land. But western growth creates a costly need for new roads
and is a threat to the ecological system of the Florida Everglades(沼泽地). City
planners are trying to lure people back into the older, developed eastern section of the
region by concentrating growth in that direction and away from the western section.
      City planners also plan and develop new communities. These communities,
called new cities or new towns, include both places to live and places to work. New
cities, such as Brazil's capital Brasilia, a community founded in 1900, can be
constructed far from existing cities. Such cities are designed with enough facilities
and job opportunities for all residents. Building completely new cities is very costly,
however, Brasilia and Canberra, Australia, are two examples of the few new cities
that have ever been completed
      New towns are different from new cities in that they are built within commuting
distance of large cities. They may also be planned communities within a city. New
towns provide jobs for many of their residents, but they also rely on neighboring cities
for jobs. Two of the first new towns built in the United States were Columbia,
Maryland, and Reston, Virginia. At the end of the 20th century an estimated 100 new
towns were planned or under construction in the United States.

1. The passage is mainly about ________.

A) choosing a good city planner
B) the planning of the Reston, Virginia
C) the planning of Brasilia and Canberra
D) the work of city planners
2. Brasilia, Brazil, is an example of _______.
A) an improved old city
B) a planned new city
C) a planned new town
D) a suburban development

3. You would most likely hire a city planner if you needed someone to ________.
A) help grow best trees and flowers in a city
B) reduce the air pollution in a city
C) design new office buildings in a city
D) guide the development of a new community in a city
4. The number 2 million indicates the predicted ________.

                                           4
A) decrease in South Florida's population
B) increase in South Florida's population
C) number of city planners to be needed in the year 2020
D) number of towns to be planned by 205 population in a newly-designed city
5. In this passage “lure” means______.
A) cheat
B) force
C) attract
D) chase


Passage Two
     Knowing what an employer is looking for in a potential employee can help
someone to prepare for an interview. An interview for a major corporation was asked
these questions: What specific skills are you looking for in the people who apply for a
job? And how do you identify these skills? He responded:
     Most important for us in the ways of skills is the ability to communicate – can
people speak clearly? Can they express the kind of person they believe themselves to
be? In what kind of work situations do they perform well? What are their strengths
and weaknesses? We want to know about the personal qualities of the individual, so I
try to ask questions to draw them out and attempt to find out if they have a sense of
themselves. What I’m looking for is an ability to verbalize an idea in clear, simple,
understandable language.
     I am looking for creativity. I will ask some “odd” questions just to see if this
throws them. How do they respond in these tough situations – can they be creative
with their answers? This is very important when they are out in business situations
with customers. They will have to respond to very sudden changes and
problem-solving situation that they are not necessarily familiar with, and I want to
know if they can handle them.
     What I look for the most are personal qualities – assertiveness, drive, ambition,
and a competitive instinct. They should be high achievers and want to work hard. I
can usually tell about these qualities from the way the person presents himself or
herself and some of the activities they have been engaged in. I pick up things from the
application and resume – how they have written them and the kind of things they say.
How they present their experiences is often very informative. For example, an
assertive person will say, “I can do these things” and “I decided in this course of
action,” whereas a more passive person might say, “these are the experiences I have
had.” All of these things describe the person in some way.
Answer the following questions:
6. What qualities do employers seek in a potential employee?
7. How can an interviewer find the interviewee’s strengths and weakness?
8. Why does the interviewer ask interviewees some odd questions?
9. What does “I can do these things” show in terms of one’s personal quality?
10. What is the best title of the passage?


                                           5
Writing
Write a résumé for a job application. Remember to include all the necessary
information in it.

     A résumé usually contains the job applicant's name, address, telephone number;
experience; education; personal data; job objective; summary; publications; foreign
language skills; professional memberships; hobbies; and references. The first four
components are fundamental and necessary.



Translation
1. I acquired discipline and a strong work ethic, and learned at an early age the
   importance of balancing life's competing interests — in my case, school,
   homework and a job.
2. I worked there for seven years and learned so many lessons, especially from a
   fellow waitress Helen who had incredible self respect and did what she loved —
   serving people.
3. 我醒过来时,发现自己躺在医院的床上。
4. 环境污染正在造成森林的死亡。
5. 现在,重要的是我们每个人都应该知道要做什么,该怎样去做。




                                       Unit 3



Speaking
Topic: Talking about advertisements for clothes
Some suggested questions are listed as follows:
1) How important is one’s clothes to one’s appearance?
2) What do you think of the clothes advertised in magazines?
3) Do you feel tempted to buy them?
4) Do you often turn to advertising when you buy clothes?
5) Do you think you are a victim of advertising?
6) Do you think there is a way for us to avoid being the target of advertising?




                                           6
Reading
Passage One

      Perhaps you have made a major purchase recently, one for which a sales clerk
asked if you wanted to purchase replacement insurance. This type of insurance is
offered for appliances and electronics and usually involves your receiving a
replacement item if your new purchase breaks during some specified time period,
such as the first year.
      Is there some kind of mathematical principle you can use to decide whether you
should buy this type of insurance, or must you simply guess whether or not your new
purchase will break in the specified time period? As in many everyday
problem-solving situations, mathematics can provide you with some assistance in
your decision making. To determine whether you should purchase the replacement
insurance, it will be necessary to compute what statisticians call the expected cost. An
example will serve to illuminate both the mathematical principle and the
computations involved.
      If the purchased item costs $60 and the insurance is $20, you need one more
number to find the expected cost --- the probability of the item breaking or failing in
the specific time period. Let's say that probability is 25%; that is, 25% or one fourth
of the items are returned for replacement in the time period. If insurance is not
purchased, the expected cost will be the sum of two quantities, one representing the
situation in which the item breaks down and one for the situation in which it does not.
If the item fails, the expected cost is 25% of the sum of $60 plus $60 (that second $60
is because you have to purchase the item a second time), or $30. If the item does not
fail, the expected cost is 75$ plus $60%. Adding these two amounts, $30 plus $45,
results in $75, and since this is less than the total for purchasing insurance ($60 plus
$20 is $80), the replacement insurance is not a wise choice in this situation.

1. This passage is mostly concerned with figuring out _________.
A) the rising cost of insurance
B) how to get refunds for defective products
C) when you need replacement insurance
D) how to know whether a product will fail
2.. If a product has a failure rate of 25%, then about what fraction of the items will fail
or break in given time period?
A) one fourth
B) one third
C) one half
D) three fourths
3. If you buy replacement insurance and your new purchase breaks down,
you_______.
A) get your money back
B) get a new product exactly the same as the one that broke
C) can pick a new product of equal value
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D) must purchase the insurance a second time
4. The passage explains expected cost by ________.
A) defining replacement insurance
B) explaining insurance probability
C) giving failure rates for various products
D) giving an example of how it works
5. In this passage the word illuminate means to ______.
A) decorate with candles
B) brighten with lights
C) make understandable
D) prove


Passage Two

     At dawn on January 17, 1995, the city of Kobe was rocked by earthquake
tremors. The worst tremors reach 7.2 on the Richter scale. Kobe is Japan's sixth
largest city. It is also one of the world's largest ports. Within minutes, Kobe was a
disaster area.
     How bad was the damage? The earthquake was the worst to hit Japan in 72 years.
There were more than 6,000 people dead. More than 35,000 were injured, and nearly
310,000 were left homeless. Some 75,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed.
Total damage was estimated at $90 billion.
     Were the Japanese prepared for earthquakes? They thought they were. They were
expecting a big earthquake to strike one of their major cities. But they did not know
when, where, or how big the earthquake would be. Architects and engineers believed
they had designed earthquake-proof buildings, transportation, and public services.
Kobe's few minutes of earth tremors shattered that belief.
     What did people learn from the Kobe earthquake? What happened in Kobe
suggests that earthquake hazard was not taken seriously enough. Some people believe
that more can be done to reduce damage. They propose the following. More work
should be put into quake-proofing buildings. Walls should be built to protect towns on
the coast from large waves. Providers of emergency services must be better trained
and better prepared. Citizens must be better educated on what to do when an
earthquake strikes.
     The major barrier to doing more is cost. Japan finds itself trying balance the cost
against the risk of a strong earthquake.

6. Which sentence best tells what this passage says?
A) Cities can be made earthquake proof.
B) More can be done to reduce the damage of earthquake.
C) Earthquakes always cause serious damage.
D) Nothing can be done to reduce the damage of earthquake.
7. How many people died in the Kobe earthquake?
A) More than 6,000.

                                           8
B) At least 100,000
C) Nearly 310000.
D) 75,000
8. What is the major difficulty in doing more to reduce the earthquake damage?
A) People are not given enough training.
B) Engineers do not have the knowledge.
C) Protection is too costly.
D) No one takes earthquakes seriously.
9. The author's attitude in writing this passage is ________. (Only paragraph 1 is
chronological!)
A) analytic
B) blaming
C) provocative
D) indifferent
10. "Tremors" probably means ________.
A) earthquake-proving buildings
B) shaking movements
C) heavy thunderstorms
D) natural disasters



Writing
Write a personal ad to sell your bicycle.
     Personal ads are useful for our daily life. The text of an advertisement usually
contains four parts: headline; body copy; slogan, or tag line; and subscript.


Translation
1. College is a place where typically no one knows you at first, so you can be
   whoever you want to be.
2. Is it the victim's fault for believing, or the fault of society for allowing advertisers
   to do so?
3. 在追求真理的过程中,我们注定要遭受失败的痛苦。
4. 一个人所做的所有事情都受到他的习惯、个性或生活方式的影响,是他的习
   惯、个性或生活方式告诉他需要这样做。
5. 虽然我常翻阅杂志查看流行时尚,但仍然受到传统服装样式的影响。


                                         Unit 5


Speaking
Topic: the advantages of getting a good education


                                             9
The following points may help you.
1) personal enrichment
2) job opportunities
3) contribution to society

Reading
Passage One

      He lived in the 16th century. A few things, but not really that many, are known
about his life. And yet around the world the verdict is unanimous: he was the greatest
writer who ever lived. His name was William Shakespeare.
      Shakespeare was born in 1564 in a little town called Stratford-on-Avon. When
he was in his twenties, he made his way to London. There he spent most of his
working life. The theater was very popular at that time, and soon Shakespeare was
writing plays. He belongs to an acting company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men
and wrote plays for them. (He also acted in some of the plays.) In 1599 the company
built the famous Globe Theater. There Shakespeare wrote and acted until he retired in
about 1607.
      Shakespeare wrote three kinds of plays: comedies, tragedies, and histories. Many
of the comedies involved mistaken identities, women pretending to be men, and
slapstick situations. One of his famous comedies is A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Shakespeare's tragedies often were about a noble and honorable man who had one
fault that helped bring about his downfall. Hamlet is an example. Shakespeare's
histories were usually about kings of England, such as Richard III or Henry V.
What made Shakespeare's work so great? It was not necessarily his stories. Many
were retellings of stories the audience already knew. But the way he told the stories
was often remarkable. He understood the way people thought and acted, and he built
this into his characters. Even though they were created 400 years ago, Shakespeare's
characters are believed today.
      Shakespeare's use of language-such as his beautiful descriptions and his clear,
to-the-point statements-also made him great. Hundreds of famous English quotes
come from his plays. One example: "Cowards die many times before their deaths."

1. This passage gives an overview of __________.
A) the Globe Theater
B) theater in the 1500s
C) Shakespeare's histories
D) Shakespeare's life and work
2. Many of Shakespeare's plays __________.
A) were based on original stories
B) were based on stories already familiar to the audience
C) were a mixture of comedy and tragedy
D) do not exist today
3. Based on Shakespeare's experience, it is probably true that members of the Lord
Chamberlain's Men __________.
                                          10
A) performed more than one job
B) were jealous of each other
C) could not read or write
D) were all quite young
4. The general organization of this passage is __________.
A) Shakespeare's works, greatness, life
B) Shakespeare's life, work, greatness
C) Shakespeare's childhood, works, retirement
D) Shakespeare's greatness, works, life
5. The word unanimous in this passage means __________.
A) cause for argument
B) surprising
C) kept in written records
D) agreed on by everyone


Passage Two
      The chief purpose of work is not to produce things but to build the man. It is not
so important what shape or form our work may take; what is vitally important is our
attitude toward that work.
      Even if the particular duty is one which doesn’t seem worth doing, if you must
do it, it is important to do it right. Even if no one else will ever know whether you did
it right or not, you will know. By making a commitment to quality work, you make a
commitment to yourself to develop your abilities and self-respect, to do the best you
can do and be the best you can be. When you do as little as possible or just enough to
get by, you are not merely cheating your employer, your customers, your clients, and
your co-workers, but most importantly, you cheat yourself. You cheat yourself out of
an opportunity to develop pride and self-worth. You cheat yourself out of an
opportunity to meet a challenge and develop your own inner powers and abilities. You
may be able to get away with cheating others, but you never get away with cheating
yourself.
      Thus, the key is a commitment to yourself to use every possible opportunity for
self-development and treat every work assignment, no matter how small or boring, as
a challenge that can be used in your development.
      Work is a projection of self. Consciousness can regard any job as a potential
opportunity for self-expression, for play, for creativity, for the furtherance of social
objectives, and it can arrange the factors in the job so that they form a means of
self-expression.
      Most jobs contain at least some limited options for creativity. To the extent that
any job can be done in different ways, the job presents you with an opportunity to
project your unique abilities and values into that job. Any type of communication,
written or spoken, presents a significant opportunity for creative expression. Even if
your efforts are reviewed and must be toned down to fit into the mold of your
organization, there is always a slight opening through which you can project your


                                           11
unique personality. Use these opportunities to express and confirm your existence.
6. The main idea of the passage is             .
A) the importance of projecting your values into your job
B) how to improve your creativity
C) when to express yourself
D) how to change one’s personality
7. What can work assignments offer people?
A) Few options for creativity.
B) A chance to get away with cheating themselves.
C) An opportunity to develop oneself.
D) A way to get rid of your unique personality.
8. The most important thing about work is                    .
A) to produce things
B) the shape one’s work takes
C) one’s attitude towards the work
D) the amount of money it makes
9. Which of the following statements is not true?
A) Sometimes you have to adjust yourself to your work.
B) Work must be done in one way in order to be the most efficient.
C) There is space for you to show your creativity.
D) You may never cheat yourself.
10. If the work doesn’t seem worth doing, you should              .
A) give it up
B) perform it carefully
C) stop in the middle
D) tell others to do it


Writing
Write a greeting card for achievements to your friend, congratulating him / her
on his / her success.

    Nowadays, greeting cards are used a lot in modern society for many purposes.
Greeting cards for achievements are written to congratulate people who have
accomplished something special.



Translation
1. It's true that I dropped out of college to start Microsoft, but I was at Harvard for
   three years before dropping out——and I'd love to have the time to go back.
2. The computer industry has lots of people who didn't finish college, but I'm not
   aware of any success stories that began with somebody dropping out of high
   school.


                                          12
3. 这部戏非常精彩,我很快就沉浸于激动人心的剧情之中。
4. 保持学习动力才会成功,除非你为你的职业生涯选择了一条死胡同。
5. 今年,降低通货膨胀对政府经济政策的制定来说是至关重要的。


                                       Unit 6


Speaking
Topic: talking about the sports you are interested inSome suggested sentence
patterns for talking about sports are listed as follows:
1) Do you like sports?
2) What sports do you often go in for?
3) Are you a member of any sports team?
4) How often do you play basketball / volleyball ...?
5) Do you like to watch sports on TV?
6) What sports do you like to watch?
7) How often do you exercise?

Reading
Passage One

     Got the sniffles? You're not alone. The common cold will strike in the United
States more than 61 million times this year. That's a lot of stuffy noses, sore throats,
and coughs. You'd think scientists would have found a cure by now. For being so
common, however, a cold is quite complex.
     A cold is caused by a virus. And it's not just one type of virus. More than 200
viruses cause colds. A cold virus attacks healthy cells of the nose, throat, or lungs.
The virus gets into the cells and takes control. A single virus makes hundreds or
thousands of cold viruses inside each cell. Eventually, the cell bursts open and dies.
The viruses, though, escape and attack other healthy cells. By now you're sneezing
and coughing. Your throat is sore. The viruses keep infecting your healthy cells.
     Only your body can fight cold viruses. Billions of white blood cells travel in the
blood. White blood cells make antibodies. These proteins attach themselves to viruses
and destroy them. It's a slow process. Killing the viruses takes one to two weeks.
     What can you do to fight a cold? There isn't much you can do. Antibiotic drugs
don't work against viruses. Nose drops and cough medicines only relieve symptoms.
Chicken soup seems to help. Vitamin C may help too. A dose of 1,000 milligrams of
Vitamin C on the first day of a cold may quicken your recovery.
Be healthy and you may not catch a cold at all. Eat a well-balanced diet and get eight
hours of sleep each day. Exercise regularly. The cold virus spreads through the air, so
stay away from coughing, sneezing people. Also, the cold virus can live up to three
hours outside the body. That means you can pick it up from touching money,
doorknobs, and other people. So wash your hands often. Prevention is the best action!


                                           13
1. This passage is mainly concerned with __________.
A) antibodies
B) viruses
C) antibiotics
D) common colds
2. The common cold is started by __________.
A) a low white-blood cell count
B) a virus
C) a poor diet
D) shaking hands with other people
3. We can conclude from this passage that the common cold __________.
A) will be curable in the near future
B) causes fatigue and watery eyes
C) is something people just have to live with
D) can be prevented with nose drops
4. In the second and third paragraphs, the author explains the workings of a cold virus
through
A) a step-by-step explanation
B) scientific studies
C) detailed word pictures
D) a list of symptoms
5. Antibodies are __________.
A) proteins that attack viruses
B) white blood cells
C) drugs that fight viruses
D) vitamins


Passage Two

      Your body works 24 hours a day. It's always building and repairing, feeding and
cleansing itself. Its goal is to be ready for your every movement, breath, and thought.
The quality of your life depends on how well your body works. And how well your
body works depends on how much energy it gets. Energy comes from the food you
eat. Food contains nutrients that your body needs for growth and energy.
      By eating a balanced diet, your body gets the six essential nutrients it needs.
Minerals are nutrients that build bones and teeth. Minerals also form red blood cells
and other substances. Water aids digestion and waste removal. Carbohydrates give
your body its main source of energy. Two carbohydrates are sugars from foods such
as fruits and vegetables and starches(淀粉)found in rice, potatoes, and bread. Fats
help build cell membranes(膜). Proteins repair and grow body tissues. Finally,
vitamins help your body use carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
      The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created a nutritional
food pyramid. It shows the daily number of servings you should eat from five food
groups. The food pyramid has four levels. The base of the pyramid is the largest level.
                                          14
It contains the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta(面点)group from which you need six to
eleven servings. The next level has two food groups: vegetables and fruits. The
USDA recommends three to five servings of vegetables and two to four servings of
fruit. The third level also has two groups: the milk, yogurt, and cheese group and the
meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts group. You need two to three servings
from each of these groups. The top of the pyramid is the smallest level. It contains fats,
oils, and sweets. These foods have few nutrients. So eat them sparingly.

6. The title for this passage is probably________.
A) What You Need to Know About Fats
B) An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away
C) Water: An Essential Nutrient
D) Eating for Life and Health
7. A balanced diet ________.
A) consists of foods from five food groups
B) includes many foods containing fat
C) includes six to eleven servings of fruit
D) can be obtained by taking vitamins
8. The first paragraph suggests that food ________.
A) is something that cleanses your body
B) can improve the quality of your life
C) should be eaten at night as well as during the day
D) will make it easier for you to exercise
9. To help the reader identify the six nutrients needed by the body, the author
________.
A) describes the five basic food groups
B) explains what a balanced diet is
C) writes the name of each nutrient in italics
D) tells the number of daily servings needed from each food group
10. A nutrient is ________.
A) a substance that gives the body energy
B) a type of blood cell
C) a body tissue
D) the food you eat


Writing
    Write an essay of around 150 words arguing that goals can be reached no
matter how many obstacles lie in the way. You can support your argument with the
example of some famous person or an example from your personal experience.


Translation
1. My biggest challenge was finding a way to fit my passion for cooking into my
   healthier lifestyle.
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2. Another challenge to me was not to beat myself up if I ate something that was
   unhealthy and to take it as a sign to abandon my healthful habits.
3. 许多外语教师常常在课堂上自己讲得太多。
4. 目前我们没有职位空缺,但我们肯定会记住您的申请。
5. 这个年轻人相信:不管前进途中有多少困难,他都会实现他的梦想。



                                         Unit 7


Speaking
Topic: Talking about the important qualities you expect of a good father
      A father has a great influence on his children, so the qualities that a father has are
really important. Some words, phrases and sentence patterns are likely to be used.
1) a pillar of strength for the family
2)·optimistic about life
3)·strong sense of responsibility
4)·hard-working/loving/understanding
5)·care about children
6)·communicate with children
7)·spend as much time as possible with children
8)·set a good example for children
9)·know how to educate children: to praise, not always scold and criticize
10) no bad habits like smoking, heavy drinking and gambling


Reading
Passage One

       The structure of a family takes different forms around the world and even in the
same society. The family's form changes as it adapts to changing social and economic
influences. Until recently, the most common form in North America was the nuclear
family, consisting of a married couple with their minor children. The nuclear family is
an independent unit. It must be prepared to fend for itself. Individual family members
strongly depend on one another. There is little help from outside the family in
emergencies. Elderly relatives of a nuclear family are cared for only if it is possible
for the family to do so. In North America, the elderly often do not live with the family;
they live in retirement communities and nursing homes.
       There are many parallels between the nuclear families in industrial societies,
such as North America, and families in societies such as that of the Inuits(伊努伊特
人) who live in harsh environments. The nuclear family structure is well adapted to a
     ,
life of mobility. In harsh conditions, mobility allows the family to hunt for food. For
North Americans, the hunt for jobs and improved social status also requires mobility.


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     The nuclear family was not always the North American standard. In a more
agrarian time, the small nuclear family was usually part of a larger extended family.
This might have included grandparents, mother and father, brothers and sisters, uncles,
aunts and cousins. In North America today, there is a dramatic rise in the number of
single-parent households. Twice as many households in the United States are headed
by divorced, separated, or never-married individuals as are comprised of nuclear
families. The structure of the family, not just in North America, but throughout the
world, continues to change as it adapts to changing conditions.

1. The title for this passage would be ________.
A) What Makes a Family
B) The Life of the Inuits
C) Living with Hardship
D) The Failure of the Nuclear Family
2. A nuclear family is defined as ________.
A) a married couple with their minor children
B) a single father with minor children
C) parents, grandparents, and children living together
D) parents, children, and aunts and uncles living together
3. The information in this passage would most likely be found in ________.
A) a sociology textbook
B) a biology textbook
C) a mathematics textbook
D) a geography textbook
4. The first topic paragraph is further developed through ________.
A) listing statistics
B) telling a story
C) showing the similarities
D) comparing the differences
5. The word mobility means ________.
A) money
B) movement
C) organization
D) skill


Passage Two
      Do parents owe their children anything? Yes, they owe them a great deal.
      One of their chief duties is to give their children a sense of personal worth, for
self-esteem (自尊心) is the basis of a good mental health. A youngster who is often
made to feel stupid, often compared to brighter brothers, sisters, or cousins, will not
feel confident and become so afraid of failing, that he (or she) won’t try at all. Of
course, they should be corrected when they do wrong; this is the way children learn.
But the criticisms should be balanced with praises.
      Parents owe their children firm guidance and consistent discipline. It is
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frightening for a youngster to feel that he is in charge of himself; it’s like being in a
car without brakes (刹车). The parent who says “No” when other parents say “Yes”
sends a double message. He is also saying:“ I love you, and I am ready to risk your
anger, because I don’t want you to get into trouble.”
      Parents owe their children a comfortable feeling about their body, and enough
information about sex to balance the wrong information that they will surely receive
from their friends.
      Parents owe their children privacy(隐私权) and respect for their personal things.
This means not borrowing things without being permitted, not reading diaries and
mail, not looking through pockets. If a mother feels that she must read her daughter’s
diary to know what is going on, the communication between them must be pretty bad.
      Parents own their children a set of solid values around which to build their loves.
This means teaching them to respect the rights and opinions of others; it means
respecting elders, teachers, and the law. The best way to teach such values is by
example. A child who is lied to will lie. A child who sees his parents steal tools from
the factory or towels from a hotel will think that it is all right to steal. A youngster
who sees no laughter and no love in the home will have a difficult time laughing and
loving.
      No child asks to be born. If you bring a life into the world, you owe the child
something. And if you give him his due, he’ll have something of value to pass along
to your grandchildren.
6. According to the passage, parents owe their children the following things except
_______.
A) cars                               B) privacy
C) respect of self                    D) information about their body.
7. The writer thinks that teenagers are frightened when they are in charge of
themselves because _______.
A) they don’t know how to stop a car without brakes
B) there is no one to guide and discipline them
C) they are afraid of being left alone
D) there is no one to ask for help when in trouble
8. Which of the following ways is advised for parents to show love to their children?
A) Saying “Yes” to everything the children ask for.
B) Never embracing older children.
C) Refusing something to their children.
D) Never criticizing children.
9.The word “due” in the last paragraph means _______.
A) something one should do or finish before a fixed time
B) reasonable explanations(s) or plan(s)
C) what must be given to someone because it is right or owing
D) the money to be paid
10. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A) Parents prefer to let their children be in charge of their own loves at an early age.
B) Children learn much by seeing what their parents do.

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C) Children shouldn’t be corrected because it destroys their self-esteem.
D) It is better to compare a youngster to his brighter brothers because it makes him try
harder.


Writing
Write a letter to your parents, telling them about your life and studies at Taizhou
University.

     A personal letter usually has six parts: the heading, the date, the salutation, the
body, the complimentary close and the signature. In most informal personal letters,
the heading may be omitted.



Translation
1. If you pour water on flowers, they flourish. If you don’t give them water, they die.
2. Dad was an optimist by nature, and he instilled in me this concept of hope about
   the future.
3. 诸如打电话,听电话一类的事情占用了这位秘书的大部分时间。
4. 尽管他有病在身,他却是我们公司尤其是销售部的顶梁柱。
5. 只要坚持下去,你的目标就一定能实现。




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