Cultural Influences On Consumer Behavior by keara

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									Cultural Influences On Consumer Behavior

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Culture:
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Is the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among the members of an organization or society.

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Consumer Behavior and Culture:
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A Two-Way Street Products and services that resonate with the priorities of a culture at any given time have a much better chance of being accepted by consumers.

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Cultural Categories:
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Leisure? Work? Genders? Masculine style? Feminine style?

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Cultural Categories
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Case: Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, designers, advertisers, and retailers have been more sensitive. Case: Clothing worn by political figures or movie and rock stars can affect the apparel and accesory industries.

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Aspects Of Culture
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Culture is not static. Aspects of culture: 1. Ecology The way in which a system is adapted to its habitat. Ex: The japanese, greatly value products that are designed for efficient use of space.
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Aspects Of Culture
2. Social Structure The way in which orderly social life is maintained Ex: nuclear family VS extended family

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Aspects Of Culture
3. Ideology The mental characteristics of a people and the way in which they relate to their environment and social group. Ex: nuclear family VS extended family
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Myths:
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That define the culture A myth: is a story containing symbolic elements that expresses the shared emotions and ideals of a culture. Ex: M for McDonald‟s

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Myths:
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Serve four interrelated functions: 1. Metaphysical Help explain the origins of existence. 2. Cosmological Emphasize that all components of the universe are part of a single picture. 3. Sociological Maintain social order by authorizing a social code. 4. Psychological Provide models for personal conduct.

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Rituals:
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Is a set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically. Ex: wear prom dress tuxedos graduation gowns wedding gowns Halloween gowns
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Sacred Consumption:
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Involves objects and events that are “set apart” from normal activities, and are treated with some degree of respect or awe. Ex: - Sacred place (Bethlehem; Mecca; Stonehenge) - Sacred people (Princess Di; John Lennon; Elvis
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The Creation And Diffusion Of Fashion Consumer culture

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The culture, the movement of meaning Figure 3-1 Page 81

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Culture production process Figure 3-2 Page 82

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Culture Production System:
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Three major subsystems: 1. A creative sub system responsible for generating new symbols and products. 2. A managerial sub system responsible for selecting, making tangible, mass producing, and managing the distribution of new symbols and/or products.

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Culture Production System (continued):
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Three major subsystems: 3. A communication sub system responsible for giving meaning to the new product and providing it with a symbolic set of attributes that are communicated to consumers.

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Apparel Specialists In The fashion Industry:
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Designer designs the specific items Merchandiser conducts research for future styles and trends. PR Dept deals with the public
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Apparel Specialists In The fashion Industry (continued):
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Adv Dept conceives and develops ideas for campaigns and creates advertisement to promote the merchandise Sales person sells, provide information and assistance to customers
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Apparel Specialists In The fashion Industry (continued):
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Store manager oversees merchandise categories Controller manages the retailer‟s financial plans Grader size pattern

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Types Of Innovations
1. A symbolic innovation communicates a new social meaning, Example: - a new hair style - a new car design 2. A technological innovation involves some functional change, Example: - a new textile form - a new central home air conditioning

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Behavioral Demands Of Innovations:
Three major types of innovations: 1. A continuous innovation a modification of an existing product, example: Levi‟s promoted shrink to fit jeans,

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Behavioral Demands Of Innovations:
Three major types of innovations: 2. A dynamically continuous innovation, - more pronounced change in an existing product. - have a modest impact on the way people do thing, creating some behavioral change.
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Behavioral Demands Of Innovations:
Three major types of innovations: 3. A discontinuous innovation - creates major change in the way we live.

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Prerequisites For Successful Adoption:
Several factors are desirable for a new product to succeed: 1. Compatibility, the innovation should be compatible with consumers‟ lifestyle

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Prerequisites For Successful Adoption:
Several factors are desirable for a new product to succeed: 2. Trialability people are more likely to adopt an innovation if they can experiment with it prior to making a commitment.

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Prerequisites For Successful Adoption:
Several factors are desirable for a new product to succeed: 3. Complexity - The product should be low in complexity. - A product that is easier to understand and use will be chosen over that of a competitor.
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Prerequisites For Successful Adoption:
Several factors are desirable for a new product to succeed: 5. Relative advantage - the product should offer relative advantage over other alternatives, - The consumer must believe that its use will provide a benefit other products cannot offer.
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Prerequisites For Successful Adoption:
Several factors are desirable for a new product to succeed: 4. Observability - innovation that are easily observable and communicated, are more likely to spread

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Tasks
No.7. Page 103 Do you think product placement is fair competition? What fashion brand examples do you see in your favorite TV shows and movies?

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Individual Consumer Dynamics (Motivation and Values)

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Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes
1. 2. 3. 4.

Modest theory. Immodest theory. Protection theory. Adornment theory.

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Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued)
1.

Modest theory. -people wore clothing to conceal the private parts of their bodies. -Modest theory is not universal

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Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued)
2. Immodest theory. -clothes have been worn to draw attention to certain parts of the body.

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Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued)
3. Protection theory. -clothing was first used to protect us from the elements such as cold, from insect and animals.

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Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued)
4. Adornment theory. -function of clothing is adornment, personal decoration, or aesthetic expression. -shows status and identity, and raises one‟s self esteem.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs
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Proposed by the psychologist Abraham Maslow. A certain level must be attained before the next, higher one is activated. One must first satisfy basic needs before progressing up the ladder. Figure 4-2 Page 118.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs (continued)
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Clothing can satisfy needs at nearly every level: - Physiological: clothing covers the body and protects us from the elements. - Safety: clothing sold in US must pass flammability standards.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs (continued)
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Clothing can satisfy needs at nearly every level: - Social: fashion is something to share with and be seen in by others. - Esteem: wearing the latest fashion make us feel good and give us a sense of status. - Self actualization: my clothes are an expression of the total me.
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Consumer Involvement
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Do consumers form strong relationship with products and services? Involvement: a person‟s perceived relevance of object based on their inherent needs, values, and interests.

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Consumer Involvement (continued)
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Involvement can be viewed as the motivation to process information.

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Strategies To Increase Involvement
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Consumers differ in their level of involvement with respect to a product message. A consumer‟s motivation to process relevant information can be enhanced by one or more techniques: 1. Appeal to the consumer‟s hedonic need. 2. Use novel stimuli. 3. Use prominent stimuli. 4. Include celebrity endorsers. 5. Build a bond with consumers.
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Values
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Values are fundamental beliefs that direct or motivate our behavior and decision making. A person„s set of values plays an important role in consumption activities, since many products and services are purchased because people believe they will help to attain a value related goal.
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Core Values
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Every culture has a set of values that it imparts to its members.

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Tasks
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No.4 Page 136. Collect a sample of fashion ads that appear to appeal to consumer values. What value is being communicated in each, and how is this done? Is this an effective approach to designing a marketing communication?

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Demographic, Subcultures (Age, Race, Ethnicity)

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Consumer lifestyles are affected by group memberships within the society at large.

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Age And Consumer Identity
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People have many things in common with others merely because they are about the same age (or live in the same part of country).
Consumers who grew up at the same time share many cultural memories.

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Age And Consumer Identity (continued)
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Four important age cohort: 1. Teens. 2. College students. 3. Baby boomers. 4. elderly.

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Age And Consumer Identity (continued)
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Teenagers: - making transition from childhood to adulthood. - their self concepts tend to be unstable. - they are receptive to products, especially fashion.

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The Gray Market
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Attempting to cater to all ages, ethnic group, and sizes.

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Race And Ethnic Subcultures
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A group of consumers who are held together by common cultural and/or genetic ties.
Marketers can no longer ignore the stunning diversity of cultures.

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Race And Ethnic Subcultures (continued)
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Recently, several minority groups have caught the attention of marketers.

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Tasks:
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No. 7 Page 212 What are some important variables to keep in mind when tailoring marketing strategies to the elderly? How do these affect clothing they purchase?

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Demographic Subcultures (Income And Social Class)

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Consumer Spending And Economic Behavior
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Social class (status symbol). Money and how consumption (income pattern).

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To Spend Or Not To Spend?
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Consumer demand depends on both ability to buy and willingness to buy. Discretionary spending: the money available to a household after necessities are paid of

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Individual Attitudes Toward Money
Profiles: 1. Takes risks to get a head 2. Is better safe than sorry (thrifty, and tries to minimize borrowing). 3. Puts others first (money is a means of protecting loved ones).
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Individual Attitudes Toward Money (continued)
Profiles (continued): 4. Travels first class or not at all (buy luxury items) 5. Is controlled by money (equates money with power). 6. Needs just enough to take care of self (is not very interested in money). 7. Believe there‟s more to life than money.
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Consumer Confidence
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Beliefs about what the future hold is an indicator of consumer confidence.
Which reflects optimistic or pessimistic about the future. These belief influence how much money consumers will pump into the economy.
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Social Class
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Economic conditions and social status often determine the type of clothing we select. Social class, determined by a complex set of variables including: - income - family background - occupation
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Clothing Used To Regulate Distinction Between Class
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Clothing is one means of the control.

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Social Classes Structure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Upper Upper Lower Upper Upper Middle Lower Middle Upper Lower Lower Lower

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Components Of Social Class
Three major ones are: 1. Occupational prestige 2. Income 3. Educational achievement.

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Fashion excess can occur at many levels, such as: - high price - designer labels - superfluous waste - quantity of clothes for many occasions - for every season - in every color.
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Fashion is often used as a status symbols to communicate real or desired social class.

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Task
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No. 11. Page 246
Compile a collection of ads that depict consumers of different social classes. What generalizations can you make about the reality of these ads and about the media in which they appear?

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Psychographic (Personality, Attitudes, And Lifestyle)

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Personality
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Which refers to a person‟s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way responds to his or her environment.

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Fashion Theories (Based on Freud)
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Based on a psychoanalytic approach focus. Individuals subconsciously adopt and wear sexual symbols.

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Brand Personality
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Refers to “brand equity.” The extent that a consumer holds strong, favorable, and unique association about a brand in memory.

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Brand Personality (continued)
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Some apparel and accessory brands are easy to visualize with personalities. Example: - Eddie Bauer (outdoors oriented). - Gap (casual) - Nike (sports) - Rolex (expensive) - Victoria‟s Secret (romantic, sensual, and sexy).
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