Unit 3 More Crime and Less Punishment 教学目的 了解美国司法制度中的关键概念。 学习文中一些长句的写法。 学习议论性文体中显著的写作特征。 通过课文理解与主题讨论使学生能够使用相关短语 与表达方式。 教学内容 讲述美国司法制度中的陪审团制度与主 要司法原则 课文的理解与分析 表达方式的学习与强化 议论文的写作技巧 学生辩论 教学重点 教学方法 课文的理解与分析 文中大量表达方式的学习与强化 议论文的写作技巧 讲授，问答，辩论，练习 Background information 1. About the author Richard MoranRichard Moran is a criminologist and a leading expert on the insanity defense, capital punishment, and the history of the electric chair. The author of numerous articles and reviews, Moran has also written articles for the Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, New York Times, and Newsweek. The Executioner's Current is the story of how the electric chair developed out of an effort by one nineteenth-century electric company to discredit the other. 2. Alcatraz Island Alcatraz Island is one of Golden Gate National Recreation Area's most popular destinations, offering a close-up look at a historic and infamous federal prison. Visitors to the island cannot only explore the remnants of the prison, but can also learn about the Indian occupation of 1969 - 1971, early military fortifications (the first U.S. fort on the coast), and the West Coast's first (and oldest operating) lighthouse. These structures and the island's many natural features are being preserved by the National Park Service which is working to make it accessible to visitors, preserve its buildings, protect its birds and other wildlife, and interpret its history. Warm-up 1. What do you now about jury system in America? 2. What is the guiding principle in criminal court in America? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the principle? 4. What expressions do you know about crime, law and court? 3.Jury system The Jury trial is an important component in the judicial system. The jury consists of 12 jurors, selected at random, which will, after hearing all the evidence and crossexamination, give a verdict of guilty or innocent. Then,the judge will pass sentence. In many jurisdictions, the majority of a jury is not sufficient to find a defendant guilty, all 12 members must agree to the person‟s guilt. Guiding principle The court must prove the accused person‟s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. In other words, the accused is held innocent until proved guilty. In theory, the concept makes sure that a case is not misjudged and that an innocent person is not unjustly treated. However, in other cases, this may help criminals to escape punishment for his lawyer can always raise a reasonable doubt concerning the evidence or the trustworthiness of the witnesses. Also, collecting evidence and having a trial or even summon a jury cost a lot of money. Famous trail of O.J. Simpson Simpson, famous American football player and actor, was charged with murdering his former wife and her boy friend and eventually declared innocent. The jury spent three hours deliberating the case that had produced 150 witnesses over 133 days and had cost $15 million to try. Expressions related to crime, law and court Correctional personnel to prosecute sb parole crime rate arrest record property crime to prosecute sb to imprison/jail a criminal to supervise a criminal to execute a murderer New words Get familiar with the new words and expressions in Glossary. Pay attention to the pronunciation and special usage. Text analysis 1. General analysis Part I (para.1-3) Introduction of the central idea: punishment does not reduce crimePart II (para. 4-9) Why punishment doesn't deter crime.Part III (para. 10) Conclusion: getting tough with criminals is not the answer to the crime problem. 2. Detailed analysis 1) The best estimates suggest that 36 to 40 million people have arrest records for nontraffic offenses. (para.1) Paraphrase the sentence. 2) We already have 2.4 million people under some form of correstional supervision.（para.1） What is meant by „under some form of correctional supervision”? 3) The painful fact is that the more crime there is the less we ate able to punish it. (para.2) Analyze the grammatical structure of the sentence. 4) We think that punishment deters crime, but it just might be the other way around. (para. 3) Paraphrase the sentence. 5) Just as the decline in the number of highschool graduates …made it more difficult to get into prison. (para.4) Explain the use of “as” here. What are being compared in this sentence? 6）While elite colleges and universities still have high standards of admissions, some of the more “exclusive” prisons now require about five prior serious crimes before an inmate is accepted into their correctional program. (para. 4) Define “elite colleges”, “exclusive prisons”, and “prior serious crimes”. 7）Our current crop of prisoners is an elite group…. (para.4) Paraphrase the sentence. 8) Yet when measured against the lower crime rates…are not worth the cost to state and local governments. (para.7) Explain the first part of the sentence. 9) Besides, those states that have tried to gain voters‟ approval for bonds to build new prisons often discover…. (para.7) What does “bonds” mean here? What do the bonds have to do with the voters‟ approval? 10) While it is not possible to know the true amount of crime committed by people released from prison in any given year, … (para. 8) Explain the use of “while” and the meaning of the word “given” here. 11) …this would amount to only 15,000 crimes prevented: a drop in the bucket when measured against the 41 million crimes committed each year. (para. 8) Paraphrase the sentence. 12) The first-year operation cost would be… worth it if the victim were you or me, but much too expensive to be feasible as a national policy. (para. 9) Why worth it if we were the victims, but no feasible as a national policy? Writing skills 1）Statistical Information In an argumentative piece of writing, statistical evidence is convincing. In this article, the author chiefly uses statistical evidence including exact statistical information ( on he re-imprisonment of paroled criminals) and approximate statistics (on the crime rate of the U. S.) 2）Rhetorical Questions These are questions that do not expect an answer but express a strong feeling, opinion or impression. Can we send them to prison? Can we execute more than 22,000 murderers? More examples: Who was he to take stand against a custom? Do you see anything green in my eyes? 3）Selective Use of Repetition Repetition is used for emphasis and expression of a strong feeling. In Para. 6, the structure “of the /every… only/about” is used five times for emphasis. More examples: Alone, alone, all, all alone. He is as vulgar as a hog, as awkward as an elephant, and as ugly as an ape. 4）Analogy It is the comparison of two unlike things for the purpose of illustration. The comparison is possible because the two things have something in common. In Para. 4, the writer compares a criminal‟s acceptance into a prison with e admission of a high-school graduate to a college. More examples: Judicious praise is to children what the sun is to flowers. The growth of alternative mental interests is a long process. The seeds must be carefully chosen; they must fall on good ground; they must be sedulously tended, if the vivifying fruits are to be at hand when needed. 5）language and style：Formal essay Language points (words and expressions) 1. convince persuade convince: make sb. believe that something is true He failed to convince the jury of his innocence. persuade: make sb agree to do something by giving them reasons why they should. Nobody would persuade her to change her mind. How can I persuade you of my sincerity? 2. refuse reject refuse is more positive, often implying decisiveness. decline means to refuse courteously. reject means a throwing away, a discarding, or abandoning of someone or something as unsatisfactory, defective, or useless. Exercise: The company _____ the entire shipment. I'll make him an offer he can't ____. We asked her to he reception, but she ___ the invitation. 3. commit 1) To make somebody agree or promise to do something The agreement commits them to a minimum number of performances per year. 2) To use available things or people for a particular purpose. They‟ll have to commit more money to the project if it‟s to succeed. 3) To give someone or something to someone else to look after They commit a child to a doctor‟s care. 4)commit oneself to give a definite opinion Chairman refused to commit himself on the controversial subject before making investigations. 4. deter The rain didn't deter people from coming to the game. The university enforces severe punishment to deter cheating in exams. 5.illustrate 1) to show what something is like, or show that something is true. The following examples illustrate our point. 2) to draw the pictures in a book, or put pictures in a book. The book was illustrated with color photographs. She has illustrated several children‟s book. 6. Measure 1)measure sth by sth Success isn‟t measured by how much money you have. 2) measure sth in terms of sth Popularity is still measured in terms of winning elections. 3) measure sb/sth/against sb/sth Measured against the success of some of their rivals, the performance looks poor. 7. tough 1) get tough with When he started to argue, I got tough with him. 2) be tough on The new mayor intends to be tough on crime. 3)take a tough stance/stand We must take a tough stance against terrorism. 4) tough luck: Used for saying that you have no sympathy for someone Well, tough luck! I‟m not going to do what he wants. 8. lock away (lock up) 1) to put something in a place or container which you fasten with a lock Take good care to lack away your jewelery before going away on holiday 2) to put someone in a prison, or a hospital for mentally ill people. After murder, he was locked away for 50 yeas. 9. be/go easy on sb (be/go easy with/on sth) 1).to tell someone not to punish a person too severely. Go easy on these children and let them enjoy themselves. 2) to eat or use a small amount of something. Go easy on the cake. There isn‟t much left. Easier said than done Easy come, easy go 10. so as to 1) so…as to… Are you so naïve as to imagine this is not taking place elsewhere? Who could be so mean as to do a thing like that. 2) so as to Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 11. work out to The total area works out to 25,000 square miles. 12. the other way around You would think that the John would have been the courageous one and Jane the timid one, but it was just the other way around. Discussion What is the root of crime? 1) The lack of moral control 2) The gap between the rich and poor 3) The lack of effective laws 4) The police and court being too soft on criminals 5) The meaningless of life 6)Lack of education Assignment Finish the exercises after the text in the textbook.
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