Listening Speaking

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					CH 5: Listening & Speaking

READ 321 Dr. Schneider

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OBJECTIVES: You will learn
 the linguistic characteristics of listening & speaking about different types of listening about 4 different levels of questioning strategies to enhance listening skills strategies to enhance speaking skills strategies to enhance students’ vocabulary  ways to assess listening & speaking performance
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Defin-iLISTENING = auditory receptive skill Ability to mentally process the physically perceived sound waves as meaningful information  a multi-step process

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 SPEAKING = auditory productive skill ability to express thoughts orally by using the physical speaking apparatus (e.g., mouth, teeth, tongue, vocal cords)  a multi-step process
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Steps of listening process
Receiving sounds from environment Attending to important elements of soundsequence that is needed for understanding Understanding = purpose of listening gaining meaning from sequence of sounds Analyzing what is heard = meaningful listening; includes questioning, predicting, problem-solving Evaluating received information 4 Re-acting/responding to message

Steps of speaking process
Forming idea in head to respond to stimulus in environment Attending to analyzing important elements of logical sequence (audience & background info of self & listener) that is needed for producing meaningful speech Producing meaningful speech to exchange information = purpose of speaking
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Listening Skills: A set sequence of steps?
Not really: no agreement Higher Order Listening Skills:  Analyzing  Evaluating

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Types of listening
Informational: to remember facts, data, relationships, phone #, ideas Appreciative: for pleasure to music, poetry, stories, literature Critical: : interpreting & judging auditory information for oral directions: to find a place or to follow along in instructional setting Social: for any information in social, informal settings before, after school, during recess/lunch

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Teacher‟s listening goals
 Did I listen to each student?  Did I interrupt a student? Did I dominate the class discussion Did I keep eye contact w/students?  Do I remember what I heard?  Do I show facial expressions when a student speaks? Do I take student talk serious? Do I reflect on what students say? Do I listen encouragingly? Am I focused on the speaker?

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Approaches to teaching listening
 IN WHAT KIND OF SETTING?
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Whole group Small group Learning/listening center: use of individual listening tapes (recordings for the blind) One-on-one (Teacher-student or student-student) Reading Writing speaking viewing representing
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CONNECTED WITH OTHER ELA SKILLS
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Teaching listening: Materials
Tape-recorder , tapes, headphones: listen to other or own self-recorded audio-clips Radio-news, report, debates, commercials for analysis Mirror: to watch what mouth does when speaking, what body messages we should give to enhance active listening  Video: good for ELLs to have picture support with language Play phones Hand puppets
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Teaching listening: Materials
Tapes: Connected with
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reading: tape own reading-> fluency writing: note taking from video clip, tape recorder, phone message, radio, free writing to different background music as stimulation speaking: tape own speech, analyze own or other person‟s speech, guessing games about character based on voice & content of information, 2 students taping a dialogue situation, story for 2 voices;
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Good Listening Habits
 We show good listening habits, when we

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Teacher Questioning to elicit different types of responses
1) literal question: = fact questions with answer directly worded in book “on-theline,” often knowledge questions
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Who are the main characters? Where does event take place? What is the problem?

2) inferential question: critical thinking question: not 1) but rather answer that must be inferred from other info heard; think time necessary for all critical thinking questions.
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Why is …?

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Teacher Questioning (2)
3) evaluative question: critical thinking question: make judgment about heard info with reason:
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true or not? Why? Convincing or not? Why? Logical? Biographical?

Authentic?

4) applied question: critical thinking question: apply heard information in totally different situation? 14

Listening Activities
 Listen to the news (radio or class made ones
about science, art, social studies topic) description, planning “over phone” “Lecture” (& note taking) with or without graphic organizer Story read to in person, via audio-tape, CD Sound Memory game “detective games” : Who is it” based on oral descriptions (link w/ drawing, note taking)
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Listening Activities
 Listen to instruction for spontaneous theater performance = improvisations Directed Listening-thinking activities
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Predict what happens in a story based on what teacher reads, or what tape voice tells Pose questions that they assume to be able to answer after hearing the story Verify predictions at points when teacher stops reading
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Listening Activities
 Identify voice on tape
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Important people from school (principal, sports coach, cleaning crew) record short reading on tape and students identify who it is. With finger play illustrating what song says By chiming in during refrain Drawing what happens in song= visualizing what happens in story With movement/gestures expressing what 17 happens in song;

Listen to a song and respond
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Listening Activities
 Analyzing voice and sound tricks used on radio advertisements (older students)
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Testimonial, band wagon, transfer, plain folks, cards stacking, name calling, glittering generalities

 Follow oral instruction to get from A to B or to complete a science task
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With open or closed eyes move according to instructions given in more or less complex language

Follow oral instruction to create something
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A specific drawing, cube, plane, etc.
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Assessing Listening Skills
 2 Types: a) sound processing b) text comprehension; speech pathologists usually do a) Standardized tests (listening comprehension Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, Stanford Achievement Test) Informal Inventories, listening part Rubrics designed by teacher to test listening comprehension, see Appendix C19 in Yellin, Blake & DeVries, 2004)

Good Speaking Habits
We show good, respectful speaking habits in class, when we

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Materials to foster speaking skills
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microphone for shy students (to read their stories) Unusual items & pictures that make students curious to ask a lot of questions Tape-recorder & blank tapes Nature/science project that needs to be described daily: taking care of animal, raising tadpoles, growing plants stage & puppets clothes to role play characters (pirate, prince, princess,)

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Environment for speaking skills
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Comfortable corners to have group discussions, debates Regular small group oral assignments strict positive speaking rules (talking stick!) Opportunity for shy students to tape record their answers and gradually get integrated with public speaking Author’s chair Repeated short oral creative sessions Vocabulary development sessions 22 Relevant topics to discuss

Short discussion topics of the day
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INCLUDE a FEW NEW GOOD EXPRESSIONS EACH TIME for
• Agreement, disagreement, expression of different emotions, empathy, loyalty, apology, regret etc;

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problems with parents, siblings, peers exciting information & reason News of the day Making snowball story in team Telling story based on pictures Describing science project development, report 23 of progress/process

Other speaking activities
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Practice drama play Read to younger children Sell a product (commercial language) Interview a person (social studies) Talk yourself out of a ridiculous situation Group projects that require constructive dialogue Work with intellectual kit (real objects belonging to one topic in one box: farm, hygiene, ->compare, group, predict, make story
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Other speaking activities
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Dialogue improvisation Show & tell: topic talk Pantomime Choral speaking Singing (helps students who stutter!) Story telling Puppet theater (socks, shadow, paper-bag)

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Other speaking activities
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Theater acting/performance
• Related to class readings • Different genre interpretation of a reading

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Performance/info sharing in front of camera
• • • • Advertisement News about weekly school activities Class charity project Effective study strategy, memorization strategy

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Assessing speaking activities
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READING OUT LOUD
• • • • fluency intonation Expression “error-less-ness”

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PRESENTING RESEARCH CONTENT
• Content • Presentation • Visual aids

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STORY RETELLING
• Voice/inflection • Eye-contact • content
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Vocabulary Development
Which language has the largest vocabulary? Why?
Spanish French  English German Who needs to improve vocabulary most? Children from environments that are  literacy rich  literacy-poor  Of low socio-economic status  Of medium socio-economic status
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Vocabulary Strategies
How do we develop vocabulary best? Relate new to known vocabulary Apply new vocab. in reading, writing, speaking, viewing, representing Teach explicit vocab expansion strategies Avoid “fill-in-the blank” activities= automatic failure for students with disabilities Teach mini-lessons on single aspects and integrate in all areas of language
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Vocabulary: Mini-lessons
Synonyms (never an exact one)  DEF: almost same meaning of 2 words that differ in print & sound Antonyms (never an exact one)  DEF: almost total opposite meaning of 2 words that are different in print & sound Homophones  DEF: words with same SOUND but different spelling and different meaning Homographs  DEF: words with same PRINT but different sound and different meaning
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Vocabulary: Mini-lessons
Homonym
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DEF: print & sound of words are the same but the meaning is different = multiple meaning words Picture-type expression that carries culturespecific meaning, sometimes hard to identify for people who cannot visualize or are foreigners

Idiomatic expressions
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Vocabulary: Mini-lessons
Neologisms  DEF: new words entering language after extensive use:  Medicine/science: laser, computer, silicon, microwave,  Foods: broccolino, café machiato  Animals: labradoodle Portmanteau words  DEF: making new word by combining 2 in 1 and leaving parts out.  Smoke & fog = smog; motor & hotel = motel;
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Vocabulary: Mini-lessons
Acronyms
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DEF first letters of words of a term become socially accepted term. NATO, DNA, ADHD, LD, DEF: More pleasant sounding word used instead of one with negative connotation “Challenge” instead of „disabled‟ „Different‟ instead of „retarded‟ Search for them in newspaper
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Euphemisms
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Vocabulary: Mini-lessons
Regionalisms
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DEF: Expressions unique to region in terms of pronunciation, actual word Actual word: Soda vs. pop; Sneakers vs. tennis shoes Pronunciation: roof (long or short oo) Words that carry more than one meaning; meanings are not related; E.g.: present (3), chair (3), trunk (5)
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Multiple meaning words
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Vocabulary: Mini-lessons
Prefix-root-suffix words
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Hand motion that triggers meaning Flip charts with illustration of meaning of affixes and roots Word puzzles, fishing game, domino game Sparkle word board (see, smell, taste, touch, hear) Sensory experience games (blindfolded: smell, touch, hear, taste) 35

Compounds
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Increase use of descriptive words
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Vocabulary: Mini-lessons
Increase use of specific words over general words
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Analytic semantic word grid (categories to differentiate words across & vocab down): +/marks what characteristics a word has over another E.g.: ways to move, look, say sth., see activity summary on separate sheet

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Vocabulary Strategies
Choose activities that engage learner in multisensory way with critical, metacognitive thinking (e.g., think aloud) so that students learn to see patterns and become comfortable transferring from one word family into another Use Semantic Maps with word families that contain same root, prefix or suffix Use Word Rivers in which the words “float” from one meaning to the opposite (move slowly-fast words) 37

Vocabulary Strategies cont.
Use games
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Go fish collecting words of particular categories (house, food, weather, temperature) Go fish collecting words with same root, or same suffix or same prefix Board games that ask students to use new words orally and/or in writing Memory to match synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, portmanteaus, neologism Sharades: Act out meanings:
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Vocabulary Strategies cont.
Use games
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Bingo Goofy story writing/telling: Use word you pull from card pile and use in oral or written story, next person must integrate next word Pictionary Explain a word without using the word itself or one in its family

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