Chapter 16 Exam.docx - history

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Chapter 16 Exam.docx - history Powered By Docstoc
					Name: __________________________ Chapter 16 XC Quiz              Date: _____________

Use the following to answer questions 1-10:

Write the letter of the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some
terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

 a.   sovereignty
 b. republicanism
 c.   popular revolts
 d. Intendants
 e.   millet system
 f.   Fronde
 g.   Junkers
 h. mercantilism
 i.   Protectorate
 j.   French classicism
 k. stadtholder
 l.   Peace of Utrecht
 m. Cossacks
 n. constitutionalism
 o. janissary corps
 p. Puritans
 q. boyars
 r.   Dutch East India Company
 s.   sultan
 t.   protectorate
 u. Peace of Westphalia
 v. Test Act

                                              Page 1
 ___ 1. The ruler of the Ottoman Empire; he owned all the agricultural land of the empire and
        was served by an army and bureaucracy composed of highly trained slaves.

 ___ 2. A series of violent uprisings during the early reign of Louis XIV triggered by growing
        royal control and oppressive taxation.

 ___ 3. The highest-ranking members of the Russian nobility.

 ___ 4. The name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and
        marked the end of large-scale religious violence in Europe.

 ___ 5. Members of a sixteenth- and seventeenth-century reform movement within the Church
        of England that advocated purifying it of Roman Catholic elements, such as bishops,
        elaborate ceremonials, and wedding rings.

 ___ 6. A series of treaties, from 1713 to 1715, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession,
        ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire.

 ___ 7. Legislation, passed by the English parliament in 1673 to secure the position of the
        Anglican Church by stripping Puritans, Catholics, and other dissenters of the right to
        vote, preach, assemble, hold public office, and attend or teach at the universities.

 ___ 8. The English military dictatorship established by Oliver Cromwell following the
        execution of Charles I (1653–1658).

 ___ 9. A form of government in which power is limited by law and balanced between the
        authority and power of the government on the one hand, and the rights and liberties of
        the subject or citizen on the other hand; could include constitutional monarchies or

___ 10. The executive officer in each of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, a position
        often held by the princes of Orange.

                                            Page 2
Choose the letter of the best answer.

 ___ 11. Political power in the Dutch republic was

          A)   held by the central government.
          B)   controlled by an oligarchy of wealthy merchants.
          C)   held by the stadtholder and his royal courtiers.
          D)   exercised by a democratically elected States General.
          E)   monopolized by members of the Calvinist Consistory.

 ___ 12. How did the Peace of Westphalia mark a turning point in European history?

          A) The German lands were finally unified under the German emperor.
          B) Religious toleration was adopted throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
          C) Backed by its American colonies, Spain was recognized as Europe's most
             powerful nation.
          D) Central Europe emerged as an economic powerhouse.
          E) Large-scale armed conflicts over religious faith came to an end.

 ___ 13. How did the nature of armed forces change in the latter half of the seventeenth century?

          A) Gunpowder technologies were used for the first time in field operations.
          B) Improvements in artillery made the use of cavalry obsolete.
          C) Armies could be raised much more quickly by royal officials than by mercenaries.
          D) Army officers became obedient to monarchs instead of serving their own
          E) The size of armies decreased as they professionalized and became more efficient.

 ___ 14. In the seventeenth century, why did rulers hesitate to crush rebellions?

          A)   Local rebels rarely caused much damage.
          B)   City and regional officials might side with the rebels.
          C)   Local rebels easily hid when troops arrived.
          D)   Armies were expensive to deploy, and rulers feared creating martyrs.
          E)   Rulers thought it beneath their honor to suppress a rebellion.

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___ 15. Louis XIV selected councilors from the

        A)   nobles of the sword.
        B)   newly ennobled or upper middle class.
        C)   military commanders.
        D)   university professors.
        E)   senior clergy.

___ 16. The Baroque style flourished in the context of the

        A)   flowering of constitutionalism.
        B)   Commercial Revolution.
        C)   Scientific Revolution.
        D)   Protestant Reformation.
        E)   Catholic Reformation.

___ 17. The guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was

        A)   reform of the church.
        B)   a belief in decentralization.
        C)   the subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy.
        D)   the sovereignty of the people.
        E)   hostility to the Huguenots.

___ 18. How did the Treaty of Utrecht resolve the problem of succession to the Spanish throne?

        A) The leader of the Spanish House of Alba was placed on the throne by the nobility
           upon offering guarantees that he would protect noble rights.
        B) The monarchy was abolished and Spain declared a republic.
        C) The German Habsburg Duke of Austria was placed on the throne after the death of
           his cousin, the Spanish Habsburg Charles II.
        D) The two Habsburg thrones of Austria and Spain were unified into the Grand
        E) Louis XIV of France's grandson, Philip, was placed on the French throne with the
           agreement that the French and Spanish thrones would never be united.

                                           Page 4
___ 19. The Edict of Nantes was intended to

        A)   establish a permanent policy of toleration.
        B)   diminish the importance of Protestants in France.
        C)   create an absolute separation of church and state.
        D)   raise funds for new wars.
        E)   promote religious and civil peace.

___ 20. The English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes held that

        A)   kings ruled by divine right.
        B)   Parliament ruled by divine right.
        C)   a limited, constitutional monarchy was possible only in England.
        D)   mankind is inherently good and requires no formal government.
        E)   the power of the ruler was absolute and prevented civil war.

___ 21. Mercantilist theory postulated that

        A)   government should not interfere in the economy.
        B)   imports and exports should be equally balanced.
        C)   economic activity should be regulated by and for the state.
        D)   overseas colonies were an unwanted drain of valuable gold bullion.
        E)   free trade would maximize the wealth of all nations.

___ 22. The primary cause of the English Glorious Revolution was

        A)   conflict between Charles II and Parliament over taxation.
        B)   a fear of the establishment of Catholic absolutism by James II.
        C)   economic dislocation from the civil war.
        D)   defeat suffered in the War of the Spanish Succession.
        E)   the 1640 uprising in Ireland.

___ 23. How did Frederick William the Great Elector of Prussia persuade the Junker nobility to
        accept taxation without consent in order to fund the army?

        A)   He confirmed the Junkers' privileges, including their authority over the serfs.
        B)   He permitted the Junkers to seize church lands as compensation.
        C)   He revoked taxes on commerce for Junkers.
        D)   He threatened the Junkers with military attack.
        E)   He offered the Junkers the exclusive right to sit in the royal councils.

                                              Page 5
___ 24. How did Frederick William I, King of Prussia, sustain agricultural production while
        dramatically expanding the size of his army?

        A) He required women to work in the fields when their husbands served in the
        B) He purchased African slaves to sustain agricultural production while men trained
           for the military.
        C) He ordered all Prussian men to undergo military training, after which they could
           return home and serve as army reservists.
        D) He demanded that all artisanal craftsmen work in the fields at least twice a week.
        E) He required monks, priests, and other clerics to perform agricultural work when
           needed by local nobles.

___ 25. What was the effect of Ivan IV's laws regarding trade and manufacturing in Russia?

        A) The bonuses given for meeting trade and manufacturing quotas encouraged many
           people with little preparation to enter into these fields.
        B) The manufacturing laws that protected workers led merchants to flee Russia to
           develop craft production in Poland.
        C) The tsar's disregard for economic issues permitted trade and manufacturing
           unhindered in Russia.
        D) The economic restrictions and lack of security in property checked the growth of a
           Russian middle class.
        E) The lenient trade restrictions led Dutch and English merchants to gain control
           over Russian trade.

___ 26. Typically, French classicism

        A)   challenged existing concepts concerning art.
        B)   presented subject matter associated with the Greco-Roman past.
        C)   had little support from the royal government.
        D)   emphasized individualistic renderings of society.
        E)   rejected the Baroque.

___ 27. What was one of the social consequences of Peter the Great's bureaucratic system?

        A)   Clergy were allowed to hold bureaucratic offices.
        B)   Only ethnic Russians were permitted to serve in the bureaucracy.
        C)   The bureaucratic system was staffed with military officers.
        D)   Women were allowed to serve in a few judicial positions.
        E)   People of non-noble origin were able to rise to high positions.

                                           Page 6
___ 28. How did Peter the Great's westernizing reforms affect the process of marriage?

        A) Young men and women were required to attend parties together and could freely
           choose their own spouses.
        B) Land could not be passed to children at marriage, diminishing the motivation of
           children to marry at a young age.
        C) Young men and women could only marry after demonstrating that they would
           raise their children in a Western fashion.
        D) The authority of fathers was augmented so that they had complete control over the
           marriages of children.
        E) The traditional role of mothers as the negotiators of marriages was given a formal,
           legal role.

___ 29. Within the Ottoman government, who staffed the top levels of the bureaucracy?

        A)   The royal family
        B)   The sultan's harem
        C)   The sultan's slave corps
        D)   Islamic religious officials
        E)   Military commanders

___ 30. Why did the English government arrive at a crisis situation by 1640?

        A) Charles I attempted to govern without Parliament and finance his government by
           emergency taxes.
        B) James I refused to display the majesty of the monarchy to the public through
           ceremonies and festivals.
        C) Charles I married a Catholic princess.
        D) James I frequently lectured the House of Commons about his divine authority.
        E) Charles I sought to impose the Scottish religion on England.

___ 31. The final collapse of Spain as a great military power was symbolized by the defeat at
        the Battle of Rocroi and the resulting Treaty of

        A)   Utrecht.
        B)   the White Mountains.
        C)   the Pyrenees.
        D)   Olivares.
        E)   Westphalia.

                                           Page 7
___ 32. In return for financial support, what did Charles II of England secretly promise Louis
        XIV of France?

        A) England would lift trade restrictions against French products.
        B) England would provide troops to France in the event of war with Austria.
        C) English laws would be strengthened to protect the property of French nobles in
        D) English laws against Catholics would be eased and England gradually
        E) England would support France's claims to the Spanish throne.

___ 33. French foreign policy under Richelieu focused primarily on the

        A)   prevention of the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France.
        B)   destruction of English naval power.
        C)   destruction of the economic power of the Low Countries.
        D)   protection of Burgundy.
        E)   winning back of Alsace-Lorraine.

___ 34. Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate is best described as a

        A)   popular democracy.
        B)   cabinet-style parliamentary government.
        C)   constitutional monarchy.
        D)   military dictatorship.
        E)   proletarian dictatorship.

___ 35. Which of the following best characterizes the English Revolution of 1688?

        A) The revolution restored the monarchy after the disastrous era of Oliver
           Cromwell's Protectorate.
        B) The revolution secured the rights of all Christians, including Catholics, to practice
           their faith freely in England.
        C) The revolution did not constitute a democratic revolution since sovereignty was
           placed in the Parliament, which only represented the upper classes.
        D) The revolution established the legal principle that all men are equal before the
        E) The revolution marked the emergence of democratic politics, with the
           establishment of natural rights and the defense of private property.

                                            Page 8
Answer each question with three or four sentences.

      36. In The Thirty Years' War, how did leaders struggle with political and religious

      37. How did Bohemia and Hungary obtain differing statuses in the Austrian Empire?

      38. How did Frederick William I, King of Prussia, complete the work of his grandfather in
          establishing Prussian absolutism?

                                             Page 9
Answer TWO of the following questions in a few paragraphs. Include specific examples that
support your thesis and conclusions.

     39. Explain what is meant by the term mercantilism, and provide historical examples of
         mercantilist policies based on this chapter.

     40. In the seventeenth century, the Spanish monarchy crumbled. Why?

                                           Page 10
41. Despite the evolution of a strong, centralized, monarchical system of government,
    France experienced periods of civil unrest and war. Describe these periods. How can
    these discrete occurrences be explained? Is there an overarching reason why France
    continued to experience civil unrest?

42. In the seventeenth century, England displayed little political stability, yet by the end of
    the century it had laid the foundations for constitutional monarchy. What were the
    political, social, economic, and religious factors and events that ultimately led to the
    Glorious Revolution?

                                         Page 11

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