Mapping Exercise on toral Training in Europe by tonze.danzel


									                        Report of Mapping Exercise on Doctoral Training in Europe

                                         "Towards a common approach"

                                                     27 June 2011

     The goal of this report is to provide an overview of recent developments in doctoral training
     and identify a common approach. It contains ideas for supporting measures and
     suggestions for EU and Member States' strategies. Fiches presenting EU and national
     efforts to date can be found in annex

     1. Policy context

     Our economy needs to adequately absorb many new researchers. Cooperation between the
     academic sector and industry (in the widest meaning of the term), starting at the level of early
     research training, will strengthen the much needed research intensity of our economy. It is
     important to focus on doctoral training as this is the qualification that should enable
     researchers to move into a wide range of employment sectors. Across the EU, doctoral
     candidates are funded from a wide variety of national and international sources including
     various EC funding streams. There is now the opportunity to look ahead and shape the future
     of doctoral training in the context of the Innovation Union policy.

     The Green Paper on the Common Strategic Framework 1 identifies the need to better integrate
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     diverse funding schemes to advance the EU research effort in particular as regards the
     Framework Programme (Horizon 2020), including ERC and EIT and European Structural
     Funds (ESF). In order to support doctoral training more effectively, Europe needs a common
     understanding based on sound principles and international best practice. This report proposes
     such a common understanding for doctoral training and possible implementation mechanisms.

     The issue of doctoral training has gained considerable importance in recent years. Doctoral
     training is a primary progenitor of new knowledge, which is crucial to the development of a
     prosperous and developed society. Developed economies rely on new knowledge and highly
     skilled knowledge workers to feed a process of continuous innovation. They rely also on
     adequately trained responsible citizens that can adapt to changing environment and can
     contribute to the common good. Grand societal challenges like climate changes and healthy
     ageing require complex solutions based on high level frontier research carried out by new
     generations of researchers. Several initiatives have been taken to identify and promote good
     practice in doctoral training, most notably, the EUA, through the Salzburg Principles and the
     Salzburg II Recommendations 2 , which are at the basis of this mapping exercise.
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     The research profession as a whole needs to become more attractive and effective to provide
     Europe with a workforce qualified to cope with the grand challenges facing our societies.
     Although the number of researchers in the EU (1.5 million FTE in 2008) has been increasing
     since 2000 at a faster rate than in the US and Japan, the EU still lags behind in the share of

TP   PT   'From Challenges to Opportunities: Towards a Common Strategic Framework for EU research and innovation
           funding' (COM(2011)48).
researchers in the total labour force. In 2008, this stood at 6 per 1000, compared to 9 in the
US and 11 in Japan. The difference is due to a much lower share of researchers in the business
sector: 46% of total researchers in the EU against 68% in Japan and 79% in US. Of note too is
the rapid increase in the number of researchers in China which doubled from 0.7 in 2000 to
1.4 million in 2007. As regards R&D intensity, the EU - with 1.9% of GDP in 2008 - is also
lagging behind the US (2.8%) and Japan (3.4%). There are about 600,000 doctoral candidates
currently doing research in the EU and 110,000 graduating every year 3 .   TPF   FPT

If we want to increase the research intensity of our economies and reach the R&D target of
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3% of GDP, the EU will need at least an estimated one million new research jobs4. This will     P   P

require a better matching of supply (training of researchers) and demand (recruitment of
researchers), a necessity acknowledged most recently in the Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative
Innovation Union 4 , in the three interconnected commitments, nrs. 1, 4 and 30:
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1. By the end of 2011, Member States should have strategies in place to train enough
researchers to meet their national R&D targets and to promote attractive employment
conditions in public research institutions. Gender and dual career considerations should be
fully taken into account in these strategies.

In 2011, the ERA Steering Group on Human Resources and Mobility will discuss a roadmap
and other means to establish such strategies. Effective doctoral training should be part of such
strategies. An attractive research career starts with solid research training and continuously
benefits from lifelong learning. Significant changes have occurred in doctoral training during
the last decade. Further progress in this field will not only depend on enhancing doctoral
training, but also on increasing the absorptive capacity of the economy. It is in particular
important to convince the managers of small and medium sized enterprises the value of
employing doctorate holders. Indicators on doctoral training will be included in the proposed
Performance Scoreboard for Research and Innovation (see footnote 4).

4. In 2012, the Commission will propose [on the basis of the provisions on ERA in the New
Lisbon Treaty] a European Research Area framework and supporting measures to remove
obstacles to mobility and cross-border co operation, aiming for them to be in force by end
2014. They will notably seek to ensure through a common approach:

•         quality of doctoral training, attractive employment conditions and gender balance in
          research careers;

•  mobility of researchers across countries and sectors, including through open recruitment
   in public research institutions and comparable research career structures and by
   facilitating the creation of European supplementary pension funds;
The Commission will propose a common approach to help ensure that the next generation of
doctorate holders can actively contribute to the Innovation Union. The
common approach may include the recommendations that doctoral training should:

TP   PTList of sources to be added.
TP   PT  Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative Innovation Union COM(2010)              546   final   of       6.10.2010

            •   have a certain critical mass
            •   include transferable skills training
            •   respect the principles of the Charter & Code 5 ,   TPF   FPT

            •   lead doctoral candidates to acquire the ability to challenge disciplinary borders
            •   encourage doctoral candidates to spend some research time abroad
            •   encourage doctoral candidates to spend some research time in industry or other
                relevant private / public employment sectors.

The common approach is meant to support the efforts of Member States to make the research
profession more attractive. It may inform the design of national and European funding

30. By 2012, the European Union and its Member States should put into place integrated
policies to ensure that leading academics, researchers and innovators reside and work in
Europe and to attract a sufficient number of highly skilled third country nationals to stay in

Among other measures, the Commission will assess, in 2011, the implementation and impact
of the "Scientific Visa" package. The Commission will expand its network of EURAXESS
Links contact points across the globe to stimulate networking between European researchers
worldwide. Non-EU doctorates per million population will be one of the indicators in the
proposed Research and Innovation Scoreboard.

The work on doctoral training is coordinated through the ERA Steering Group on Human
Resources and Mobility (ERA-SGHRM). Stakeholders from industry and academia are
involved. This mapping exercise of current practice, including Marie Curie Actions, Erasmus
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Mundus, Structural funds and national initiatives, was finalised in spring 2011. Results will be
cross-checked through a feasibility study in 2012, involving site visits to successful doctoral
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schools. There will be two new initiatives in 2012-2014, under the Marie Curie Initial
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Training Network Action, to fund European industrial doctorates and innovative doctoral
programmes on top of research training networks. These initiatives could be a precursor of
funding instruments under the Common Strategic Framework for Research and Innovation
and set an example for other funding instruments at national and EU level (like the Structural

     2.         A common approach to enhance the quality of doctoral training

It is important to be clear at this point that the core component of doctoral training is the
advancement of knowledge through original research. At the same time it is recognised that
doctoral training must increasingly meet the needs of an employment market that is wider
than academia 6 .The key role of universities as the accredited bodies for awarding doctorates
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is fully recognised. There are a number of key stakeholder initiatives that identify and
promote good practice in doctoral training:

European University Association (EUA) - Council for Doctoral Education - Salzburg I and II

Principles and Recommendations

TP   PT   Salzburg Principles I

     EUA has set up a membership activity dedicated to the development, advancement and
     improvement of doctoral education and research training in Europe. In the framework of the
     Bologna process, EUA launched in 2005, after extensive consultation through a structured
     bottom-up process, Conclusions and Recommendations on Doctoral Programmes for the
     European Knowledge Society, better known as "Salzburg Principles". These principles were
     confirmed and enriched, in 2010, in the Salzburg II Recommendations. The Salzburg
     Principles and Recommendations are widely endorsed and considered the most
     comprehensive set of guidelines on doctoral training that exist. They cover the nature of
     doctoral training, its structure and conditions for success 7 .        TPF     FPT

     League of European Research Universities

     LERU has produced a position paper describing its vision on doctoral training beyond 2010.
     Doctoral programmes should prepare researchers to the highest level to make important
     contributions to frontier research. In addition, they should prepare doctoral candidates to take
     up roles in driving complex changes in society. Doctoral candidates should be trained in a
     context which is international, interdisciplinary and intersectoral. Employers should be made
     aware of the unique set of skills that our doctoral researchers develop in the course of their
     training. 8 .      TPF   FPT

     Coimbra Group

     The Coimbra Group has described the essential requirements for doctoral training and for the
     PhD degree defining standards for the independence of research, supervision, duration of
     study, quality assurance etc.. Special attention was given to templates for transferable skills
     and co-operation between doctoral schools and programs, including transatlantic
     cooperation 9 .                TPF   FPT

     Thematic initiatives

     Several thematic networks are in the process of defining standards for doctoral training in
     their field. In 2010, the Organisation of PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences
     in the European System (ORPHEUS) published a position paper "Towards Standards for PhD
     Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences", laying down standards and identifying the
     characteristics of doctoral training for these disciplines 10 .  TPF     FPT

     International initiatives

     The US Council of Graduate Schools, the European University Association, the Canadian
     Association for Graduate Studies, the Deans and Directors of Graduate Studies (Australia),
     and the Association of Chinese Graduate Schools agreed in 2007 on the Banff Principles on
     Graduate Education 11 . The nine principles include the development of global career
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     competences and promote high quality inter institutional / international collaborative



     TPLEADER and TRANSDOC projects
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United States

A joint commission set up by the US Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) and Educational
testing Service (ETS) has produced an extensive report "The Path Forward, The Future of
Graduate Education in the United States", outlining the challenges facing the hitherto very
successful doctoral training in the US. The report points at demographics and the growing
competition from Europe and Asia. The recommendations include the need to provide
transferable skills training for US doctoral candidates. The advances made by EU countries in
this regard are clearly recognised 12 .      TPF   FPT

Member States initiatives

Several Member States have launched their own initiative to enhance the quality and
effectiveness of doctoral training. An overview can be found in the annex.

Marie Curie Actions

Through the Marie Curie Actions the EU is promoting best practice in doctoral training as
regards research excellence, attractive environment and employment conditions,
interdisciplinary research, industry exposure, international networking and transferable skills

Best practice principles for innovative doctoral training

From these initiatives and others, we can distil the essential elements that are common to all.
These could constitute a common approach to enhance the quality of doctoral training in
Europe, namely:

Research Excellence
Striving for excellent research is fundamental to all doctoral education and from this all other
elements flow. Academic standards set via peer review procedures and research environments
representing a critical mass are required. The new academic generation should be trained to
become creative, critical and autonomous intellectual risk takers, pushing the boundaries of
frontier research.

     Attractive Institutional Environment
     Doctoral candidates should find good working conditions to empower them to become
     independent researchers taking responsibility at an early stage for the scope, direction and
     progress of their project. These should include career development opportunities, in line with
     the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of
     researchers 13 .TPF   FPT

     Interdisciplinary Research Options
     Doctoral training must be embedded in an open research environment and culture to ensure
     that any appropriate opportunities for cross-fertilisation between disciplines can foster the
     necessary breadth and interdisciplinary approach.

     Exposure to industry and other relevant employment sectors

TP    PT
TP    PT
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The term 'industry' is used in the widest sense, including all fields of future workplaces and
public engagement, from industry to business, government, NGO’s, charities and cultural
institutions (e.g. musea). This can include placements during research training; shared
funding; involvement of non-academics from relevant industry in informing/delivering
teaching and supervision; promoting financial contribution of the relevant industry to doctoral
programmes; fostering alumni networks that can support the candidate (for example
mentoring schemes) and the programme, and a wide array of people/technology/knowledge
transfer activities. 14
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International networking
Doctoral training should provide opportunities for international networking, i.e. through
collaborative research, co-tutelle, dual and joint degrees. Mobility should be encouraged, be it
through conferences, short research visits and secondments or longer stays abroad.

Transferable skills training
“Transferable skills are skills learned in one context (for example research) that are useful in
another (for example future employment whether that is in research, business etc). They
enable subject- and research-related skills to be applied and developed effectively.
Transferable skills may be acquired through training or through work experience 15 ”.        TPF   FPT

     It is essential to ensure that enough researchers have the skills demanded by the knowledge
     based economy. Examples include communication, teamwork, entrepreneurship, project
     management, IPR, ethics, standardisation etc.

Business should also be more involved in curricula development and doctoral training so that
skills better match industry needs, building on the work of the University Business Forum 16                   TPF   FPT

and the outcomes of the EUA DOC-CAREERS project 17 . There are good examples of inter-
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disciplinary approaches in universities bringing together skills ranging from research to
financial and business skills and from creativity and design to intercultural skills.

Quality Assurance
The accountability procedures must be established on the research base of doctoral education
and for that reason, they should be developed separately from the quality assurance in the first
and second cycle. The goal of quality assurance in doctoral education should be to enhance
the quality of the research environment as well as promoting transparent and accountable
procedures for topics such as admission, supervision, awarding the doctorate degree and
career development. It is important to stress that this is not about the quality assurance of the
PhD itself rather the process or life cycle , from recruitment to graduation.

     The common approach should provide a framework of reference, whilst preserving flexibility
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     and autonomy for institutions and doctoral candidates. A feasibility study in 2012 will
     examine the implementation of these principles at sample universities and will involve site
     visits to successful doctoral schools. The outcomes of these explorations could become part of
     the envisaged 2012 ERA framework proposal and/or supporting measures and could help to
     promote good practice in doctoral training across the continent.

TP (pages
      PT   HTU                                                                                           UTH

TP “Research Careers in Europe Landscape and Horizons”, European Science Foundation 2010



3.              Models for organising doctoral training - the emergence of doctoral schools

Doctoral training can be organised in various ways depending on institutional profiles,
national traditions, specific disciplines and availability of resources. The classical model of
the master-apprentice relationship is gradually becoming less important and more and more
universities are setting up doctoral schools that deliver structured programmes for cohorts of
candidates. These programmes provide career development through coursework on
disciplinary and transferable skills alongside their original research 18 .             TPF   FPT

Doctoral training can be organised at local, regional, national or international level. Many
institutions opt for a mixed model, whereby the candidates complete generic courses locally
and subject specific courses together with candidates from different institutions (or vice-
versa). The majority of institutions have set up doctoral schools or programmes across several
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or all of their departments/disciplines.

Some countries have also set up national thematic doctoral training facilities or research
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schools (NOR, NL, IE), others have concluded agreements for international training networks
(PT, Marie Curie Actions, Erasmus Mundus) or, like Spain, have developed regulatory
frameworks 19 to set up doctoral schools.
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More and more universities engage in collaborative research with other institutions (joint
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programmes, which may lead to joint or double degrees), with research institutes or with
industry and other relevant employment sectors fostering innovation. Genuine collaboration
in doctoral training implies, among other aspects, a shared supervision of the work of the
doctoral candidate 20 .         TPF   FPT

Some institutions have set up graduate schools bringing master and doctoral programmes
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under one roof, but universities use their master programmes to identify and recruit good
candidates and bring them in the research environment 21 .          TPF   FPT

The establishment of structured doctoral training (e.g. doctoral schools) is part of universities’
move towards a more professional management of research strategies, including research
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infrastructure, recruitment and selection of candidates, human resources, training, quality
assurance and assessment. Nearly half of all doctoral candidates are women 22 . The                             TPF   FPT

recruitment base has been internationalised. A more open competition for places can enhance
quality. The median time to degree is lower and there are fewer dropouts. More and more
institutions stay in contact with their doctoral candidates after graduation and trace their

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TP Some also engage in special actions to interest secondary school pupils for research.

TP She Figures 2009: In the EU-27, 45% of all PhD graduates were women in 2006; they equal or outnumber

men in all broad fields of study, except for science, mathematics and computing (41%), and engineering,
manufacturing and construction (25%).

4.                  Supporting measures - fostering excellence and building capacity

Various schemes exist at European and national level to support doctoral training. Support
may be provided at the level of the individual candidate, the mentor, the school, the
consortium or the funding programme. National programmes support the bulk of doctoral
training in Europe. They are presented in the fiches in annex.

At European level, the most well known scheme specifically dedicated to the excellent and
structured training of doctoral candidates are the Initial Training Networks (ITN) of the Marie
Curie Actions (estimated total of more than 18.000 doctoral candidates supported during
FP7). Other European funding sources include Erasmus Mundus (1400 doctoral candidates in
seven years), and further programmes not mainly focused on doctoral training but effectively
funding doctoral candidates and training, such as Erasmus (estimated 35000 one or two
semester mobility grants under the current LLP programme), European Research Council
(estimated 13000) the Cooperation Programme of FP7 (estimated 70,000 23 ), Structural Funds
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(estimated more than 50-100,000) and development aid programmes (estimated 1400).

EU programmes have a limited budget and cannot cater for all doctoral training needs in the
European Research Area (in view of the envisaged one million new researchers' jobs). EU
programmes can, however, set examples, promote standards and make a difference in areas or
regions in need of special stimulus. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the
design of the new generation of EU programmes starting in 2014.

At present, the Commission has launched new initiatives in 2012, under the Marie Curie
Actions, in order to test innovative doctoral programmes and European industrial doctorates,
that could set examples for future EU and national funding schemes. Participating
universities, as well as research organisations and companies, would practice most of the
characteristics outlined above and share their experience with others.

Special attention may be needed in the future to the issue of capacity building in less

developed regions, including through the use of Structural Funds. Societal challenges will

require the training of doctoral candidates in targeted research areas. Smart specialisation,
playing on strengths and targeted investment may be combined with networking and twinning

     5.             Informing EU and Member States' strategies

     The Innovation Union Communication sets out that, by the end of 2011, Member States
     should have strategies in place to train enough researchers to meet their national R&D targets
     and to promote attractive employment conditions in public research institutions. Gender and
     dual career considerations should be fully taken into account in these strategies. Indicators
     related to doctoral training will be included in the proposed Performance Scoreboard for
     Research and Innovation and special attention will be given to gender issues:

     •          New doctorate graduates (ISCED 6) per 1000 population aged 25-34

TP       PT   Estimated one per project participation

•           Percentage population aged 30-34 having completed tertiary education
•           Percentage youth aged 20-24 having attained at least upper secondary level education
•           Non-EU doctorate students per million population 24        TPF   FPT

In spring 2011, the ERA Steering Group on Human Resources and Mobility will discuss a
roadmap and other means to establish such strategies. The current report and its annexes will
be part of the input for this exercise.

TP   PT   Non-domestic doctoral students for non-European countries.


Annex 1: Models for Doctoral Training
         A) University-wide doctoral training
         B) National inter-institutional cooperation
         C) Thematically organised doctoral training
         D) International cooperation
         E) Doctoral training in cooperation with industry and other relevant employment
         F) Skills Training Examples

Annex 2: National Funding for individual doctoral candidates

Annex 3   EU programmes supporting doctoral candidates (to be completed)
          A) Structural Funds (ESF)
          B) FP7 Marie Curie Actions
          C) LLP Erasmus
          D) Erasmus Mundus
          E) European Research Council (ERC)

                                                                                    ANNEX 1

                              Models for doctoral training

                (reflecting Member States' contributions and terminology)

A) University-wide doctoral training

Belgium           In the past decade, all Flemish universities have set up doctoral schools
                  according to the EUA principles. They are autonomous in organizing the
                  doctoral schools and can decide what to accentuate most. Starting from
                  2011 they will receive a specific funding of 4 mio. EUR from the Flemish
                  government to finance the doctoral education.
                  In Federation Wallonia-Brussels, the doctorate (corresponding to
                  postgraduate studies and lasting a minimum of 3 years) is organised
                  within universities and comprises two parts:
                  * a doctoral training (60 ECTS credits) that leads to the conferral of a
                  research training certificate
                  * the work relating to the preparation of a doctoral thesis (corresponding
                  to a standard of at least 120 ECTS), that leads to the conferral of the
                  academic title of doctor after defending the thesis.
                  To apply for a doctorate, the student must submit a draft thesis that is
                  sufficiently defined and obtain the written agreement of a supervisor from
                  a university. The doctoral candidate becomes member of a research team
                  (within a university) affiliated to a thematic Graduate school. There are 21
                  Graduate Colleges and 50 Graduate Schools in the Federation Wallonia-
Denmark           Aarhus University organised its doctoral training at four large PhD
                  schools with a reform in 2010 working closely together on development
                  of talent (in which the doctoral training is closely linked to the
                  Postdoctoral training). Aarhus University's graduate schools are focusing
                  on courses in transferable skills in recognition that increasingly more PhD
                  students will continue their career in the public or private sector instead of
                  in the academic sector.
France            In September 2010, 285 doctoral schools (Ecoles Doctorales) were
                  accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research within the
                  framework of an agreement on objectives between the State and
                  universities (contrats d’établissements). They welcome 70 000 doctoral
                  trainees. Generalized in 2000 and established by-law of August 7th, 2006,
                  doctoral schools help structure the offer of doctoral training, contributing
                  to its visibility and to its attractiveness at national, European and
                  international levels. The doctoral schools provide training and
                  development of doctoral trainees. They offer to future PhD holders a high-
                  level scientific supervision as well as a preparation to occupational
                  integration. A doctoral school federates on a given site the strengths of
                  scientific quality in a consistent set of themes.
Germany           Graduate Academies, e.g. Graduate Academy at the University of Jena
                  German Universities have recently established so called Graduate
                  Academies or Research Schools which encompass university-wide

              structures for the training of doctoral candidates (sometimes including
              offers for MA-students and/or Post-docs). They function as one-stop
              information and support centres for doctoral candidates. They offer and
              coordinate various programmes for this target group, provide networking
              possibilities and ensure good standards in training and supervision.
              One example is the Graduate Academy at the University of Jena. It
              prepares early stage researchers for their professional career in science,
              business and society. Its study programmes combine disciplinary and
              interdisciplinary topics as well as specially tailored courses in transferable
              skills and an intensive individual supervision by a team of internationally
              recognised faculty members. Other German universities (e.g. Bremen,
              Bochum, Freiburg, Halle, Hannover, Heidelberg, München, Stuttgart,
              Rostock) have established similar structures.
Hungary       Doctoral training is carried out at higher education institutions at currently
              170 thematically organised “doctoral schools” in Hungary. As legal
              requirement for delivering the doctoral training a Higher Education
              Institution must provide master training in the given branch of science or
              art in order to be granted the right to carry a doctoral school, which must
              be accredited by the Hungarian Accreditation Committee (HAC). The
              organisation of doctoral studies, the assessment of PhD students and the
              tutoring and conferring of a doctoral degree are overseen by the doctoral
              council of the individual HEI. Doctoral studies take 36 months (i.e. six
              semesters), the workload of the students is at least 180 credits. Obtaining
              a doctoral degree: separate procedure, 2 years on average by the doctoral
              candidate. Within a HEI doctoral training is organised in a given
              discipline, or cooperating disciplines, with minimum 7 core members, a
              coherent training and research programme, an announced research topics
              for the students and must be approved (accredited) by the HAC and the
              HEI Senate.
Ireland       University College Cork (UCC) has developed an extensive range of
              modules to develop generic and transferable skills of doctoral students,
              from induction to research through to career planning and
              commercialisation of research. A particular focus has been on
              development of communication skills, from modules on scientific writing
              and publishing (and innovative measures to support such training) to
              competitions and events where students are challenged to present their
              work to a non-specialist audience; a very popular on-line doctoral student
              journal designed to publish non-academic accounts of doctoral student
              research      has    also    been     introduced      (The     Boolean,     at
     <> ). These initiatives
              HT                      TH   HT                     TH

              have then been integrated into a range of structured PhD models within
              UCC’s Graduate School system, which range from highly structured
              models in key thematic areas where students undertake a prescribed set of
              academic and skills-based modules alongside their research (e.g., PhD
              programmes in Education and Cancer Biology) to more flexible
              arrangements where the courses taken are tailored to the individual
              researcher and project area.
Netherlands   Since 2005 the DutchPhD system provides a fixed salary scale, contract
              periods, and education and supervision plan. From the moment of

              inception, universities started searching for alternative methods of
              appointing PhD candidates, so as to decrease costs. Some universities
              currently appoint PhD candidates on the basis of a grant. In doing so,
              these universities attempt to provide a place for more PhD candidates for
              the same amount of money, thus improving productivity at the cost of the
              employment benefits of future PhD candidates. Accordingly, PhD
              candidates are not entitled to social benefits, such as the right to maternity
              leave, pension benefits and sickness pay. As a consequence a PhD project
              could become less attractive compared to other positions.

              Graduate schools
              As follow-up of the Bologna process many departments with one-year
              Masters programmes (in Arts and Social Sciences) now provide a separate
              research Masters programme of two years; for example in Natural
              Sciences and Health Sciences, and many universities have started to
              reorganise their teaching departments into separate bachelors and post-
              graduate programmes. The new ‘graduate schools’ (with very different
              forms emerging now) provide localised PhD courses, and take away some
              of the responsibilities of the (national) research schools. However, the
              recent experience is that both levels (national Research Schools and local
              Graduate Schools) play a role, in a kind of matrix organisation.

Norway        Norway has established a network of schools between disciplines. Their
              individual students often are adopted in different doctoral programs in one
              institution/faculty. The network comes on top to create critical mass of
              students and teachers/supervisors on a specific research topic/area.
              The number and the structure of doctoral programs are decided by the
              individual TEI. While one institution only have one broad program, other
              institutions have programs by faculty or by theme.
              Organized doctoral programs were introduced in all fields in 1993. White
              paper on Research (2008-2009) maintains that all doctoral education must
              be organized in doctoral programs. The doctoral program shall primarily
              consist of research activity conducted under academic supervision. A
              doctoral program includes:
              - Completion of an independent piece of research in active collaboration
              with the academic supervisor(s) and other researchers;
              - An approved set of courses or instruction;
              Participation in active research communities, both national and
              - Research dissemination that is closely linked to the thesis in progress.
              In addition to these basic programs, PhD candidates may apply to
              participate in network research schools, organized by the institution
              internally or in cooperation with others, or in national research schools.
              Participation in network comes on top to create critical mass of students
              and teachers/supervisors on a specific research topic/area.
Switzerland   EPFL Doctoral School
              The Doctoral School of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne is
              the academic home for all of EPFL's doctoral students, distributed across
              eighteen doctoral programs. Each doctoral program is responsible for

                  recruiting doctoral students, organizing their supervision and regular
                  evaluation, and monitoring their progress. The doctoral programs also
                  organize an offer of advanced level courses and create a community based
                  in their scientific domain. The doctoral programs are designed to reach
                  transversally across the EPFL’s faculties in order to bring together
                  researchers from different domains.
                  In 2010, the EPFL Doctoral School had over 1,900 enrolled doctoral
                  students, 3,270 applications, and nearly 400 annual graduating PhDs.
                  The majority of EPFL’s doctoral students have a dual status as employee,
                  with a contract as doctoral assistant in their research lab on a set salary
                  scale. This employment contract includes a 20% teaching requirement.
                  The EPFL doctorate has a normative duration of four years, with a
                  definitive admission process (including a candidacy exam) at the end of
                  the first year.
UK                University-wide graduate schools for doctoral candidates of all disciplines
                  are common in the UK. The graduate school is responsible for the overall
                  provision of training and development, although this may be delivered
                  centrally or locally within disciplines.

B) National inter-institutional cooperation

Belgium           Flemish doctoral schools have a common platform in the framework of
                  the Flemish Interuniversity Council. Their doctoral courses are open to
                  students from other universities.
                  The 7 universities in the Federation Wallonia-Brussels are associated in 3
                  Academies. The organisation of doctoral studies is the preserve of each
                  Academy and the doctoral regulation varies from one Academy to
                  another. The Academy and the F.R.S-FNRS are in charge of in inter-
                  institutional cooperation.
Denmark           2010 Universities Denmark established a national framework agreement
                  for two types of PhD courses:
                  1) A model for subject-specific PhD courses where students can
                  participate freely in subject-specific courses at other PhD schools. The
                  providing PhD school's own PhD students have priority of 80 % of the
                  seats whereas external PhD students have 20 %.
                  2) A model for mutual binding co-operation which consists of an open
                  market for subject specific courses. This co-operation is organised in
                  professional networks between the PhD schools' research education
                  programmes to ensure a high academic level and critical mass of
                  participants. so a long-term agreement on an adequate number of relevant
                  courses with a relative even allocation of resources is made.
                  One example is the National PhD education network in Humanities. The
                  faculties of Humanities and the faculties of Theology in Denmark have
                  established a network enabling candidates to participate in PhD courses
                  across the institutions.
Estonia           Doctoral Schools were set up in 2005. In 2009 13 new doctoral schools
(all examples     were elected for the period 2009-2015 for all six public universities.
also could be     The general goal of is to increase the efficiency of doctoral studies
described in      through interdisciplinary, international and national cooperation and to

Chapter C)   improve the quality of tutoring doctoral candidates. In addition of
             mobility opportunities, winter and summer schools and development of
             study programme, Doctoral Schools propose transferable and social skills
             to emphasis interdisciplinary research and enhance cooperation between
             universities and the private sector. There are special activities for training
             supervisors, professors and lecturers of doctoral studies. From 2010
             people who have interrupted their doctoral studies are welcome to
             continue and finish their studies – the state is giving them a “second
             chance” to get free doctoral education. The returners of doctoral studies
             will participate in Doctoral Schools where they can find supervisors,
             participate in summer schools, conferences and activities provided by
             other doctoral schools (incl. mobility).

             Doctoral schools that can get state support need to involve at least one
             university and one partner: either another university, R&D institution,
             public sector organisation or a company. International and national
             cooperation is required. Doctoral Schools are project based, funded by
             European Social Fund, total budget of is 16.9 million € for 2009-2015 (-
             plus at least 5% self-financing).

             Doctoral Schools in Estonia (2009-2015) cover the following fields:
             Building And Environmental Engineering, Energy And Geotechnology II,
             Information And Communication Technologies, Graduate School Of
             Culture Studies And Arts (GSCSA), Educational Sciences, Economics
             And Innovation, Estonian Postgraduate School Of Clinical Investigations,
             Mathematics And Statistics, Behavioural, Social And Health Sciences
             (DSBSHS), Earth Sciences And Ecology, Graduate School On Functional
             Materials And Technologies, Graduate School Of Linguistics, Philosophy
             And Semiotics and a Graduate School In Biomedicine And
France       The Programming law for Research of April 18th, 2006 allows French
                                                                  P   P

             higher education and research institutions to establish joint entities
             designed to give more visibility to French research especially in terms of
             international rankings.
             These joint entities called “PRES” and formed as “public institutions for
             scientific cooperation” (établissements publics de cooperation
             scientifique) ensure the pooling of activities including the coordination of
             doctoral schools. Examples:
             - PRES may decide to continue dealing with the coordination of doctoral
             training; this choice was made by the Doctoral College “Lille Nord de
             - Other PRES choose to further define the funding policy of doctoral
             training implementation by doctoral schools; they harmonize the doctoral
             candidate rules of recruitment up to the defence of the dissertation. The
             PRES “Sorbonne Paris Cité” has chosen this procedure.
Germany      International Max-Planck Research Schools are an example for doctorates
             in cooperation between universities and other research institutions. Within
             the International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) German and
             foreign junior scientists are offered the opportunity to earn a doctorate in
             the excellent research and learning environment of selected Max Planck

          institutes in close collaboration with neighbouring universities and other –
          sometimes foreign - institutions. Other research organisations like the
          Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF) or the Leibniz Association offer similar
          graduate programmes.
Ireland   Dublin Region Higher Education Alliance
          The DRHEA Graduate Education Strand aims to reposition the Dublin
          region as an International Centre for Graduate and in particular, Doctoral
          Education, by combining the strengths of the participating institutions.
          The DRHEA Graduate Education Strand has established an inter-
          institutional network in the disciplines of, Biomedical Science;
          Chemistry; Economics; Engineering; Physics and Politics/Sociology and
          Public Policy. Disciplinary Leaders provide advanced discipline specific
          taught modules and master classes available to all doctoral students in the
Ireland   Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (
                                                                HT          TH

          Launched in 1998, the Programme for Research in Third-Level
          Institutions (PRTLI) has awarded €1.22 billion (includes exchequer and
          private matching funds) to date into strengthening national research
          capabilities via investment in human and physical infrastructure. A core
          part of this programme is collaboration across the seven universities to
          develop national graduate schools with structured PhD programmes in
          thematic areas across all disciplines. The 4-year PhD programmes
          facilitate inter-institutional training in generic and discipline-specific
          skills and, in some cases, provide laboratory rotations, internships and
          industry placements. Some examples of the thematic programmes funded
          by this scheme include Digital Arts & Humanities, Engineering, Natural
          Sciences, Molecular Medicine, Inflammation, Electricity Research and
          Physics. The Universities have signed a 4th level Agreement to facilitate
                                                      P   P

          the sharing of modules and mutual recognition of E
          CTS and quality.

          Molecular Medicine Ireland (MMI)
          Molecular Medicine Ireland was established by the National University of
          Ireland Galway, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, University
          College Cork, University College Dublin and Trinity College Dublin and
          their associated academic hospitals, as a research partnership to accelerate
          the translation of biomedical research into improved diagnostics and
          therapies for patients. MMI was formed in response to the need to create a
          critical mass of excellence in molecular medicine research and doctoral
          education in Ireland and to deploy a clinical research infrastructure to
          facilitate medicine into better healthcare provision. It was formally
          incorporated as a not-for-profit company in April 2008 and is funded
          under the Higher Education Authority’s Programme for Research in Third
          Level Institutions (Cycles 4 and 5), the Health Research Board, the
          Wellcome Trust and the EU.

Italy     In Italy, networks among Universities are organized to improve the

                              quality of doctoral training in specific programmes and to increase the
                              critical mass of doctoral candidates. Mobility of the candidates among the
                              participant Universities is established on the basis of specific agreements.
Netherlands                   Research schools
                              In the early 1990s national research schools became the central
                              organisations for research. In 1992 the Royal Netherlands Academy of
                              Arts and Sciences was asked to create a specific body (Evaluation
                              Committee for Research Schools/ECOS) to accredit and – in rounds of
                              five years - reaccredit these research schools. Universities attached great
                              value to these evaluations. Most of the research time of senior scholars,
                              and all regular PhD projects had to be incorporated into these research
                              schools. Often many other types of PhD projects also participated in these
                              schools (bursaries, ‘sandwich’ PhDs, practitioners’ PhDs, self-financed
                              PhDs). Currently, there are about 100 (re)accredited research schools in
                              the Netherlands, some of them also with research partners in Belgium
Norway                        In 2007 a pilot program of national research schools was established. The
                              aim was to improve quality of PhD training and counteract fragmentation,
                              by creating networks of cooperating research milieus. There are now six
                              thematic research schools within this program, However institutions have
                              also taken initiative to establish their own national networks.
Portugal                      Portugal currently has 24 Ph.D programs in collaboration/association
                              between two or more universities or other institutions such as research
                              institutes. In 2010/2011 this number will increase to 27. The programs
                              focus on a wide number of disciplinary areas, including e-planning,
                              Education sciences, Biology, Agricultural sciences, higher education
                              studies, ICT, digital media, accountability or history.
Switzerland                   Doctoral Programmes of the Rectors’ Conference of the Swiss
                              Universities CRUS
                              For 2012-2016, the Rectors’ Conference of the Swiss Universities
                              (CRUS) has launched, complementary to existing institutional doctoral
                              schemes, a national programme aiming at offering young scientists inter-
                              institutional programmes that enable research networking and better
                              integration. CRUS’ long-term objective is to offer appropriate training
                              schemes for the majority of doctoral students. The doctoral programmes
                              that will be funded have to correspond to the Joint Position by the Swiss
                              universities on the Doctorate 25 and to fulfil a set of criteria regarding
                                                                  PF   FP

                              supervision, inter-institutional cooperation as well as to the programme’s
                              research topic. The responsibility for the implementation modalities of
                              their doctoral programmes lies with the individual universities.
                              H                      H

Switzerland                   Doctoral Programmes Western Switzerland University Conference CUSO
                              Building on earlier cooperation in 2005 the Conférence universitaire de
                              Suisse occidentale (CUSO) began to set up joint doctoral programmes (as
                              supportive and complementary structures) designed to provide doctoral
                              students with in-depth scientific and methodological courses and
                              seminars, and to help them acquire and perfect their transversal and

TP   PT   See the Joint Position Paper by the Swiss Universities on the Doctorate,
                                                                                HTU                                  UTH

                  transferable skills. The programmes also offer many occasions for
                  networking and socialization: as early-stage researchers, doctoral students
                  need to become well-acquainted with the scientific community in their
                  field, including its rules and values.
                  CUSO funds are available for purposes of coordination, inviting speakers
                  from abroad, organizing residential and in-house seminars, and
                  reimbursing students’ travel costs from their universities to the sites of
                  As of January 1, 2011 there were 22 programmes in operation, with 1500
                  students enrolled.
                                    H                                            H

Switzerland       StartingDoc Programme
                  StartingDoc started in 2008 and is a „group-mentoring“ programme
                  addressed to women at the very beginning of their academic career. It
                  concerns beginner PhD students from the universities of western
                  Switzerland and the Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL)
                  and is financed by the Federal Equal Opportunity at the Universities
                  Programme. StartingDoc offers PhD students useful tools to succeed
                  through their academic path. The programme is open for all disciplines
                  and therefore it focuses on the structural aspects, which are required to
                  achieve a PhD thesis, such as milestones of the academic path, researcher
                  rights, work management, network building and publications.
                  H                              H

C) Thematically organised doctoral training

Austria           The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) offers a programme for the funding of
                  structured doctoral programmes (“Doktoratskollegs”) at research
                  institutions that are entitled to award a doctoral degree. These are training
                  centers for highly qualified doctoral candidates from the national and
                  international scientific community. A “Doktoratskolleg” is formed as a
                  result of a joint initiative by several scientists or scholars whose research
                  is of internationally leading standard, and is based on a clearly defined
                  research programme. The doctoral programmes have close cooperation
                  with an existing large-scale research programme. Interim reviews every
                  four years decide on continuation of funding of the doctoral programme,
                  with a maximum length of 12 years. Doctoral candidates are employed on
                  work contracts with full social coverage, the positions are advertised
                  internationally. The programmes provide for a stay abroad and offer
                  transferable skills training.
Austria           Several Austrian universities have developed structured doctoral
                  programmes similar to those in the FWF model. For example the
                  University of Vienna supports twelve structured doctoral programmes
                  (“Initiativkolleg”) for 3 years. The selection of the programmes is subject
                  to strict quality assurance the assessment is made by international peers.
                  Admission to an “Initiativkolleg” is competitive and based on an
                  international call for applications. Doctoral candidates are employed by
                  the university, with full social coverage. They work together in a research
                  field, thereby focusing on their topic but at the same time being part of a
                  comprehensive research project, and thus enabling them to network on an

          international and often interdisciplinary level. They are supervised by a
          team of top scientists.
Belgium   The Flemish universities fund thematic and interdisciplinary Doctoral
          Schools. These Schools offer training (including transferable skills) to
          doctoral candidates. They link their doctoral programmes to labour market
          outcomes. The Doctoral Schools also engage (inter)nationally with similar
          The thematic and interuniversity Graduate schools are associated in
          Graduate colleges attached to the Fund for Scientific Research (F.R.S.-
          FNRS). 21 Graduate colleges (écoles doctorales près le F.R.S.-F.N.R.S.)
          are in charge of hosting, coordinating and promoting the creation of
          thematic, interuniversity, interdisciplinary and international Graduate
          schools. Currently there are 50 recognised Graduate Schools.
Denmark   University of Southern Denmark, The Faculty of Engineering
          All PhD students at the Faculty of Engineering are enrolled in the PhD
          school wich is subdivided into six research training programmes:
          o Applied Mathematical Modelling
          o Energy and Environmentally Efficient Technologies
          o Functional Materials and Nanotechnology
          o Information and Communication Technologies
          o Product Design and Innovation
          o Robotics
          Each programme is interdisciplinarily anchored in a research training
          programme committee (RTP Committee).
          The RTP Committee's role is to advise the PhD School in academic
          matters, as well as to academically assist the research training
          programmes in terms of construction, operation and development of the
          academic studies within each field.
Denmark   From 2011 PhD-education in biomedicine and health sciences takes place
          within the framework of Research Education Programmes specific for
          relevant research areas. They are established locally by the Faculties of
          Health Sciences, but cooperate nationally in each area within the
          framework of National Research Education Networks and aim to ensure
          Ph.D.-students' access to high-quality courses and relevant research
France    Doctoral schools divide up into wide disciplinary fields, themselves
          subdivided into research expert groups: Mathematics and their
          interactions (75 doctoral schools); Physics (164 doctoral schools); Earth
          science and the universe, space, chemistry (149 doctoral schools);
          Biology, medicine and health (315 doctoral schools); Social sciences and
          Humanities (958 doctoral schools); Sciences in society (419 doctoral
          schools); Engineer sciences (343 doctoral schools); Sciences and
          technologies of information and communication (324 doctoral schools);
          Agronomic and ecological sciences, animal, vegetable and food research
          production, agronomy, (146 doctoral schools).
          A Doctoral school may cover several fields. Therefore the doctoral school
          may be mono-disciplinary or multidisciplinary. Examples:
          The doctoral school “Life sciences and the Health” (doctoral school n°
          154) is mono-disciplinary and it congregates all the research laboratories

                             in biology-health of both universities Bordeaux 1 and 2. The doctoral
                             school congregates 50 research laboratories. The delivered doctoral
                             degree has the following specification: " Sciences, Technology, Health "
                             and includes the following 12 options: biochemistry, Biocomputing,
                             Cellular Biology and Physiopathology, Plant biology, Epidemiology and
                             Public health, Genetics, Chemistry-Biology Interfaces, Microbiology,
                             Neurosciences, Nutrition, Oenology, Pharmacology.

                             The doctoral school "Environment and Society" (doctoral school n° 377)
                             of the University of Corsica Pasquale Paoli, highly multidisciplinary,
                             covers broad areas of research involving various teams that congregate the
                             research fields of labelled research entities. These topics deal with
                             environmental sciences, environment and society, legal aspects of
                             patrimony, capital and on places, identities, spaces, business. Directory of
                             the DS is available at:
                             HT                                                                TH

                             Frontiers in Life Sciences "FdV" Phd programme 26     TPF   FPT

                             The international interdisciplinary PhD programme "Frontiers in Life
                             Sciences" (FdV, Frontières du Vivant), aims at promoting research
                             projects centered on an understanding of life requiring the blending of
                             different disciplines. The graduate school recruits PhD candidates that
                             were trained in any discipline (natural sciences, humanities, medicine...)
                             worldwide. Partner institutions and foundations ensure the long-term
                             continuation of the program and the international character of the
                             recruitment. In addition, special budget will be devoted to promote
                             students scientific life. The FdV PhD programme accommodates students
                             and visiting professors at the heart of Paris, in FdV-dedicated teaching
                             facilities organized to maximize intellectual exchanges and is part of the
                             "Liliane Bettencourt program" created and funded by the Bettencourt-
                             Schueller Foundation.
Finland                      Doctoral Programmes
                             Structured doctoral programmes were established in Finland in 1995. The
                             system is based on competitive funding where doctoral programmes apply
                             at two-year intervals for 4-year fellowships (funded by the Ministry of
                             Education and Culture) and operating grants (funded by the Academy of
                             Finland). The system supports disciplines with high scientific quality
                             research groups. The majority (85%) of the programmes funded by the
                             Ministry and the Academy form national networks between universities
                             and other partners thus efficiently linking the doctoral candidates,
                             researchers, professors and the whole research infrastructure in the field
Germany                      DFG Research Training Groups ("Graduiertenkollegs") 27                 TPF   FPT

                             Research Training Groups are established by universities to promote
                             young researchers. They are funded by the DFG for a period of up to nine
                             years. Their key emphasis is on the qualification of doctoral researchers
                             within the framework of a focused research programme and a structured


          training strategy. Research Training Groups with an interdisciplinary
          approach are welcome. The aim is to prepare doctoral researchers for the
          complexities of the job market in science and academics and
          simultaneously to encourage early scientific independence.
Germany   Graduate Schools (as part of the German Excellence Initiative)
          Graduate Schools serve as an instrument of quality assurance in
          promoting young researchers and are based on the principle of training
          outstanding early stage researchers within an excellent research
          environment. Graduate schools thus offer ideal conditions for doctoral
          candidates within a broad scientific area and, as integrative institutions
          with international visibility, they encourage the doctoral candidates to be
          active members of their academic and social communities. Graduate
          schools extend beyond DFG Research Training Groups and differ from
          them substantially. They should also contribute to the strategic
          development of the university.
Israel    The Ph.D. is by far the most common of the various doctoral degrees.
          Seven universities have been authorized by the Council for Higher
          Education to award this degree. Doctoral programs extend over a
          minimum of two years after completion of the master’s degree, but are
          generally completed only after four or more years. Four of Israel's 7
          research universities have graduate schools.
          The Direct Doctoral Program is intended for exceptional students who
          have an outstanding result in their bachelor’s degree. The first year of the
          program is an accelerated master’s program. If high achievement is
          maintained, the student may bypass the second year of the master’s
          program and proceed directly to doctoral studies.
          The Feinberg Graduate School at Weizmann Institute was founded in
          1958. Studies are conducted within research schools. For each school a
          director coordinates all activities in the relevant field of study. These
          include: guidelines for academic requirements, courses, laboratory work,
          admission of students, and evaluation of their progress in both research
          and studies. FGS awards MSc and PhD degrees and trains students for
          senior positions in academia, research, and industry. All students are
          directly involved in the research conducted at the institute, and receive
          scholarships so they can devote their time to research and study.
          Study programs are offered in five major fields: Physical Sciences,
          Chemical Sciences, Life Sciences, Mathematics and Computer Science
          and Science Teaching. There are over 1,000 students, with a student
          teacher ratio of 4:1. The official language of instruction of the School is
          English. This enables foreign students to participate fully in all of the
          School’s programs.
          The Kreitman school of Advanced Graduate Studies serves as the
          administrative framework for graduate and post-graduate students at Ben-
          Gurion University of the Negev. In addition to providing a range of
          services to these students, the school directs its efforts toward attracting
          outstanding candidates for advanced studies and increasing the overall
          proportion of graduate students in the total student body. The Kreitman
          School's emphasis is on academic excellence. A new program, the
          Kreitman Foundation Fellowships, has been inaugurated to attract Ben-

          Gurion University's graduate and post-graduate students of exeptional
          excellence to pursue their studies.
          Graduate School at the Technion was officially established in 1956.
          Courses of study and research, leading to advanced academic degrees, are
          offered in all of Technion's academic units. In the academic year
                              H                             H

          1999/2000 more than 3500 students were enrolled in The Graduate
          The Graduate School at the Bar Ilan University is currently being
          established and will coordinate master and doctoral programmes.
Italy     While no nationale rules for the organisation of doctoral schools have
          been defined yet by national rules, some Italian Universities set up
          schools to coordinate structured doctoral programmes following the
          “Salzburg principles”. These follow two models: thematic schools
          (mainly in big Universities) and University Doctoral Schools (where
          programmes in different fields are coordinated in a single university
          structure). Examples of the second model are at the Universities of
          Camerino, Ferrara, Macerata, Molise, Piemonte Orientale, Roma II and
          Siena which also provide transversal activities to acquire transferable
Ireland   Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (
          For example, INSPIRE – Integrated Nanoscience Platform for Ireland is a
          consortium of eight Irish third level institutions with international leading
          research capability in nanoscience and nanotechnology. It has funding of
          over €31m. INSPIRE is a collaborative framework for nanoscience
          research and graduate education. It provides shared access to advanced
          instrumentation, graduate courses and new strategic research partnerships.

          Dublin Chemistry Graduate School
          The Dublin Chemistry Graduate School is a collaboration between Trinity
          College Dublin and University College Dublin. With over forty team
          leaders, Dublin Chemistry offers young scientists the opportunity to
          conduct wide ranging high level research in areas such as synthetic and
          computational chemistry, nanochemistry, advanced materials, biological
          and medicinal chemistry and much, much more. Importantly, this research
          is supported by advanced level chemistry graduate courses and training in
          instrumental techniques, as well as courses in communication,
          presentation and how to carry out effective research. The programme is
          organized through the Dublin Chemistry Management Committee which
          meets regularly, is particularly receptive to student input, and is supported
          by the annual meeting of the Dublin Chemistry Steering Group. Dublin
          Chemistry is also working with the other Schools of Chemistry in the
          greater Dublin region to provide graduate courses through the Dublin
          Region Higher Education Alliance in Chemistry

Norway    PhD education takes place within doctoral programs. In addition, PhD
          students may be connected to thematically organized doctoral schools.

                      These schools may be organized as a network model, of individual PhD
                      candidates, tutors, and other senior staff across institutions (National
                      doctoral schools).

                      Other schools are organized within particularly strong research groups or
                      centres of excellence (Flagship model).
Spain                 Some Spanish universities have structured their doctoral training in
                      thematic doctoral programmes. Some examples: Universidad Carlos III,
                      Universitat de Girona, Universidad Santiago de Compostela, Universidad
                      Pompeu Fabra.
Switzerland           Life Science Zurich Graduate School
                      For example, in areas of joint complementary competence, ETH Zurich
                      operates joint doctoral programmes with the University of Zurich: Life
                      Science Zurich Graduate School, with partial involvement of the
                      University of Basel (Plant Science). http://www.lifescience-        H


UK (Scotland)         Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA)
                      The SUPA Graduate School was set up in early 2006. It runs an annual
                      intensive postgraduate training programme 28 for Scottish physicists at
                                                                  TPF         FPT

                      eight Scottish Universities. The intense programme consists of 60 courses
                      across seven technical themes. In addition, the Graduate School
                      programme includes inter-theme courses and transferable skills
                      development - SUPA makes use of existing departmental, university and
                      Research Councils UK generic skills training.

D) International cooperation

Universities          European Research School Physics (currently being set up)
Delft, Grenoble,
KIT, Leiden,
LMU München
Universities          Graduate programme in Economics, Finance and Management 29              TPF   FPT

Pompeu Fabra,         This joint PhD programme is geared to develop students' research skills
LSE, EUI,             and independence of thought. The purpose of the PhD degree programme
Catholique de         is to prepare students of exceptional talent for careers in research and
Louvain, École        teaching at the world's leading academic institutions, research centres,
des Hautes            consulting or financial firms, and international organisations. This
Études en             program is a partner in the European Doctoral Program (EDP) in
                                                           HT                                             TH

Sciences              Quantitative Economics.
Sociales, Bonn
Universities          International doctorate in Economic Analysis 30   TPF         FPT

Autònoma de           This PhD programme is part of the European Network for Training in
Barcelona,            Economic Research (ENTER). In addition to spending time at their home
UCL,                  institution, doctoral candidates in the program spend one or two semesters




Mannheim,                    in one or two institutions of the network, where they are treated on the
Libre de                     same footing as local candidates. Depending on their previous work, they
Bruxelles,                   can either take courses or pursue their dissertation research under the
Stockholm,                   additional supervision of faculty at the host institution.
Carlos III de
Zaragoza                     The MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program 31 TPF   FPT

Logistic Centre,             This programme offers a unique research and education partnership that
MIT,                         brings together the supply chain interests of academia, industry and
Universidad de               government – all linked to the development of the largest logistics park in
Zaragoza                     Europe. The program was established in 2003 by the MIT Center for
                             Transportation and Logistics (CTL), the University of Zaragoza, the
                             government of Aragón, industry partners, and the PLAZA logistics park
                             in Zaragoza. The University of Zaragoza awards the PhD in Logistics and
                             Supply Chain Management. Doctoral candidates also receive a certificate
                             from MIT for their stay at MIT.
Denmark                      Sino-Danish Chinese Industrial PhD programme
                             The purpose of the industrial PhD Programme for China is to further the
                             development of the Danish knowledge intensive business community by
                             strengthening the relationship between Danish and Chinese science and
                             technology communities. The Industrial PhD project stretches over three
                             years conducted in cooperation between a private company, a university
                             and the Industrial PhD candidate. The student is employed by the
                             company and enrolled at the university and divides his or her time
                             between the two workplaces. The programme includes subsidies to cover
                             the student s salary, travel expenses and tuition. The Danish Agency for
                             Science, Technology and Innovation has so far granted around DKK 13
                             mil. to the programme specifically aimed at Chinese PhD students.
Denmark                      The Danish Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation has engaged
                             in partnership agreements with the H-STAR Centre (Human Sciences &
                             Technologies Advanced Research Institute) at Stanford University and the
                             research network CITRIS (Center for Information Technology in the
                             Interest of Society) at UC Berkeley, UC Davis, UC Merced and UC Santa
                             Cruz. These Partnership agreements are initiated as part of the Danish
                             globalization strategy and aim at strengthening possibilities for Danish
                             Universities to participate in international research networks. They
                             include the option to buy visiting researcher slots, giving Danish
                             researchers and PhD-students the possibility to apply for a visiting scholar
                             status for up to six months at either of the universities mentioned above.
                             The Danish Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation launches
                             annual calls for applications for visiting scholarships.
Denmark,                     NordForsk, an organisation supporting research under the Nordic Council
Norway,                      of Ministers, facilitates co-operation at Nordic level between national
Estonia,                     research schools the Nordic countries. The intention is to encourage

Iceland, Latvia,          mutual exchanges of ideas and competences, to promote mobility and to
Lithuania,                increase coherence in the Region's researcher training. Research schools
Finland, Åland            from at least two Nordic countries must be involved.
Islands, Faroe
France                    The French higher education institutions take part in joint-supervised
                          international doctoral training (co-tutelle internationale de thèse).
                          - In September 2010, thirteen institutes and Universities, launched the
                          "International Relativistic Astrophysics Doctorate Program" project
                          (IRAP). This program, the only project in fundamental physics and
                          astrophysics in Europe, selected in the frame of Erasmus Mundus
                          Doctorate leads to a common doctoral degree to all thirteen institutions
                          [université de Savoie, l’université de Nice             Sophia Antipolis,
                          Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur ,Shanghai Astronomical
                          Observatory(China), Free University of Berlin et AEI Postdam
                          (Germay),Tartu Observatory (Estonia), Stockholm University (Sweeden),
                          University of Ferrara, University of Rome La Sapienza, International
                          Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network, (Italy); Brazilian Centre for
                          Physics Research (Brazil), Indian Centre for Space Physics (India)].

                          International partnerships can also be structured in European or
                          International colleges:
                          - At the University of Strasbourg, the European Doctoral College gives
                          thirty doctoral trainees the opportunity to prepare joint-supervised
                          doctoral research projects involving the University of Strasbourg and a
                          university or research organisation of a country chosen by the doctoral

                          - The PRES “Université européenne de Bretagne”, with its International
                          Doctoral College, whose mission is to share and coordinate international
                          doctoral training has signed several agreements with higher education
                          institutions in Brazil. The joint-supervised doctoral research projects deal
                          with cell and molecular genetics, marine environment science and cross-
                          language research on memory, identity and territory
Germany                   DFG International Research Training Groups 32    TPF   FPT

                          International Research Training Groups provide opportunities for joint
                          doctoral training programmes between German universities and
                          universities abroad. The research and study programmes are jointly
                          developed and supervised. Doctoral students in the programme complete a
                          six-month research stay at the respective partner institution.
Ireland                   International Doctoral School in Global Health (INDIGO)
                          Building capacity in Health Sciences in Sub-Saharan Africa
Trinity College
Dublin, Addis             The International Doctorate in Global Health (INDIGO) is the first truly
Ababa                     international doctoral programme in global health. The programme is
University                offered by the International Doctoral School in Global Health, and



(Ethiopia),      coordinated by the Centre for Global Health at Trinity College, Dublin.
University of    Participating partners include Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia),
Malawi, Ibadan   University of Malawi, Ibadan University (Nigeria), Makerere University
University       (Uganda), Columbia University (USA), Harvard Medical School (USA)
(Nigeria),       and UK Cochrane Centre (UK). Our programme offers a unique
Makerere         opportunity for students from diverse backgrounds to study at some of the
University       world’s leading universities and to conduct research in an African setting
(Uganda),        under an international panel of supervisors. The programme is aimed at
Columbia         health professionals from any part of the world. INDIGO is designed to
University       produce leaders in global health research, policy and practice.
(USA), Harvard   The main focus of INDIGO is on strengthening health systems in Africa,
Medical School   and three areas of research will be promoted: maximising human
(USA) and UK     resources for health; managing communicable diseases; promoting
Cochrane         equitable and inclusive access to health
Centre (UK).

Italy            Aiming at internationalization of doctoral training, some Italian doctoral
                 schools have calls for admission open to candidates from any country and
                 offer programmes and fellowships to applicants from least developed

                 countries. One example of international cooperation in an
                 interdisciplinary doctoral is the University of Camerino programme
                 “Malaria and Human Development”, cofunded by WHO. It includes
                 training on life sciences, health economics and social sciences and attracts
                 candidates from countries where malaria is endemic; institutions in these
                 countries are partners in the cooperation and provide supervision of the
                 field work and future placement for doctorate holders. T

Norway           Some universities have established agreements of “Cotutelle de thèse”
                 with French universities according to the model described by Switzerland.
Portugal         International Partnership programmes in specific fields between
                 Portuguese universities and institutions abroad (MIT, Carnegie Mellon,
                 University of Texas).
Switzerland      Cotutelles de thèse
                 A “Cotutelle de thèse” is a bi-national doctorate with a supervisor both in
                 the candidate’s home university and in a partner university abroad,
                 leading to a joint diploma (either a diploma issued jointly by the two
                 institutions or two separate diploma, specifying the nature of the doctorate
                 as a “cotutelle de thèse”). Swiss national authorities provide funding for
                 “Cotutelles” between Swiss universities and universities of neighbouring
                 countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy) in order to cover the travel
                 and residence expenses of both the doctoral candidate and his/her
                 supervisor. Not all universities make use of this possibility.
                 H                                                                      H

EU               Marie Curie Initial Training Network
                 Initial Training Networks (ITN) offer early-stage researchers including
                 doctoral candidates the opportunity to improve their research and
                 transferable skills, join excellent research teams and enhance their career
                 prospects. At least three participants from different countries join together
                 to propose a coherent research training programme for an ITN. The
                 participants can be universities, research centres, companies (large or

                small) or any other socio-economic actors. Any research field in the
                humanities or science may qualify for ITN funding – provided that there
                is an element of mobility across national borders. The funding covers
                recruitment and employment of researchers, training in research and
                transferable skills, as well as networking activities, workshops or

E) Doctoral training in cooperation with industry and other relevant employment

Belgium         The Baekeland programme funds doctoral projects that are executed at a
                Flemish university in close cooperation with a company. The PhD
                candidate is supervised jointly by an academic and an industrial
                supervisor and spends a considerable amount of time at the company.
                Projects are cofunded by the company and the orientation of the research
                project should be strategic.
                The Federation Wallonia-Brussels is supporting transversal trainings that
                can be developed with the private sector within Graduate Colleges.
                Wallonia also supports the doctoral trainings in cooperation with industry
                through the FIRST SPIN-OFF scheme in order to improve the scientific
                and technological potential of the research units and to train the future
                managers in the fields of emerging technologies. The scheme has been set
                up with a view to inciting the university researchers to develop new
                industrial products. 
Denmark         Industrial PhD programme
                An Industrial PhD project is a three-year business focused PhD project
                where the student is hired by a company and enrolled in a university at the
                same time. The company receives a monthly wage subsidy of DKK
                14,500 while the university has its expenses for supervising etc. covered.
                The PhD student works full time on the project and divides his or her time
                equally between the company and the university. In 2010, DKK 134 mil.
                has been allocated (as opposed to DKK 104 mil. in 2009) for new
                Industrial PhD projects. Accordingly, it is assumed all qualified
                applications from the private sector will receive funding. Last year, more
                than half of all applications were approved.
Estonia         The "Training doctoral students in cooperation with businesses"
                programme is intended to assist innovative companies who successfully
                apply research results, technology and professional design in their
                services and products by funding the creation of supported doctoral
                student places. In order to be admitted as a partner to the programme, the
                business must be engaged in a development activity that possesses good
                application prospects and be willing to conclude an employment contract
                with the doctoral student and to pay at least the legal minimum wage to
                that student. The partner universities must find a suitable partner and will
                be responsible for the quality and progress of the supported students’
                studies. Eligible expenditures include the student’s tuition fees, a monthly
                stipend and the remuneration of the student’s co-supervisor at the
                company. Supported places will be funded on the same terms that apply in

          relation to doctoral studies under the funding scheme established in
          Estonia in relation to government funded provision of higher education.
          This activity intended to foster development in the priority areas specified
          in Estonia’s national RD&I strategy (information and communication
          technology,      materials     technology,   environmental      technology,
          biotechnology, power engineering and health). Eligible partners are
          Estonian universities who are offering accredited PhD programmes in the
          aforementioned priority areas. This training model started 2008 and there
          is no graduations jet (in Estonia doctoral programmes last 4 years).
          Funded by European Structural Fund, total budget 2,6 million € for 2008-
France    The Programming law for Research of August 7th, 2006 on doctoral
                                                                P   P

          training includes several actions aiming at bringing together doctoral
          training and socio and economic sectors. The reform of the training frame
          includes two major trends regarding doctoral training cooperation with
          industry and other relevant employment sectors
             - Refocusing doctoral programs on the preparation to occupational
             - Better link doctoral training and R&D in socio and economic sectors.
          Some 1200 doctoral trainees defended, in 2009-2010, a dissertation
          through the CIFRE programme.
          The CIFRE programme (Conventions Industrielles de Formation par la
          Recherche) which is a partnership between French industry or other
          relevant employment sectors, a research laboratory and a doctoral
          candidate. During a three- year contract with the company or other private
          employer, the doctoral trainee will benefit from a high level of scientific
          supervision that will help him or her write and defend a PhD dissertation
          while contributing to research activities. The programme is managed by
          ANRT (Association Nationale de la Recherche Technique).
Germany   Some R&D intensive companies have developed close collaborations with
          universities for the sake of training of the future generation of leading
          researchers. They fund the positions for the doctoral researchers and
          provide space in their labs for them to carry out their research. The
          doctoral researchers belong to a university, are formally employed by it.
          They carry out a project defined by the company, but following strict
          academic standards.
          KIT/Daimler is one example of such a joint graduate school of the
          Institute for Technology in Karlsruhe (KIT) and the Daimler AG (as part
          of the Project House e-drive), financed by Daimler and funded by the
          Ministry for Science, Research and Art Baden-Württemberg. During the
          four year doctorate, the candidates spend most of their time doing
          research at the KIT but also work in Daimler AG research and
          development departments. The programme comprises an obligatory 3
          months stay at a company or research institution abroad and is open to
          other interested industrial partners.
          Doctorate in cooperation with Audi is another example where more than
          80 doctoral candidates take part in the research projects (in technical
          studies as well as humanities) funded by Audi in close cooperation with
          10 universities. The overall aim of the projects is to expedite the transfer

          of knowledge between research and industry as well as the promotion of
          young researchers.
Hungary   There are R&D intensive companies in Hungary which have established
          close, long-lasting cooperation with universities playing an active role in
          PhD training.
          ERICSSON – BME, ELT: Ericsson Telecommunications Hungary
          (ETH) has developed close collaborations with several departments at two
          major universities in Hungary: ELTE (Eotvos Lorand University) and
          BME (Budapest University of Technology and Economics). In this
          cooperation students and their supervisors can work on industrially
          motivated problems mainly within MSc and PhD programmes. Ericsson
          also offers internships, where PhD students are contracted for a period of
          time, and they can work closely together with researchers of Ericsson,
          mostly on Ericsson-internal or EU projects. These university
          cooperations started almost 20    years     ago,     and    from      these
          cooperations almost 80 PhDs have been completed since foundation.
          Ericsson also actively takes part in education by holding lectures and
          providing help in working out details of various subjects. Recently the
          collaboration has been significantly extended in the fields of software,
          hardware and microwave networks.

          Robert Bosch Department of Mechatronics: The University of Miskolc
          and the Hungarian Bosch Companies founded the Robert Bosch
          Department of Mechatronics in 2005. The target of the cooperation is to
          support practical oriented education and research activities in the
          engineering sciences placing special emphasis on the wide range
          applications of mechatronics.
          Within the frame of the cooperation seven industrial Ph.D. programs are
          currently in progress. Three of them are performed at Bosch, while four of
           them at the University.
          The main benefits of the cooperation are:
              - to create harmony between the theoretical and practical sciences;
              - to move towards more practical oriented education and training;
              - to have better and long-lasting collaboration between University
                   and Industry.
Ireland   The Enterprise Partnership Scheme is an innovative initiative through
          which Irish Council for Science Engineering and Technology (IRCSET)
          links with private enterprise and eligible public bodies to award co-funded
          postgraduate scholarships and postdoctoral fellowships to the most
          promising researchers in Ireland. Benefits include: mentoring from
          industry experts, placement opportunities, exposure to commercially
          orientated research environment, transferable skills, relationship with a
          potential future employer. The industry partner provides 30% of the
          funding. There are over 160 companies involved in the funding of 350
          doctoral candidates.
Italy     The Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research has a yearly
          call for doctoral fellowships in topics related to industrial research open to
          all Italian universities hosting doctoral courses / programmes on these
          topics. The requirements for fellowship assignment include agreements

              with foreign Universities for research collaboration, PhD-cotutelle
              programmes, and geographical and intersectoral mobility plans for the
              admitted candidates. Some universities additionally attract funding from
              private companies and non-academic institutions to increase the number
              of fellowships on the most innovative industrial-research programmes.
Luxembourg    The AFR (Aides à la Formation-Recherche) PhD grant scheme
              ( has a specific funding line in support of public-private
              partnerships (AFR-PPP). In the framework of AFR-PPP, industrial PhDs
              that are carried out by a private company in collaboration with a HE
              institution are funded. The industrial partner has to be based in
              Luxembourg, while the HE institution may be located in another country.
              The industrial partner has to obtain an accreditation for research activities
              by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, in order to be eligible for AFR-PPP
              support. The grant covers the costs for a work contract of the doctoral
              candidate, to be concluded either by the industrial partner or by the HE
              institution, depending where the major part of the work is performed. In
              addition, a training allowance over the full grant period of 3-4 years is
              allocated to each fellow. Calls for proposals are issued twice per year by
              the National Research Fund in spring and autumn. Proposals are selected
              on the basis of international peer review by an expert panel. The provision
              of transferable skills forms an integral part of the scheme.
Norway        Industrial PhD program
              An Industrial PhD project is a three-year business focused PhD project
              where the student is hired by a company and enrolled in a university at the
              same time. The research project is conducted in cooperation between a
              private company, an Industrial PhD student and a university. As a
              supplement to the research community in either the university or the
              company, a public research institution can be attached.

              Companies that enter into a collaboration agreement under the Industrial
              PhD scheme receive an annual grant from the Research Council equal to
              maximum 50 % of the established current rates for doctoral research
              fellowships for a three-year period. The PhD student works full time on
              the project and divides his or her time equally between the company and
              the university. Universities and students of all nationalities may be
              accepted. All students enrolled in the program have once a year been
              invited to a special business course by the Research Council.
Portugal      Bolsas de Doutoramento em Empresas (BDE, Doctoral degree grants in
              enterprises) . See Annex 2 below
Switzerland   Many of the research groups at Swiss universities, notably at the two
              Federal Institutes of Technology, maintain close collaboration with
              industrial partners. Various models of industrial doctorates are possible;
              what is important for the success of an industrial PhD is a common
              understanding of all partners implied and an active involvement of all
              partners all along the dissertation work.
Slovenia      Young researchers in enterprises
              The measure aims at establishing a bridge between the research sphere
              and enterprises. This programme contains three kinds of financial
              contributions: to the monthly income of a young researcher, to the

                     mentorship allowance and to the actual cost of research. The aim of the
                     measure is to create high quality human potentials in the fields where
                     Slovene economy needs new knowledge for developing high-tech and
                     innovative products, technologies or services, to strengthen and to
                     stimulate creation of research teams in industry and economy (SME
                     involved), to establish efficient cooperation among research institutions,
                     universities and industry, to stimulate interdisciplinary nature of post-
                     graduate studies. Applications may be submitted by enterprises and
                     technology centres, the immediate beneficiaries are young researchers-
                     postgraduate students, there is an age limit of 35 years for candidates.
                     There are special requirements regarding mentorship for young
                     researchers and for their full-time engagement in research activities.
 Spain               Talent Empresa is an industrial PhD programme promoted by the
                     Regional Government of Catalonia. The programme offers funding for the
                     incorporation of researchers in companies and technological centres as
                     long as they pursue industrial research while being enrolled in a doctorate
                     at one of the Catalan universities. Open to all nationalities, the program
                     offers employment contracts with full social security coverage. The
                     research training is conducted mainly in the industrial partner with the
                     joint supervision of university staff.
 UK                  The UK Research Councils fund CASE studentships, Engineering
                     Doctorates and other forms of collaborative PhD training which may be
                     jointly funded by a funding partner outside HE. Industry, business and
                     other research partners also provide fully-funded PhD studentships. In
                     most collaborative awards the student will spend time working on the
                     premises of the research partner.
 UK                  Special case: Professional doctorates
                     These doctorates are offered in a variety of professional fields including
                     engineering (EngD), nursing (DNursSci), veterinary medicine (VetMD),
                     education (EdD), business administration (DBA) and clinical psychology
                     (DClinPsy). As for the traditional PhD, candidates are required to produce
                     original knowledge; but with the additional proviso that this should make
                     a significant contribution to professional practice. Professional doctorates
                     may also be combined with a taught element and, instead of requiring a
                     thesis, may offer the option of producing a collection of extended
                     assignments. In many cases, professional doctorates are designed and
                     delivered in collaboration with employers and professional bodies, and are
                     strongly linked to the needs of a particular sector. In the case of the EngD,
                     for example, doctoral students conduct PhD-equivalent research whilst
                     also undertaking taught business courses and working alongside an
                     industrial partner. This kind of ‘experience-led’ learning has proved
                     extremely popular with employers.

F) Skills Training Examples

The skills training ideas listed below, again building up on existing best practice cases, are to
be read as work in progress and should not be considered as final nor as an exhaustive list:

Disciplinary skills
Transferable skills
Entrepreneurial skills
Career development
Languages, IT Training etc.

Belgium                       All Flemish universities provide a well-balanced offer of courses, both
                              domain oriented and transferable skills. Ghent University, for example,
                              offers seminars in transferable skills within four separate clusters:
                              Communication Skills; Research and Valorization; Career Management;
                              Efficiency and Leadership.”
                              The universities of the Federation Wallonia-Brussels are fully
                              autonomous in the field of learning transferable and entrepreneurial skills.
                              These last few years, priority has been given to transferable skills and
                              languages (credits dedicated to transferable skills, specific seminars,
                              human strategies for researchers, etc.)
Germany                       All Research Training Groups, Research Schools, university wide
                              schools, IMPRS etc. include skills training in various ways which can be
                              chosen à la carte according to needs and interests.
Estonia                       Extra courses for transferable skills training can be organized through
                              Doctoral Schools or curricula development activities, to develop popular
                              science literacy of doctoral students (including seminars, workshops and
                              contest for popular scientific articles). Doctoral students are involved with
                              different projects about making S&T more attractive especially for young
                              people but at the same time develops researcher's popular science
                              communication skills. This kind of extra courses are mostly project based
                              and financed by the government.
                              The Fund of Wise Decisions headed by the State Chancellery was
                              established in 2008, one of its sub-measures is a scheme for building non-
                              governmental analytical capacity. Young researchers’ studies in nationally
                              important areas are supported.
Ireland                       The Irish Universities Association’s (IUA) Deans of Graduate Education
                              Network developed a skills statement of PhD graduates’ skills, attributes
                              and qualities, based on an analysis of skills statements already developed
                              and in use in North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and
                              elsewhere. This skills statement contains common characteristics of the
                              generic outcomes that result from the research education experience and
                              identifies competencies that are transferable to the workplace, either
                              academic or non-academic. 33    TPF   FPT

                              National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning

                              TCD-UCD Innovation Academy
                              The TCD-UCD Innovation Alliance, launched in 2010 by the Irish Prime
                              Minister, is a radical new partnership between Trinity College Dublin

          H                                                                      H

                       (TCD) and University College Dublin (UCD). The TCD-UCD Innovation
                       Academy is the educational centrepiece of this Alliance and is a
                       collaborative educational venture between TCD and UCD, involving
                       interations with external agencies from both the for-profit and non-profit
                       organisations. The Academy is transforming the doctoral education
                       experience by establishing innovation alongside research and education as
                       an integral element of the PhD. The output will be a new breed of
                       graduate, expert in their discipline, but with the creativity and
                       entrepreneurial skills to convert knowledge, ideas and inventions into
                       products, services and policies for economic and social benefit.
                       Innovation is thus regarded in its broadest sense of exploiting new ideas in
                       a competitive world; it is not restricted to science, engineering,
                       technology and business, but encompasses creativity, leadership, cultural
                       and policy innovation of arts and humanities. The Innovation Academy
                       will enhance Ireland’s reputation for PhD education, thus attracting high-
                       quality international students. Students are anchored in the disciplines,
                       where they will pursue original research relevant to key strategic
                       objectives. The Innovation Academy offers a collaborative Graduate
                       Certificate in Innovation & Entrepreneurship to PhD students from across
                       both institutions.
Switzerland            In the Swiss understanding, the purpose of the doctorate is not only the
                       development of academic competence and the acquisition of subject-
                       specific and methodological knowledge and skills, but also the acquisition
                       of transversal knowledge and skills as well as the promotion of academic
                       interaction and networks. In this way, the doctorate prepares candidates
                       for research-based professions at universities or other institutions (public
                       sector, business, administration) and enables them to take on diverse high-
                       level responsibilities and functions. 34  PF   FP

                       ETH Zurich requires all doctoral students to take a certain amount of
                       coursework (“doctoral studies”). These courses are considered both as a
                       right and an obligation of the students to continue their professional
                       development. 35 The objectives of doctoral studies are to enable doctoral
                                       PF   FP

                       candidates, to acquire knowledge and skills in the field of their doctoral
                       thesis, in cognate disciplines and in interdisciplinary areas; to integrate
                       themselves into the scientific community. At least one-third of the
                       required credits must be outside the candidate’s research field, covering
                       e.g. transferable skills, entrepreneurship, career development,
                       communication                 or              pedagogic               skills.
                       H                                                   H

                       Mentoring Programmes for the promotion of female junior researchers
                       Since 2000 the Federal Equal Opportunity at the Universities Programme
                       has been financing mentoring programmes at all Swiss universities in
                       collaboration with the two Federal Institutes of Technology and the Swiss
                       National Science Foundation (SNSF). It intends to promote female junior
                       researchers by giving them career related advice independent from their
                       direct supervisor and introducing them into the academic networks. In

TPSee the Joint Position Paper by the Swiss Universities on the Doctorate,
      PT                                                                             HTU                     UTH

TPcited from the Ordinance on Doctoral Studies ETH Zurich
HTU                                                                            UTH

                                  doing so the concept of mentoring is broad and includes also gender-
                                  specific skills training e.g. in rhetoric, job applications, appearance etc.
                                  Due to the different cultures of the faculties, there is also faculty-specific
                                  H                                                                     H

UK                                Vitae’s Researcher Development Statement 36 is a UK statement of the
                                                                                 TPF   FPT

                                  knowledge, skills and attributes of researchers in higher education based
                                  on the Researcher Development Framework. The Statement has been
                                  endorsed by the Universties UK, Research Councils UK and other
                                  funders, UK universities have comprehensive training and development
                                  provision based on the four Domains:
                                  - Knowledge and intellectual abilities
                                  - Personal effectiveness
                                  - Research governance and organisation
                                  - Engagement, influence and impact.
EU                                Marie Curie Initial Training Network
                                  Initial Training Networks (ITN) promote skills training in the fields of:
                                  - Management and financing of research projects and programmes
                                  - Intellectual property rights
                                  - Take up and exploitation of research results
                                  - Entrepreneurship
                                  - Ethical aspects
                                  - Communication and societal outreach
                                  - Standardisation

          HTU               UTH

                                                                                  ANNEX 2

                  National funding for individual doctoral candidates

Having sufficient financial support during a doctorate is a necessary condition for any
candidate and generally necessary to find the initial motivation to pursue the arduous and
innovative research demanded.

Belgium           Several funding options are open for Belgian doctoral students, based on
                  different employment models. On the one hand a doctoral candidate can
                  be a research assistant, recruited and employed by the university. On the
                  other hand, he/she can profit from a taxfree doctoral fellowship (fully
                  covered by social security!). This fellowship can be paid from university
                  funds, but also research councils provide funding for doctoral fellowships.
                  The most important of these are the Research Fund – Flanders (FWO), the
                  Fonds de la recherche scientifique (FNRS), which both finance
                  fundamental research, and the Agency for Innovation by Science and
                  Technology (IWT), responsible for strategic research.

                  A non-exhaustive list of funding sources:
                     • Interuniversity Attraction Poles, which aims at supporting
                         fundamental research led by the university research teams of the
                         various regions of the country working in a network within the
                         framework of collaboration projects
                     • Thematic programme of the Federal Research Office
                     • Mandate “research fellow-FRS-FNRS” (Scientific Research Funds
                         and Scientific Research Fund)
                     • Mandate “research fellow-FRIA” (Research Funds in Industry and
                     • Mandate as assistant in a university
                     • Mandate “FIRST SPIN OFF” (from the Walloon Region in
                         partnership with an enterprise)
                     • Institutional grants for doctoral candidate
                     • Mobilising Programmes of the Walloon Region, which aims at
                         strengthening the scientific potential of universities and HEIs and
                         valuing it in the Walloon industrial context;
                     • Télévie programme, which concerns research on cancer (private
                     • PhD fellowships of the Research Fund – Flanders
                     • Baekeland fellowships of the IWT
                     • Post-graduate Grants of the IWT
                     • Fellowship of the Flemish Special research funds
                  Mandate “Prospective Research for Brussels”
Denmark           The Danish PhD Programme is designed to provide young researchers
                  with skills in order to contribute to the knowledge based economy/society.
                  The general admission requirement is a Master-level degree. A Danish
                  PhD-programme usually lasts three years. The PhD student is generally

                           employed in accordance with the collective agreement for PhD students
                           employed in the Danish state. This means that the PhD receives a salary
                           during the three years. The salary is approximately DKK 26.500 per
                           month including pension.
                           Social security is mainly financed by taxes in Denmark and the health
                           service network is based on the principle of equal access to the services
                           offered by the health service for all citizens. PhD students therefore have
                           the same social security rights as others.
                           The Industrial PhD students will receive salary from the enterprise in
                           which they are employed. This salary is agreed upon between the student
                           and the company but must correspond as a minimum to the pay rate of the
                           collective agreement for PhD students employed in the Danish state.
Estonia                    A new doctoral financing model will be applied from 2012on: The
                           position of early-stage researcher is added in legal acts as a part of the
                           research career model. Positions of early-stage researcher are foreseen to
                           grant doctoral students full social security coverage. The aim is to
                           enhance motivation and to ensure material support of PhD candidates.
                           Employment contracts will strengthen the link between the university and
                           PhD candidates. From 2012 all doctoral candidates who pass a required
                           attestation will get a doctoral allowance (doctoral students) or a salary
                           (early- stage researchers).
                           Mobility of doctoral candidates for short-term study visits and full-time
                           studies abroad is supported by different mobility programmes (example:
                           Doctoral Studies and Internationalisation Programme “DoRa”, Kristjan
France                     Le contrat doctorale 37TPF   FPT

                           The “doctoral contract”; this three-year public contract for doctoral
                           candidates, applicable in universities and research institutions, offers a
                           complete package: a comprehensive professional experience, with the
                           required training and additional activities to help doctoral candidates
                           broaden their research experience.
Germany                    The majority of doctoral candidates still obtain their doctoral degree while
                           working in a project. In the last years, accompanying training structures
                           have been established at many universities. Various foundations and
                           eleven organisations for the promotion of young talent
                           (Begabtenförderungswerke), funded by the Federal Ministry for
                           Education and Research (BMBF) plus further such organisations funded
                           by some German states, provide individual fellowships for especially
                           gifted doctoral candidates candidates (Landesgraduiertenförderung). The
                           fellowship holders benefit from accompanying programmes fostering
                           their personal and career development.
Ireland                    Research Council


Luxembourg    Aides à la Formation-Recherche (AFR)
              The national AFR PhD grant scheme ( allocates individual
                                                         HT          TH

              funding for doctoral candidates of any nationality in Luxembourg or
              abroad, the latter mainly to Luxembourg researchers abroad. Grants are
              thematically open and have to be submitted by the PhD candidate and the
              main host institution. Grants cover the costs of a work contract with full
              social security (paid to the host institution issuing the work contract), plus
              a training allowance for the full grant period of 3 and up to 4 years. Other
              costs for PhD training have to be covered by the host institution(s). The
              provision of transferable skills forms an integral part of the scheme. Calls
              for proposals are issued twice per year by the National Research Fund in
              spring and autumn. Proposals are selected on the basis of international
              peer review by an expert panel.
Netherlands   NWO-Graduate Programme
              The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) developed

              the Graduate Programme in 2009. In 2011 the third funding round

              awarded 19 schools out of 49 applications with 800,000 euros for the

              training of young researchers. With this financial boost, each school can
              appoint four PhD students. A total of 38 schools have now received

              funding for the appointment of about 160 PhD students. All of the PhD
              students can carry out research for a period of four years. A new funding
              round for the Graduate Programme is planned for 2012.
              Within NWO’s Graduate Programme, local and national research schools
              and Graduate Schools can request funding. The Graduate Schools can use
              this grant to set up a strong education and research programme for the
              development of young scientific talent.
              These Graduate Schools offer students a coherent Masters and PhD
              programme. They focus on talented students who are interested in an
              academic career. The excellent education and research environments have
              been developed according to the most successful initiatives worldwide.
              The Graduate Schools are part of one or more universities and/or
Norway        Positions as PhDs are announced publicly by the TEIs, and employment is
              on the basis of competition among applicants. The applicants must apply
              for participation in doctoral programs separately. The level of funding for
              PhD positions is comparable to an ordinary public salary, and the
              candidates enjoy the rights of ordinary employees. Two thirds of PhD
              candidates have such positions.
              One third of PhD candidates have other types of funding for their PhD
              degree. Most of them are employed in permanent positions in TEIs or in
              the institute sector, and work on their thesis as a part of their ordinary
Portugal      Bolsas de Doutoramento (BD, Doctoral degree grants)
              The Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) in Portugal allows those
              who are pursuing third cycle studies which lead to a doctoral degree to
              apply for doctoral degree grants for study in Portugal or abroad,
              notwithstanding if they are Portuguese nationals or foreigners, as long as
              they: hold a master degree or equivalent degree, hold a licenciado degree

              (first cycle of studies) but that have an academic or scientific curricula
              which is considered by the university designated scientific and level
              structure (e.g., scientific council) as sufficient for the student to be
              admitted to doctoral training, or have a academic, scientific or
              professional track which the university designated scientific and level
              structure (e.g., scientific council)acknowledges to attest the student ability
              and capacity to pursue doctoral training.
              The Doctoral degree grants, which can be spent solely in Portugal, in
              Portugal and abroad, or solely abroad, have a monthly maintenance
              stipend of 980 Euros in Portugal and 1710 Euros when abroad which is
              paid according to where the grantee is located. However, other subsidies
              are available i.e. for travelling, registration, tuition and bench fees.

              Bolsas de Doutoramento em Empresas (BDE, Doctoral degree grants in
              The Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) in Portugal allows the
              application for doctoral degree grants in an enterprise in Portugal as long
              it satisfies the same criteria demanded by the eligibility for doctoral
              degree grants, except that the candidates must be national citizens or
              residing in Portugal.
              The purpose of doctoral degree grants in enterprises is to allow doctoral
              degree grants the opportunity to develop doctoral degree work in the
              business environment on subjects of interest to the enterprise, as long as
              this work is accepted by the university that confers the respective doctoral
              In order to qualify for this type of grant, a plan must be submitted
              detailing the objectives, the support to be provided for the recipient’s
              research activity in the enterprise and the expected interaction between the
              enterprise and the university where the recipient is enrolled in the doctoral
              degree program. The monthly maintenance stipend of 980 Euros is paid
              by the FCT and the firm on a 50% basis (each pay 490 Euros per month).
              All the other subsidies are supported by FCT.
Switzerland   Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF): fellowships for prospective
              The SNSF funding scheme “Fellowships for Prospective Researchers”
              offers also doctoral students the possibility of a stay at a research
              institution abroad. Eligible candidates from Swiss universities or Swiss
              nationals residing in foreign countries can submit their application at the
              earliest 2 years after obtaining their licentiate, diploma or master's degree.
              This research stay is financed for a period of between 6 and 24 months.
              The fellowships are allocated in all disciplines supported by the Swiss
              National Science Foundation. Funding covers the grantee’s subsistence
              costs and includes a fixed sum for travel expenses. It may also comprise a
              contribution towards research and conference expenses. The amount of
              the fellowship is based on family status, family obligations and cost of
              living in the host country. Each year the SNSF awards approximately 160
              new doctoral fellowships. Applications submitted by eligible candidates
              are evaluated by the SNSF research commissions, which are mandated by
              the SNSF and based at the Swiss universities. One central SNSF panel

                             evaluates Swiss candidates that are not affiliated to a Swiss university as
                             they are applying from outside Switzerland.

                             researchers/Pages/default.aspx       H

USA                          NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP) 38   TPF   FPT

                             The program recognizes and supports outstanding graduate students who
                             are pursuing research-based masters and doctoral degrees in fields within
                             NSF's mission. The GRFP provides three years of support for the
                             graduate education of individuals who have demonstrated their potential
                             for significant achievements in science and engineering research. In
                             general, graduate fellowships may be awarded only to citizens or
                             nationals of the U.S. or permanent resident aliens of the United States at
                             the time of application. Graduate fellowships are awarded for study or
                             work leading to advanced degrees in science, mathematics, and
                             engineering as specified in the Announcement. Awards are made for 3
                             years of support, tenable over a 5-year period and are intended for
                             students at or near the beginning of their graduate study. The applications
                             of eligible candidates are reviewed by disciplinary panels. The
                             responsibility for selection of Fellows rests solely with NSF. Each year,
                             NSF awards approximately 1,000 new three-year Graduate Fellowships.


                                                                         ANNEX 3A

                          Structural Funds (2007-2013)

         Development human potential in the field of research and innovation,
              in particular through post-graduate studies and training of
         researchers, and networking activities between universities, research
                                 centres and businesses

                                 Amount in EUROS

AT                                      412.500
BE                                    51.034.732
BG                                    51.000.000
CY                                         0
CZ                                   310.811.994
DK                                         0
EE                                    76.191.984
FI                                   24.644.061
FR                                    16.758.000
DE                                   251.462.207
GR                                   281.765.418
HU                                   576.736.943
IE                                         0
IT                                   558.360.513
LV                                   108.722.551
LT                                   118.006.500
LU                                     1.615.595
MT                                    7.000.000
NL                                    11.500.137
PL                                   603.326.307
PT                                   471.700.000
RO                                   284.929.959
SK                                    74.951.515
SI                                   153.460.471
ES                                   293.579.426
SE                                         0
UK                                    28.778.804
 TOTAL                             € 4.356.749.617

                                                                                                                                                                 ANNEX 3B

                                                            Marie Curie Actions: activities in support of doctoral candidates

Marie Curie Actions are a EU programme supporting activities specifically dedicated to the excellent and structured training of early stage
researchers, including doctoral candidates, in all research fields. Financial support is provided for a maximum of 4 years to the institutions
which are responsible for the recruitment of early stage researchers according to the principles of the European Charter and Code.

Action                          Number of doctoral            Average grant for the individual                  Average
                                                                                                                                Average grant for the institution
Type                            candidates supported          doctoral candidate                                Period
                                                                                                                                Contribution to the training and research
Initial Training                                                                                                                costs:
                                 About 9.000 doctoral
Networks (ITN)                                                                                                                  ITN and IAPP:
                                 candidates funded                                                               36
and Innovative                                                                                                                  €1800 per researcher-month
                                 for the period 2007- Yearly living allowance:                                   months
Doctoral                                                                                                                        IDP and EID:
                                 2013.                €38.000 x country coefficient1                  P

                                                                                                                                €1200 per researcher-month

Programmes (IDP)
                                                              Monthly mobility allowance:
                                                                                                                                Management activities:
European                                                      €700 (no family) or
                                                                                                                                Maximum 10% of the total EU
Industrial                                                    €1000 (with family) x country
                                                                                                                 36             contribution
Doctorates (EID-                                              coefficient
                                 About 100 in 2012.           to cover expenses linked to the                    months
new pilot launched                                                                                                              Contribution to overheads:
                                                              personal household, relocation and
in 2012)                                                                                                                        10% of direct costs2
                                                              travel expenses of the researcher and
                                                                                                                                                       P   P

                                                              her/his family in the host country.
Industry                         About 2000 doctoral                                                                            Small equipment expenses (IAPP only):
Academia                         candidates funded                                                               12 to 24       Up to maximum 10% of the total
Partnerships and                 for the period 2007-                                                            months         contribution to the SME participant, if
Pathways (IAPP)                  2013.                                                                                          duly justified by the project.

International                    About 7000 doctoral           Travel costs:
                                                                                                                 From 1
Research Staff                   candidates funded             €1900 / researcher-month
                                                                                                                 to 12          N.A.
Exchange Scheme                  for the period 2007-          + 200€ / researcher-month in case of
(IRSES)                          2013.                         long-distance
P   P   coefficient estimated by Eurostat according to the living costs in the host country. The list of coefficients is published in the yearly People Work Programme.
P   P   except for subcontractors and the costs of the resources made available by third parties which are not used in the premises of the beneficiary
                                                    Erasmus activities in support of doctoral candidates
Erasmus programme support doctoral candidates through the following activities:
•   Erasmus mobility grants
•   Erasmus Intensive Programmes (IP)
                                       Estimated support under the current Erasmus Programme (2007-2013)

Action          Doctoral candidates supported    Average grant for the individual       Average                             Average       remarks
Type                                                                                    Period                              grant for
Mobility         NR PhD Candidates                                                          months
grants, PhD               SM SMS         SMP              SM        SMS       SMP                    SM       SMS    SMP    N/A
                 2007-08 3167 2737       438      2007-08 1604.89   1481.41   2346.99    2007-08     5.32     5.51   4
candidates       2008-09 2661 1839       822      2008-09 1806.46   1582.42   2307.67    2008-09     5.14     5.37   4.62
                 2009-10 2484 1662       822      2009-10 1784.35   1659.47   2036.85    2009-10     5.16     5.54   4.4

Mobility         PhD Canditates as teaching                                                 days
grants, staff    Assistants                       2007-08      629.58                    2007-08       5.81                 N/A
                 2007-08 3316                     2008-09      673.31                    2008-09       5.98
mobility         2008-09 3067                     2009-10      622.15                    2009-10       5.84
                 2009-10 2665

Intensive        Intensive Programme                 per Intensive Programme (IP)       Approx. 10 days                                   IPs are
programmes       3rd cycle                                                                                                                courses of
                 2007-08 257                      2007-08      23234
(IP)             2008-09 319                      2008-09      30150
                                                                                                                                          10 days
                 2009-10 284                      2009-10      32575                                                                      attended by
                                                                                                                                          students and
                  Nr of PhD candidates on 3rd                                                                                             teachers
                  cycle IPs                                                                                                               from
                  2007-08      1140
                  2008-09      1276
                  2009-10      1552                                                                                                       countries
SM       Student Mobility
SMS      Student Mobility for Study
SMP      Student Mobility Work Placements
IP       Intensive Programmes (10 day courses)

                                                                                     ANNEX 3E

                      ERC activities in support of doctoral candidates

The European Research Council supports doctoral candidates indirectly through the grant
support for selected Principal Investigators. Early analysis of the financial reports reveals that
each Principal Investigator is accompanied by one to three candidates.

           Estimated support under Seventh Framework programme (2007-2013)

Action         Doctoral       Average grant for    Average         Average         remarks
Type           candidates     the individual       Period          grant for the
               supported                                           institution
               1 to 3         ~up to €2.0M and     Hard to
ERC            Doctoral       up to €3.5 M per     estimate                        Initial analysis
Starting       Candidates     PI and team for up   although in     N/A*            reveal that ~70%
Grant          per            to 5 years for the   principle a                     of the budget
               Principal      StG and AdG          full doctoral                   goes to personnel
ERC            Investigator   respectively.        study could                     costs.
Advanced                                           be easily
Grant                                              supported
                                                   within the 5
                                                   years of the

In addition, the Work Programme includes within its provisions for the conditions that the
host Institution will provide to the Principal investigator and its team a reference to the
Charter & Code.

* although the legal beneficiary of the grant is the institution that hosts the Principal
Investigator (PI) and his/her team, the funding is under the control of the PI, including the
possibility of "portability", when the PI can leave the host institution with the grant. In other
words ERC grants do not constitute institutional funding.

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