Interviews PACA online by tonze.danzel

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 60

									The Sequence of a
PACA Exercise

                      Jörg Meyer-Stamer
                    www.mesopartner.com
   What is the sequence of activities
   in a PACA?



Prepa-
          Hy-                                  Results-
ration:                                                    Pre-    Way
          po- Kick-        Interviews         Workshop:                   Imple-
* Orga                                                     sen-    for-
          the- off                            Diagnosis                   mentation
 * Ad-                                                    tation   ward
           sis Wks                                +
vance                                                     event    Wks
          Wks            Mini-workshops       Proposals
  info

                      Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                              PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                 PACA-Project
  What is the sequence of activities
  in a PACA?



Prepa-
 Build-up Hy-                                  Results-
ration:                                                    Pre-    Way
   Prepa-
* Orga
          po- Kick-        Interviews         Workshop:
                                                           sen-    for-   Imple-
    rationthe- off
 * Ad-
                                              Diagnosis
                                                          tation   ward   mentation
           sis Wks                                +
  Organi-
vance
          Wks                                 Proposals
                                                          event    Wks
  info
   sation                Mini-workshops

                      Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                              PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                 PACA-Project
Somebody has to initiate the
PACA:
The PACA Host
  Government          The PACA Host
   institution?         motivates other stakeholders to support
  Private sector        PACA
   institution (e.g.    creates a PACA team
   Chamber)?              – 1 - 2 external facilitators
  NGO?                   – 3 - 5 local people
  Stakeholder                • who prepare the PACA (advance
   Forum?                       information, invitees for kick-off
  An organisation              workshop, mini-workshops,
   with credibility!            interviews)
                        organises the kick-off workshop
                        coordinates the schedule for interviews
                         and mini-workshops
                        organises the presentation of results.
Organising a PACA Exercise (1)

 The proper way:                          The frenzied way:
  4 - 6 weeks in advance:                 Try to do all this in a
    – identify PACA Host or                 few days
       contract PACA Facilitators
    – define territory / focus            Resources for
  3 - 4 weeks in advance:                   organisation:
    – select PACA Team                    90 contacts
    – plan details of organisation with   * 2 phone calls
       PACA Host                          * 10 minutes per call
  1 - 2 weeks in advance:                = 30 hours on the phone!
    – book venues                         plus marketing
    – invite people for kick-off, mini-   plus correspondence
       workshops
                                          = a lot of time and effort!
    – make appointments for interviews
Organising a PACA Exercise (2)

  Make sure that the right      Use at least 3 of the six
   people invite the relevant     possible means of
   stakeholders                   communication
    – credible public sector       – face-to-face
      actors to invite other       – phone
      public sector actors         – letter
    – credible private sector      – fax
      actors to invite other
      private sector actors        – e-mail
                                   – SMS
Collect advance information

  Check available publications (research, articles in
   papers and journals)
  Check statistics
  Main sectors in the local economy:
    – What are critical success factors in these sectors?
    – What does “competitive advantage” in these
      sectors actually mean?
    – What are their main competitors nationally and
      internationally?
    – What is international good practice in promoting
      competitiveness in these sectors?
Prepa-
 Build-up Hy-                                   Results-
ration:                                                     Pre-    Way
   Prepa-
* Orga
         Hypo- Kick-
          po-               Interviews         Workshop:
                                                            sen-    for-   Imple-
    rationthe- off
 * Ad- theses
                                               Diagnosis
                                                           tation   ward   mentation
           sis Wks                                 +
      Workshop
  Organi-
vance
          Wks                                  Proposals
                                                           event    Wks
  info
   sation                 Mini-workshops

                       Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                               PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                  PACA-Project
The Hypotheses Workshop --
an internal event of the PACA
Team
 Purpose:                           Structure
  Get a shared understanding        Presentation on PACA
   of the expectations in the
                                     Mesocard exercise:
   PACA Team
                                        – clarification of open
    – on PACA
                                           questions on PACA
    – on the location
                                     PACA Facilitators respond
    – on possible proposals
                                     Mesocard exercises:
  Make implicit opinions and
                                        – What do we expect to be
   prejudice explicit
                                           our findings?
  Create a base of reference for
                                        – What may come out as
   the next steps of work
                                           proposals?
  Option: Turn the Hypotheses
                                        – Which LED activities are
   Workshop into a crash course
                                           already going on?
   for PACA team members
Prepa-
         Hy-                                    Results-
ration:                                                     Pre-    Way
* Orga
        Hypo-Kick-
         po- Kick-          Interviews         Workshop:
                                                            sen-    for-   Imple-
         the-  off                             Diagnosis
 * Ad- theses off                                          tation   ward   mentation
          sis Wks                                  +
vance       Workshop
      Workshop
         Wks                                   Proposals
                                                           event    Wks
  info                    Mini-workshops

                       Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                               PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                  PACA-Project
Kick-off workshop:
Preparation
  Invite 20 - 40 participants:
    – Representatives of business associations
    – Representatives of local government
    – Representatives of leading firms
    – Representatives of support institutions
    – Local leaders / connectors / mavens
    – Local media
  Reserve adequate locality
  Prepare Mesocard materials
Kick-off workshop:
Purpose
  Inform local stakeholders about the PACA
  Raise information about the local economy
    – hard information
    – participants’ perception / interpretation of local
      reality
  Motivate participants to support the PACA exercise
    – arrange appointments for interviews
    – persuade colleagues to be available for interviews
Kick-off workshop:
Structure
  Presentation of key concepts
    – the Diamond of Local Competitiveness
    – optional: LED
  Participants write Mesocards
    – four diamond corners -- strong & weak points
    – competitive advantage of the region
    – vocation in ten year’s time
  Discussion of cards / observations / questions
  Explanation of subsequent steps
The structure of the Diamond in
the Kick-off Workshop
                            Main sectors and                   Govern-
                             companies in the                   ment
                              local economy:
                            What are the strong
Supporting institutions      and weak points?
                                                    Demand conditions:
(factor conditions):                                * Sophisticated demand
* training, technology,                             * Unusual demand
   finance, public util.,                           * Pioneering / innovative
   infrastructure                                     demand
* location, land                                    Strong + weak points
Strong + weak points        Supporting industries
                             (suppliers, subcon-
                               tractors, service
                                  providers):
                            Strong + weak points
What does the kickoff workshop
look like?
Prepa-
          Hy-                                    Results-
ration:                                                      Pre-    Way
          po- Kick-
               Kick-         Interviews
                            Interviews          Workshop:                   Imple-
* Orga                                                       sen-    for-
                off
          the- off                              Diagnosis                   mentation
 * Ad-                                                      tation   ward
           sis Wks                                  +
vance
          Wks
             Workshop                           Proposals
                                                            event    Wks
  info                     Mini-workshops

                        Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                                PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                   PACA-Project
Field work:
Interviews
  identification of firms, institutions and individuals to
   be met
    – during kick-off workshop, discussion with
      Chamber, local government, key informers
  structured interviews (“conversations”), usually with
   director/CEO/executive secretary, based on open
   questionnaire and qualitative methodology
  conducted by external and local members of PACA
   Team (2 - 3 persons)
  takes notes about observations, write minutes,
   formulate more hypotheses / reformulate hypotheses
What is an interview guideline (as
opposed to a questionnaire)?
 Questionnaire:                   Guideline:
  Closed questions (yes/no,       Open questions
   scoring)
  Precise wording of questions    Wording of question not
   is paramount                     defined ex-ante - depends
                                    on situation
  Fixed sequence of questions     Interview dramaturgy
                                    depends on interviewee
What is the purpose and structure
of the interview?
Purpose:                               Structure (company interview):
 To understand the internal            Intra-firm effort to improve
  structure of the company /              competitive advantage
  institution                           Interaction with suppliers and
 To understand how it fits into          subcontractors
  the local economy                     Interaction with customers
 To gather its perception of the       Interaction with competitors
  local economy                         Interaction with supporting
 To assess its willingness to            institutions: training, R+D,
  participate in a LED initiative         information, finance, etc.
 To motivate it to participate in a    Interaction with business
  LED initiative                          association and Chamber
                                        Relationship with and percep-
                                          tion of local government
A good way to organize the
interview: The Five Forces Plus
   Macro-                                             Supporting
 framework                                            institutions:
                         New entrants:
   Rules +                                         strong and weak
                          How likely?
 regulations                                             points
                             Who?
                        What advantage?

                             Rivalry:
Bargaining power of                             Bargaining power of
                       Who are competitors?
     suppliers                                      customers
                      Competitive advantage?

                       Threat of substitutive
                      products (radical tech-
                       nical change, change
                      in consumer behavior)
Field work:
Typical interview situations
Prepa-
          Hy-                                  Results-
ration:                                                    Pre-    Way
          po- Kick-        Interviews
                          Interviews          Workshop:                   Imple-
* Orga                                                     sen-    for-
          the- off                            Diagnosis                   mentation
 * Ad-                                                    tation   ward
           sis Wks                                +
vance                                                     event    Wks
          Wks          Mini-workshops
                        Mini-workshops        Proposals
  info

                      Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                              PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                 PACA-Project
Field work:
Mini-workshops
 5 - 15 persons with similar characteristics, e.g.
   – same industry and company-size (e.g. small
      garment firms, small food processing firms)
   – similar background (e.g. CEFE entrepreneurs,
      woman entrepreneurs, innovative firms)
 purpose: get information on the sector
   – evaluation of performance of the sector
       • Mesocard
       • Structuring tools like Diamond, Five Forces
         Analysis, transaction matrix, SWOT, ...
   – optional: first brainstorming on options for action
A format for a mini-workshop:
An adaptation of the Diamond
                            Competitive advantage              Govern-
                             and disadvantage of                ment
                                 the sector
                             What are the strong
Supporting institutions       and weak points?
                                                    Demand conditions:
(factor conditions):                                * Sophisticated demand
* training, technology,                             * Unusual demand
   finance, public util.,                           * Pioneering / innovative
   infrastructure                                     demand
* location, land                                    Strong + weak points
Strong + weak points        Supporting industries
                             (suppliers, subcon-
                               tractors, service
                                  providers)
                            Strong + weak points
Another format for a mini-
workshop: The Five Forces
Analysis
                         New entrants:
                          How likely?
                             Who?
                        What advantage?

                             Rivalry:
Bargaining power of                             Bargaining power of
                       Who are competitors?
     suppliers                                      customers
                      Competitive advantage?

                       Threat of substitutive
                      products (radical tech-
                       nical change, change
                      in consumer behavior)
A variation of the Five Forces
format to assess market power
and barriers to entry

                           New entrants:
                            How likely?
                               Who?
                          What advantage?

                             Rivalry:
Bargaining power of                                  Bargaining power of
                       Who are competitors?
     suppliers                                           customers
                      Competitive advantage?

                      Barriers to diversification:
                       How easy to diversify?
                         Barriers to entry in
                       neighbouring markets?
Another format for a mini-
workshop: Transaction matrix
            Benefits and costs/risks of co-operation
                        between A and B
                (e.g. IT firms and universities)

                Benefit + advantage        Cost + risk


... for A




... for B
When do we use which Mini-
workshop format?
 Diamond               heterogeneous group
                       focus at locational factors
                       diversified landscape of supporting
                        institutions

 Five Forces           homogeneous group of businesses
                       few supporting institutions

 Transaction Matrix    supporting institutions
                       public sector
What does a mini-workshop look
like?
A typical day during PACA
fieldwork
   First interview at 8:00, takes longer than expected
   Arrive late for 9:30 interview (got lost in industrial park because
    instructions were inadequate)
   Arrive even later for 11:00 interview, conclude interview at 13:00,
    rush to venue for Miniworkshop
   No time for lunch, grab a sandwich on the way
   Conduct Miniworkshop at 14:00 -- some participants are late, the
    discussion is very lively, workshop takes longer than expected
   Arrive just in time for 17:00 PACA Team meeting
   Rush to dinner with key local informant at 19:00
   Drop into bed, dead tired, at 22:00, realising that you didn’t have
    time to write up the interview minutes
Structure of a rushed PACA
Exercise


             Day 1      Day 2      Day 3      Day 4      Day 5      Day 6
                                                                   Elabo-
             Hypo-     Mini-WS Mini-WS Mini-WS         Interviews
                                                                  ration of
             theses     and / or   and / or   and / or             Presen-
               WS     interviews interviews interviews              tation
             Lunch     Fast food   Sandwich   Famine                Presen-
                                                                     tation
                                                         Results
Afternoon




                       Mini-WS Mini-WS                               Event
             Kick-off                                     work-
                        and / or   and / or Interviews    shop
                                                                     Way-
            Workshop                                               Forward
                      interviews interviews
                                                                   Workshop
                         Team       Team
                        meeting    meeting                           Team
                                                                   celebrates
Realistic structure of a PACA
Exercise


         Monday     Tuesday      Wednesd Thursday      Friday   Saturday

                      Kick-off
          Hypo-                 Mini-WS Mini-WS Mini-WS Mini-WS
                    Workshop
          theses                 and / or   and / or   and / or   and / or
            WS                 interviews interviews interviews interviews
                    Interviews
Week 2




          Mini-WS                Results   Presen-    Way-
           and / or Interviews    work-     tation   Forward
         interviews               shop      Event    Workshop
Venues for interviews and Mini-
workshops
  Conduct interviews preferably on the site / at the
   office of the interviewee
    – take a walk around the company / institution
       before or after the interview
  Conduct Mini-workshops
    – at venues that are convenient for the participants,
       which may not the venues that are convenient for
       you
    – at a time that is convenient for the participants.
Documentation of the PACA
fieldwork
  Interview minutes
    – brief (use template!)
    – capture main insights, proposals, possibility of
      becoming a champion
  Miniworkshops
    – put up the brownpaper with the cards in the
      central PACA Team venue
    – photodocumentation
    – PACAmate software (under development)
Prepa-
          Hy-                                   Results-
ration:                                                     Pre-    Way
          po- Kick-        Interviews         Workshop:                    Imple-
* Orga
          the- off                             Results
                                              Diagnosis
                                                            sen-    for-
 * Ad-                                                     tation   ward   mentation
           sis Wks                            Workshop
                                                  +
vance                                                      event    Wks
          Wks          Mini-workshops
                        Mini-workshops         Proposals
  info

                      Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                              PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                 PACA-Project
Results workshop,
part 1
 Internal exercise of the PACA Team:
  verification / falsification of hypotheses
  preparation of diagnostic (Mesocard)
     – strong and weak points by industry / economic
       branch
     – strong and weak points of supporting institutions,
       associations, local government
  prioritisation of observations (Pareto).
Results workshop,
part 2
  verify: what were the proposals which came up
   during the field work, i.e. in interviews and mini-
   workshops?
  what are further proposals the team can come up
   with?
  Pareto the proposals to sideline trivial or unrealistic
   proposals
  verify: which highly scored proposals meet the
   following criteria:
    – realistic and viable
    – apt for quick implementation
    – potential for quick, visible effect
Having a closer look at the
Three Criteria

 Realistic and viable
   – can this proposal be implemented with the locally
      available resources?
       • motivation, know-how, institutions, funds, ...
 Apt for quick implementation
   – can you start planning for implementation next week?
 Potential for quick, visible effect
   – can you expect a visible effect within three months?
 LOCA Team defines a score between 1 (=no) and 3 (=yes)
  for each criterion
 Multiply the three scores
Typical constellations regarding
business sectors in the local
economy: Where to start?
                      Sector is   Sector is doing
                     doing well     not so well

  Sector wants
  joint action to    Strategic      Desparate
    strengthen        Sector         sector
 competitiveness
 Sector does not
 want joint action     Busy         Hopeless
  to strengthen       sector         sector
 competitiveness
Management of expectations

  Do not create unrealistic expectations!
    – do not formulate proposals which are unlikely to
      be implemented!
    – don‘t promise activities which will overwhelm your
      capacity!
    – don‘t promise that you will solve the local
      stakeholders‘ problems!
    – don‘t give the impression that you come with a big
      bag of money!
    – limit the number of proposals, and mention who
      will be in charge of them!
What it looks like in practice
Prepa-
          Hy-                                   Results-
ration:                                                   Pre- Way
          po- Kick-        Interviews         Workshop: Presen-      Imple-
* Orga
          the- off                             Results sen- for-
                                              Diagnosis tation
 * Ad-                                                               mentation
           sis Wks                            Workshop tation ward
                                                  +
vance
          Wks                                  Proposals
                                                         Event Wks
                                                         event
  info                   Mini-workshops

                      Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                              PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                 PACA-Project
Structure of the Presentation
Event
  Presentation of concepts, findings and proposals
    – explain the concepts and the methodology used
      (Powerpoint)
    – present the diagnostic (Powerpoint)
    – present the proposals (Powerpoint
  Mesocard exercise with audience
  optional: additional activities with interested
   participants
    – e.g. ask for volunteers to become project
      champions
What does the presentation look
like?
Discussion of findings and
proposals
  distribute cards and markers among the participants,
   explain the Mesocard rules (1 idea per card, write
   legibly)
    – ask the participants to write down their
      observations, questions, criticism and proposals
    – stick the cards to the wall, discuss them with the
      participants
  avoid opening an opportunity for local dignitaries to
   give speech!
Identifying Champions in the
Presentation Event
  In the second part of the Presentation Event:
    – invite participants to indicate their interest
        • to champion specific activities
        • to participate in specific activities
    – invite volunteers to a Way-forward
       Workshop on the following day
Why “Presentation Event”?

  The format is different from a normal presentation
    – admittedly, there is usually a Powerpoint
      presentation
    – the Mesocard exercise breaks through the usual
      rituals
  Consider to give the presentation at an unusual
   location
    – to make sure that participants don’t forget the
      event
What the Presentation Event
looks like
Prepa-
          Hy-                                  Results-
ration:                                                   Pre- Way
          po- Kick-        Interviews         Workshop: Presen-  Way- Imple-
* Orga                                                    sen-     for-
          the- off                            Diagnosis tation
 * Ad-                                                   tation forward mentation
                                                                  ward
           sis Wks                                +
vance
          Wks                                 Proposals
                                                             Workshops
                                                         Event Wks
                                                         event
  info                   Mini-workshops

                      Fieldwork (1-2 weeks)



                              PACA-Exercise (2-3 weeks)


                                 PACA-Project
Conducting a Way-forward
Workshop (1)
   Option 1, with a small group:
     – detailed discussion of implementation
       of a small number of proposals
     – ask Pfeiffer’s Six Questions
     – define responsibilities
Pfeiffer’s Six Questions

 For each proposal:
  How exactly are we going to do this?
  Who is taking responsibility?
  Who has to collaborate
  What are the resources we need?
  When do we start?
  How do we know that the activity started?
Conducting a Way-forward
Workshop (2)
  Option 2, with a bigger group:
    – clarify proposals
    – initial discussion on how to implement
    – define responsibilities and make appointments for
      subsequent meetings around each proposal
Two weeks later

  Organise a Champions’ Breakfast
    – to signal commitment from your side
    – to motivate Champions
    – to connect Champions
    – to assess progress
    – to stimulate exchange of experience
  Turn Champions’ Breakfast into regular event
So what comes after PACA?

 Option 1: More PACAs
  – to monitor, energise and re-focus ongoing activities
  – to initiate more intense development activities in
    specific clusters or value-chains
  – to constantly adjust an LED effort to new
    opportunities and necessities
      • Generic LED, Reflexive LED
 Option 2: From PACA to local strategy
  – PACA leads to alignment, sophistication and
    motivation of local players
  – Players agree to formulate an explicit LED strategy
Conceptualizing PACA: LED as an
iterative process

                                                             Crisis of
                                                             fragmentation


                            Implementation



Assessment
Reflection                  Implementation                Adjustment
                                                          Planning for new
                                                          action
       Assessment
                               Implementation         Adjustment
       Reflection
                                                      Planning for new
                                                      action
              Assessment
              Reflection                        Planning for
                                                quick implementation
                                Rapid
                           appraisal (PACA)
The learning cycle in PACA

     Learning                Highlighting
     by doing                facts + percep-
                             tions about the
                             local economy




      Identifying            Aligning
  opportunities              information and
 for joint action            perceptions
                      Implementation of
           catalytic projects plus
         continu-
     ation of             Implementation of next
   quick-                                  round of
   win      PACA           Presentation          activities
                               Event    Way-
 activi-    Follow-                                (including
                                        forward
ties        up        Fieldwork                       more
            Work- + Results                             complex
            shop Workshop                                inter-
                                  Build-up               ventions)

  Targeted               Kick-off
    PACA-
                   Implementation of quick-win
    Exercises
                           activities
      to opera-
          tionalise
               GENESIS GENESIS Strategy
                           Formulation
Using PACA to initiate a territorial
development initiative
Month           Activities                           Effects      Institutions
                                       Lack of
1                                   communication
               quick-win projects
                                       Distrust
                                                    Credibility     Project
6                                                   Motivation    management
                                                    Learning
                                                      Trust
     quick-win projects
                               more
12                           ambitious                Coordi-
                              projects                nation      LED Forum
18   quick-win projects
                                                     Ambition
                                                    Competence
24   quick-win projects       catalytic
                              projects              Professio-       LED
30   quick-win projects                             nalisation      Agency
Possible structure of a Two Year
PACA Project
               Year 1                               Year 2

 February         Start build-up       January        Implementation

  March        First PACA Exercise    February        Third appraisal

   April         Implementation        March         Launch GENESIS

   May           Implementation         April         Implementation

   June          First appraisal        May         Complete GENESIS

   July          Implementation         June      Focussed PACA Exercise

  August     Focussed PACA Exercise     July          Implementation

 September       Implementation        August         Implementation

  October        Implementation       September      Fourth appraisal

 November       Second appraisal       October        Implementation

 December        Implementation       November        Implementation
                                      December        Fifth appraisal
Thank you for your attention!

More information at: http://www.paca-online.de

								
To top