DNA by yurtgc548

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									Animal Structure and
           Function
Levels of Function

     Cell
     Tissue


     Organ


     Organ

      System
                     Tissue
   A group of
    cells with
    common
    structure and
    function
   Cells work
    together to
    accomplish
    their function
4 Types of Tissue

     Epithelial
     Connective


     Nervous


     Muscle
                    Epithelial Tissue
   Tightly packed
    cells functioning   Epithelial Tissue
    as a barrier
   Found on
    outside of body
    and in linings of
    organs and
    body cavities
   Also secretes
    and absorbs
    molecules
                   Different Types of
                    Epithelial Tissue
   Each type fits a particular function
   Some are stratified (many layers)
   Others are simple (one layer)
   Shape of cells can be different
Connective Tissue

     Binds and
      supports
      other tissues
     Fibrous

      extra-cellular
      matrix
     Many types
               Types of Connective
                           Tissue
   Loose connective – holds epithelia to
    other tissue and keeps organs in place
   Adipose – stores fat, pads and insulates
   Fibrous connective – dense fibers such
    as tendons and ligaments
   Cartilage – rubbery fiber found in ear-
    lobe, nose and embryonic skeleton
   Bone – Mineralized tissue for support
   Blood – Red and White cells with
    plasma extra cellular matrix
Fibrous Connective
Nervous Tissue
    Senses stimuli
     and transmits
     signals
    Consists of
     neurons
     connected to each
     other
    The axon of one
     nerve connects to
     dendrites of the
     next
           Muscle Tissue
   Long muscle fibers that
    contract
   Most abundant tissue
   3 types
           Skeletal (moves
            bones)
           Cardiac (pumps
            heart)
           Smooth (digestive
            tract)
Tissues Make Organs
          Layers of tissue
           work together to
           make an organ
          i.e. stomach has
           epithelial cells,
           connective tissue,
           smooth muscle
           and more
           connective tissue
1) Digestive          Organ Systems
2) Circulatory            Organs working
3) Respiratory             together to
4) Immune/Lymphatic        accomplish a
                           function
5) Excretory
6) Endocrine
  (hormones)
7) Reproductive
8) Nervous
9) Integumentary (skin)
10) Skeletal
11) Muscular
                          Bioenergetics
   Animals take in
    energy via eating
   Must use most of
    energy for body
    processes
   Lose some energy
    in poop and some
    as heat
   Rest can be used
    to build new tissue
Endotherms vs.
   Ectotherms
    Birds and
     mammals are
     endotherms – our
     body
     temperatures are
     kept constant by
     generating heat
    Ectotherms
     change body temp
     with the
     environment
                    Homeostasis
   Animals maintain a stable
    internal environment
   This is called maintaining
    homeostasis
   We keep a constant
    temperature, blood pH, etc.
   If the environment changes, the
    body initiates reactions to
    counteract the changes
                          Regulation
   3 parts to
    regulation
           Receptor
           Control
            Center
           Effector
   i.e. thermostat
           Low
            temperature
            triggers
            thermostat
            to turn on
            furnace
Negative Feedback
       A change in the
        variable leads to a
        negative response
       If it gets to hot, an
        animal cools itself
        off
       If an animal gets
        too cold it warms
        itself up (ex. By
        shaking)
               Positive Feedback
   Presence of a
    variable
    amplifies the
    change
   i.e. small
    amounts of food
    can stimulate
    your appetite
                        Examples of
                        Homeostasis
Temperature
Blood Glucose
Weight???
Heart Rate
Blood pH
Solute concentrations
Regulation of Changes
           Changes do
            occur, but they are
            regulated
           Can be cyclical –
            like hormone
            regulation of the
            menstrual cycle
           Can also be a
            reaction – i.e.
            raising body
            temperature to
            fight disease

								
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