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Burns

VIEWS: 60 PAGES: 30

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									Burns
 70%

of burn injuries occur in the home

Prevention
    

Smoke alarms Candles (xmas) Pan placement on stoves Fire extinguisher Care around flammable products
– (gasoline, kerosene) Nephew



Appliances off  Fireplace and wood stoves inspected

Practice A Family Fire Drill


Ladder for upstairs  Baseball bat for windows  Stickers on windows  Plan an alternate escape route  Meet outside at a designated place

House Fire Scenario


You are in a bedroom, the door is closed, what do you do?

House Fire Scenario


Drop to hands and knees (more toxic next to the floor)  Crawl to door
– Feel door, knob

If hot, do not open


Most deaths are from smoke inhalation

Burns
Thermal
Chemical Electrical

Thermal Burns
 Caused

by :

– Flames – Hot objects – Flammable vapor that ignites – Steam or hot liquid  (baby in Texas)

Thermal Burns: What To Do
Stop Drop Roll

Thermal Burns: What To Do #2


Remove smoldering, hot, or burned clothing

 Do not remove “stuck” clothing  Remove jewelry if possible (necklace burn)

Thermal Burns: What To Do


Make quick assessment – Check ABC’s  It is appropriate to consider the following but don’t waste time – Determine depth of burn – Determine extent of burn (rule of 9’s
    

Head = 9% (18% child & infant) One hand and arm = 9% Each leg = 18 % (14% child and infant) Front torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half) Back torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half)

Thermal Burns: What To Do


Rule of palm = 1%
– Use for scatter burns



See physician for burns to face, hands, feet or genitals  Circumferential burn? See physician  Does victim have other medical problems?

Chemical Burns
Caused

by:

– Acids (batteries) – Alkalis (drain cleaners- often

more extensive) – Organic compounds (oil products)

Chemical Burns
 If substance is dry: – Brush off before rinsing with water
– Protect yourself



After brushing off chemical, or after exposure to liquid chemical: – Rinse with water for 20/30 minutes or

longer
– Remove contaminated clothing while flushing with

water – Final rinse? Use soap


Burn may develop slowly

Chemical Burns #2
 Call

poison control  Cover with dry sterile dressing  Do not try to neutralize a chemical
– (save label)  Seek

medical attention for all chemical burns

Electrical Burns
 Prevention:

– Outlet covers – Breakers – Gadget for checking power

– Excessive number of power cords

plugged in

Electrical Burns


External burns may not be present  May induce:
– ventricular fibrillation

(cardiac problems) – Respiration problems


“Freeze” due to muscle spasms

Electrocution
– Electricity travels along nerves and

vessels – Exits body where it is in contact with ground – May have several exit sites
 Surface

injury may be “tip of the ice berg”

Car Accident Involving Power Line
 What

should you do first?  Should you remove victim from the vehicle?  What if you feel tingling in your legs?  Should you try to remove downed wires or poles?  (buried power line)

Someone Has Made Contact with Power Inside Your House


What would you do first?  Then :
– Check ABC’s
– Treat for shock – Seek medical attention

What to do for Electrical Burns
Once the power is off, Check ABC’s  Spinal injury from fall?  Treat for shock  Most are 3rd degree

– Cover with sterile dressing, elevate body part – Seek medical attention (burn center)

– (combine / lift)

Degree of Burns
First-degree

(superficial) Second-degree (partial thickness) Third-degree (full thickness)

First Degree Burns (superficial)
 Affects

outer layer of skin  Redness, swelling, tenderness, pain  Usually heals without scarring

Care of First-Degree Burns


Immerse in cold water (or other cold fluids or use cold, wet, cloths)
– At least 10 minutes – Do not apply cold on burn covering >20% of the body



Aspirin or ibpuprofen


Acetaminophen will not reduce inflammation



Bacitracin (no other OTC products)
– Aloe vera , moisturizer lotion – Dressing?

 

Drink plenty of water Protect burn from friction or pressure

Second Degree Burns (partial thickness)
 Extends

into the inner layer of

skin  Blisters, swelling, weeping, severe pain

Care of Second Degree Burns
    


Immerse in cold water / wet pack Aspirin or ibuprofen Drink plenty of water Apply bacitracin or Silvedene (do not use home remedies) Cover burn with non-sticking dressing
If burn is extensive:
– Treat for shock / seek medical attention


 

Do not break blisters
Hot tar on lip Medical help required: 10% of adult burned, 5% child

Third Degree Burns


Extends through skin, muscle and bone -Nerve endings are destroyed  Discoloration

 Area

larger than a halfdollar requires tissue removal and grafting to properly heal

Care of Third Degree Burns


Usually not necessary to apply cold to areas of third degree


 

If more than 20% of body is burned, do not immerse Do not apply ointments Apply sterile, non-stick dressings (do not use plastic)

Check ABC’s  Treat for shock  Medical help

– (radiator burn)

Sunburn
   




Usually 1st degree, sometimes 2nd degree Cool compresses Drink plenty of fluids Fever / chills Use lotions, bacitracin (lake, snow skiing, lips, ears) Prevention:
– Sunscreen: SPF 30 has only 3% > protection than SPF

15


Skin cancer

Respiratory Tract Burns
 All must receive medical care  Nose to trachea receives brunt of the burn  Swelling may appear in 2 to 24 hours  Chlorine
– Add to water



Wall paper removers  Bathroom cleaning agents (chemistry set)
– Use products in well ventilated area – Don’t mix ammonia and bleach



Toilet bowl flushes

Other Moderate to Severe Burns Requiring Medical Care
     



Under 5 years old / over 55 Breathing difficulties Other injuries Electrical injury Suspected child abuse (teacher liability) 2nd degree >10% of body Third degree


								
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