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					American Housing Survey
Office of Economic Affairs Office of Policy Development and Research U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development ____________________________________________ Housing Statistics User Group—West University of California—Berkeley September 25, 2003
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American Housing Survey
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The impetus for the survey goes back to the social unrest in the 1960’s. As a result of the urban rioting, two commissions were set up to study the causes of the problems – The Douglas Commission on Urban Problems and the President’s Committee on Urban Housing, aka, Kaiser Committee. The Kaiser Committee recommended an annual housing survey in order to be able to assess the seriousness of housing needs at that time and to track progress of the National Housing Production goals

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American Housing Survey
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The American Housing Survey consists of two major components: The National Survey conducted in odd-numbered years The Metropolitan Surveys – 47 Metro Areas  41 Metropolitan Areas are surveyed every sixth year in even-numbered years.
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6 Large Metropolitan Areas are surveyed every
four years as part of the National survey

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American Housing Survey
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The American Housing Survey is sponsored by HUD and conducted by the Census Bureau Started as the Annual Housing Survey started in 1973 and changed to biennial in 1982 Metros reduced from 60 metro areas every three years to 45 areas every four years in 1980 Metros switched to every six years after 1998.

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American Housing Survey
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Anaheim-Santa Ana, CA PMSA Atlanta, GA MSA Baltimore, MD MSA Birmingham, AL MSA Boston, MA-NH CMSA Buffalo, NY CMSA Charlotte, NC-SC MSA Chicago, IL PMSA * Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN PMSA Cleveland, OH PMSA Columbus, OH MSA Dallas, TX PMSA Denver, CO MSA Detroit, MI PMSA * Fort Worth-Arlington, TX PMSA Hartford, CT MSA Houston, TX PMSA Indianapolis, IN MSA Kansas City, MO-KS MSA Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA PMSA * Memphis, TN-AR-MS MSA Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL CMSA Milwaukee, WI PMSA Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI MSA

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New Orleans, LA MSA New York-Nassau-Suffolk-Orange, NY PMSAs * Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA-NC Northern NJ P MSAs * Oakland, CA PMSA Oklahoma City, OK MSA Philadelphia, PA-NJ PMSA * Phoenix, AZ MSA Pittsburgh, PA MSA Portland, OR-WA PMSA Providence-Pawtucket-Warwick, RI-MA PMSAs Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA PMSA Rochester, NY MSA Sacramento, CA PMSA St. Louis, MO-IL MSA Salt Lake City, UT MSA San Antonio, TX MSA San Diego, CA MSA San Francisco, CA PMSA San Jose, CA PMSA Seattle-Everett, WA PMSA Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL MSA Washington, DC-MD-VA MSA

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American Housing Survey
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Sample for National survey consists of about 60,000 housing units and 55,000 households National sample was originally drawn from 1980 Census and has been updated each survey year for new construction We go back to the same housing unit every two years -longitudindal sample Metro samples range in size– but target is about 4,200 housing units per metro area Samples are Multi-Stage Probability Samples

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American Housing Survey
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National sample first selected from 1980 Census Metro Samples selected from the 90 Census and 80 Census Sample Design www.census.gov/hhes/housing/ahs/appb2.html  Primary Sampling Units --over 878 counties and independent cities  Self Representing -- over 100,000 housing units, included with certainty  Non-self Representing -- selected PPS  Housing Units - 1980 Census (1-in-2,148) Stratified using 6 variable for address segments and 12 variables for area segments  New Construction -- sampled from permits  Coverage improvement  Conversions
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American Housing Survey
Data Collection Modes
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Paper and Pencil Questionnaire 1997 Conversion to Computer Assisted Personal Interview – CAPI In-person interview for  New housing units  New households  Difficult to contact households Phone Interviews for others

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American Housing Survey
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Physical Characteristics of Structure Physical Characteristics of the Housing Unit Selected Amenities Financial Characteristics -- Rent, PITI, utilities, mortgage characteristics Characteristics of Occupants Housing modifications and additions Equipment -- refrigerator, dishwasher, AC, etc. Recent Movers Problems Neighborhood Characteristics Remodeling and Home Repairs Journey to work Supplement are used from time to time -- Lead-based paint ,Second homes

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American Housing Survey
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Physical Characteristics of Structure
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Type of structure (SF/D, SF/A, MF, Manufactured, Units in structure Year structure built Location (Region, Metro/NonMetro, Urbanized Area, size of place…) Stories in structure Vacancy status, year-round use, … Condition of common areas in MF -- halls, stairways, elevator, lighting Exterior building conditions Foundations and basements
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American Housing Survey
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Physical Characteristics of the Housing Unit
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Number of rooms Number of bedrooms Number of bathrooms Square footage Lot size Heating equipment and fuel (main and secondary) Plumbing -- complete or lacking Fuel usage -- cooking, water heating, central air conditioning, clothes dryer,

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American Housing Survey
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Selected Amenities
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Porches, decks, patios Fireplaces Garage or parking Dining rooms Extra living rooms

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American Housing Survey
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Financial Characteristics  Monthly housing costs  Mortgage balances  Interest rates  Rent  Real estate taxes  Condo and co-op fees  Other housing costs -- land rent, association fees, trailer park fees,  Home value and purchase price

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American Housing Survey
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Characteristics of Occupants  Number  Race and ethnicity  Citizenship and Nativity  Tenure  Number of persons, children, and elderly  Persons/room  Ages of persons  Household composition and family relationships  Educational levels  Year moved in  Income levels and sources
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American Housing Survey
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Equipment
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Kitchen sink Refrigerator Stove -- burners and/or ovens Dishwasher clothes washer and dryer Garbage disposal Air conditioning -- central or number of room units Microwave ovens since 1997

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American Housing Survey
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Recent Movers
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Number Location of previous unit Previous tenure previous structure type change in housing costs Reason for moving Choice of present neighborhood Choice of present home Search method

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American Housing Survey
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Problems
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Water supply stoppages and Water leakages Flush toilet breakdowns Sewage disposal breakdowns Heating breakdowns Electric fuses and circuit breakers Deficiencies--rats, holes in floors and walls, electrical wiring problems Overall opinion of unit Selected Physical Problems --plumbing, heating, upkeep, electric and hallways.  Severe  Moderate
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American Housing Survey
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Neighborhood Characteristics
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Overall opinion Problems -- crime, noise, traffic, litter or housing deterioration, poor public services, undesirable commercial, institutional and industrial facilities. Description of surrounding area Age of surrounding buildings Signs of vandalism Bars on windows Conditions of streets Trash, litter and junk on streets and properties.
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American Housing Survey
Remodeling and Home Repairs -          

Disaster Related Repairs (1) Finishing Rooms (4) Adding Rooms (4) Adding or Replacing Outside Structures (5) Bathroom Remodeling (1) Kitchen Remodeling (1) Remodeling Other Rooms (3) Adding or Replacing Structural Items (11) Adding or Replacing Equipment (7) Other Home Remodeling (1) Lot or Yard additions or Replacements (6)
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American Housing Survey
Journey to Work and Telecommuting
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Offices at home Employment Last Week Fixed Job Site and Location Did you work at home -- hours, days Principal means  Drive alone  Carpool and size  Public Transportation Number of Cars and Trucks Commuting Times, Distances and Lengths
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American Housing Survey
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Accessing The AHS
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Downloading Microdata from HUDUSER Downloading Tabulations from Census CD-ROM Printed Reports Mailing List

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American Housing Survey
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Downloading Microdata from HUDUSER
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http://www.huduser.org/datasets/ahs.html
1995-1996: ASCII only 1997 forward: SAS or ASCII Codebooks & other programming aids

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American Housing Survey
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Downloading Tabulations from Census
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http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/ahs.html All Reports in PDF files 1997 forward national survey tables in HTML Survey documentation Microdata also available through FERRETT

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American Housing Survey
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CD-ROM
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Available from HUD USER or Census Bureau All microdata files, 1973 forward All reports, 1973 forward (PDF, some scanned) 2001+ CDs have table generation software

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American Housing Survey
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Printed Reports
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Available from HUD USER or Census Bureau Limited availability for older years. Available in Federal Depository Libraries

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American Housing Survey
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Mailing list (listserve )
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http://www.huduser.org/emaillists/ahslist.html
Announcements of new products Questions from users about using the survey Questions from HUD about possible changes in the survey

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American Housing Survey
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Available Files and Formats
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SAS – 1997 Forward ASCII – 1997 Forward ASCII – 1973 to 1996

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American Housing Survey
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SAS (1997 forward)
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SAS transport format (Use PROC COPY to read) Modules (files) as of 2001 national survey
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NewHouse: Household / Housing Unit (housing unit level) Person: Personal characteristics (person level) Mortg: Mortgages & home equity loans (household level) HomImp: Alterations & repairs (project level) RMov: Recent mover (mover group level) Ratiov: Verification of cost to income ratio (household level) JTW: Journey to work (person level) Owner: Live-in owners or managers (housing unit level)

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American Housing Survey
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ASCII – 1997 Forward
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Same multifile structure as the SAS version Comma-delimited First record is variable names

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American Housing Survey
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ASCII – 1973 to 1996
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One big file (250 MB) Fixed-column Get record layout from codebook User-written programs for conversion to SAS

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American Housing Survey
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Linking files Within surveys (relational)
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Main variable to match records is CONTROL Metro surveys use CONTROL and SMSA One-to-many relationships among the files File flattener program for SAS users.

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American Housing Survey
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Linking files Between surveys (longitudinal)
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Match on CONTROL (plus SMSA for metro surveys) Things to watch out for  Changes in household  Attrition  Panel drops (metro surveys)  Weighting issues

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American Housing Survey
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Codebooks
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1997 forward -- New codebook
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Downloadable as PDF Searchable, copy & paste, etc. Current version is 1.50 Regular upgrades Paper version Downloadable scanned version (HUD USER) Small supplement covering 1995-1996 Downloadable as MS-Word file (HUD USER)
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1973-1995 --Volume I codebook
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1995-1996 -- Volume II codebook
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ASCII data dictionary

American Housing Survey
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Useful Programs and Information
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File flattener for SAS users User-written programs
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Mostly ASCII-to-SAS conversions for older surveys A few Stata related programs

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SAS format library for value labels Descriptive statistics Census Bureau table specifications Survey instrument script (Q-code) FAQ Metro survey geography Technical reports
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American Housing Survey
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Related datasets
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Income limits file for AHS national surveys  HUD income thresholds  HUD adjusted median family income  Fair market rents  Poverty income  One record for each unit in AHS Property Owners and Managers Survey (POMS)  “Landlord” survey based on 1993 AHS  Microdata available from HUD  Tabulations available from Census

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American Housing Survey
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Allocation (Imputation)
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Replacing missing values with values from similar units Hot-decking from allocation matrices Allocation flag variables in dataset (start with “J”)

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American Housing Survey
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Topcoding
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Protecting confidentiality of extreme cases Bottom coding used for income Details in codebook

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