Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Laura DG Hudak Educ 325 E IDEA Definition Emotional Disturbance is a condition accompanied by one or more of the following characteristics: An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances A general pervasive mood of unhappiness/depression A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems Section 300.7c(4) of IDEA -- 1997 Statistics 2003-04 – 0.7% of students received special education services due to an emotional disturbance Gender, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors White males 3.8 times more than white females Black females 1.4 times more than white females Black males 5.5 times more than white females Acting out and aggression identified in 1/3 of preschool Head Start students Characteristics 3 Principal Characteristics Emotional Traits Behavioral Traits Cognitive/Academic Traits Emotional Characteristics Anxiety Disorder Excessive fear, worry, or uneasiness Includes: Separation anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder Phobia Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Can impair academic/social functioning Often treated with physician prescribed medication Emotional Characteristics Mood Disorder Involves an extreme deviation in either a depressed or elevated direction Depression Changes in emotion, motivation, physical well-being, and thoughts can signify depression Prevalence of depression has increased over past decades Highest rate occurs in adolescent females Depression can lead to suicide Four factors of suicide-risk o Hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, isolation Emotional Characteristics Mood Disorder (continued) Bipolar disorder/Manic depression Oppositional defiant disorder Conduct disorder Schizophrenia Behavioral Characteristics Externalizing behavior Persistently aggressive, acting-out, or non-compliance Students are more likely to exhibit high-intensity, but low- frequency behavior events Setting fires, assaulting someone, exhibiting cruelty Students are often referred to special education because they disrupt the classroom Often referred to office, suspended, given detentions, and expelled IDEA protects students against total cessation of education if they have been evaluated and receive services under IDEA Behavioral Characteristics Internalizing Behavior Poor social skills and are less accepted than peers Includes: Withdrawal Depression Anxiety Obsessions Compulsions Because behavior is not disruptive, students are not referred as often to special education services Cognitive/Academic Characteristics Students with ED may be gifted or have mental retardation, but most have IQs in the low average range More than half have concurrent learning disabilities Students: Tend to achieve below grade level in math, reading, and writing Drop out of school at a higher rate than other students with exceptionalities Less likely to attend post-secondary schools than other students with exceptionalities Causes Biological causes All behavior is in some way genetically influenced Environmental stressors Stressful living conditions 38% of youth with ED – family income under $12,000 Another 32% -- family income $12,000-$24,999 44% from single-parent households IDEA – 2004 law requires state and local educational agencies to cooperate with social services to reach out and enroll homeless students and then assures them of IDEA’s benefits Causes Environmental Stressors (continued) Child maltreatment Neglect – failure to provide for the child’s basic physical, educational, and emotional needs Physical abuse – a physical injury to the child Sexual abuse – activities including incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and commercial exploitation Emotional abuse – constant criticism, threats, or rejection that impedes a child’s self-esteem and emotional development School Factors Students’ academic underachievement tends to spawn behavior problems and academic failure Inclusion of ED students Inclusion of ED students Students with emotional/behavioral disorders have one of the lowest rates of inclusion in general education classrooms 3 times as many students with emotional/behavioral disorders as all other students with exceptionalities are served in residential settings, hospitals, or homes Although incarcerated youth typically have academic achievement below grade level, the extent of special education services in correctional facilities tends to be twothirds less than offered in public schools Lesson Plan Action is Character: Exploring Character Traits with Adjectives Author: Traci Gardner Grade Level: 6-8 Overview: Students “become” one of the major characters in a book (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone) and describe themselves and other characters using lists of accurate, powerful adjectives. In class discussion, students support their lists with details from the novel. Lesson Plan Objectives Students will: Review the characteristics of adjectives Define the literary term “character trait” and explore how to provide details that support their influences Conduct research using Internet reference resources to find accurate and descriptive word choice Explore perspective by writing descriptive word lists from the point of view of a character in a novel they’ve recently read Lesson Plan Standards – National Council of Teachers of English Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate and appreciate texts. They draw on prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features. Students apply knowledge of language structure, conventions, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts. Students use a variety of technological and information resources to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities. Lesson Plan Accommodations/Adaptations Use of computer with word-processing software Allow group work Reverse-role tutoring Lesson Plan Accommodations for Assessment Students with emotional/behavioral disorders may have more difficulties completing tests due to heightened anxiety problems Accommodations include: Extended time to take tests Individual administration of tests Testing with breaks Co-teaching Chart Topic Long-term lesson planning Short-term lesson planning Assigning of Homework Assigning of Projects Grading Classroom Instruction Individualized Instruction Contact with Parents Parent/Teacher Conferences Regular Teacher Special Education Teacher Shared (Regular and SE) Aide/TSSWorker x x x x x x x x x x School Accommodations/Adaptations Peer-assisted self-management Decrease dropout rate Establish a student advisory program Involve students in extracurricular activities Provide vocational education Monitor risk-factors associated with dropout National SED Agenda US Department of Education -- 1994 National SED (Serious Emotional Disturbances) Agenda Expand positive learning opportunities and results Strengthen school and community capacity Value and address diversity Collaborate with families Promote appropriate assessment Provide on-going skill development and support Create comprehensive and collaborative systems Effective Instructional Strategies Early Childhood Classroom-centered intervention Mastery-learning and good-behavior games Family-school partnership Improve parent-teacher communication and parents’ behavior management strategies Elementary/Middle School Service learning Learn important skills Contribute to their community Effective Instructional Strategies Secondary/Transition Conflict-resolution skills Three skills Effective communication Anger management Taking another’s perspective Student need to learn about Negotiation Compromising Problem solving Decision making References Gardner (2006). Action is Character: Exploring Character Traits with Adjectives. Retrieved October 22, 2007 from www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view_printer_friendly.a sp?id=175. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (2004). Disability Info: Emotional Disturbances. Retrieved November 6, 2007 from www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs5txthtm. Simbeck (2007). Emotional Disturbances. Retrieved November 6, 2007 from www.twu.edu/inspire/Fact_Sheets/emotional.htm. Turnbull, Turnbull, and Wehmeyer (2007). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today’s Schools (5th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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