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					Towards the formation of a professional body for INDUSTRIAL DESIGN in South Africa

STRATEGIC PLAN
(DRAFT 3 to membership for feedback)

COMPILED BY:

STEERING COMMITTEE 2006/7

DATE: 16 May 2007

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Declaration
“We declare that this strategic report has been compiled by the initial steering committee who has, to the best of its ability, inclusively involved the industrial design sector for input.” Gold Mametja Jose Louriero Jeroen Engel Patricia Manshon Bernard Smith Hanne Defosse Andro Nizetich -

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The purpose of this report is to determine a strategy to establish a professional association for the benefit of industrial designers in South Africa. This initiative started on 26 June 2006 at the SABS Design Institute where a broad cross section of stakeholders from the industrial design sector unanimously agreed on this process. A temporary steering committee of eight volunteer members representing four working groups: membership, marketing, government and education is responsible for this document. All stakeholders have had an opportunity to participate in a workshop and in the strategic process. This was achieved using the Delphi method whereby stakeholders were informed via email and asked for feedback, which was then collated and redistributed. A strategic analysis of the environment provides a general picture of the variety of macro and micro forces at work around the industrial design sector. The main strength identified in the analysis is that the government has acknowledged the need for a stronger industrial design sector from previous initiatives. The AsgiSA and JipSA strategies provide an opportunity for the sector to formally engage with government. However, they require a representative association to negotiate and develop policies with. In addition the government has already established a National Tooling Strategy, National R&D Strategy and an Integrated Manufacturing Strategy that would complement any initiatives with the industrial design sector. The major weakness of the sector is that it is small and fragmented and will always struggle for sustainability in a developing economy until such time that a stronger manufacturing sector is established. The greatest threat to the sector is that the supply of design services remains more than the demand required by manufacturers. Although there is a 150% tax rebate for R&D to encourage manufacturers to use innovative design as a competitive resource, industrial designers still require an effective marketing strategy to influence the demand. If successful, the association will have to have sufficient membership to supply the demand, making this is a second threat to contend with. An opportunity exists for an industrial design association to promote a competitive value enhancing ability to all its stakeholders. The aim will be to create tripartite alliances between industrial designers and external stakeholders to access resources and work thereby increasing productivity and revenue. Typically, this will involve setting sectoral and national policies, accessing manufacturers through their respective organizations, deriving group benefits through collective negotiation, implementing projects for income generation and accessing public & private funding. Ultimately this will result in the growth of the industrial design sector in line with SA‟s economic growth. Ideally this will include skills advancement, contributing to the absorption of labour into sustainable employment and expanding and proliferating new businesses. Similarly, manufacturers will benefit from their return on investment, typically with competitive products that provide added value through quality, style and features that result in reduced cost of production and distribution.

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CONTENTS
DECLARATION ................................................................................................................................................. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................... 3 CONTENTS ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 ACRONYMS ...................................................................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................... 6 1. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................... 7 1.1 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS (MACRO) ........................................................................... 7 1.1.1 PRESTLE Analysis.............................................................................................................. 7 Political:............................................................................................................................... 7 Regulations ......................................................................................................................... 8 Economic ............................................................................................................................ 8 Social .................................................................................................................................. 9 Technological .................................................................................................................... 10 Legal ................................................................................................................................. 11 Environmental ................................................................................................................... 11 1.1.2 Market Analysis ................................................................................................................. 11 Manufacturing Industry Analysis ....................................................................................... 11 Industrial Designer Analysis .............................................................................................. 13 Competitor Analysis .......................................................................................................... 15 1.2 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS (MICRO)............................................................................ 16 1.2.1 Internal Analysis ................................................................................................................ 16 Membership ...................................................................................................................... 16 Government ...................................................................................................................... 16 Marketing .......................................................................................................................... 17 Education .......................................................................................................................... 18 1.3 ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................... 20 1.3.1 Service Organizations ....................................................................................................... 20 1.3.2 Service offering matrix ....................................................................................................... 21 1.4 SUMMARY OF EXTERNAL, INTERNAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS ................................. 24 1.4.1 SWOT Analysis ................................................................................................................. 24 1.4.2 SWOT Review & Recommendations................................................................................. 26 1.4.2. Core Competencies........................................................................................................... 26 1.4.3 Stakeholder Expectations .................................................................................................. 26 2. STRATEGIC OPTIONS ............................................................................................................................... 27 2.1. REASON FOR EXISTENCE ................................................................................................................ 27 2.1.1. Vision ................................................................................................................................ 27 2.1.2. Mission .............................................................................................................................. 27 2.1.3. Code of conduct/ethics ...................................................................................................... 27 2.1.4. Membership ...................................................................................................................... 27 2.2. STRATEGIC GOALS .......................................................................................................................... 27 2.2.1 Leadership ........................................................................................................................ 27 2.2.2 Structure............................................................................................................................ 27 2.2.3 Systems ............................................................................................................................ 27 2.2.4 Human Resources............................................................................................................. 27 2.2.5 Marketing .......................................................................................................................... 27 2.2.6 Finance ............................................................................................................................. 27 2.3 STRATEGIC OPTIONS ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 28 2.3.1. Option A ........................................................................................................................... 28 2.3.2. Option B ........................................................................................................................... 28 2.4 STRATEGIC OPTION SELECTION ..................................................................................................... 29 2.4.1 Evaluation Criteria & Recommendations .......................................................................... 29 3.0 STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................................. 30 3.1 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................. 30 3.1.1 Short Term Objectives ..................................................................................................... 30 3.1.2 Medium Term Objectives ................................................................................................. 30 3.1.3 Long Term Objectives ...................................................................................................... 30 3.2 STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................................................ 31 3.3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION .......................................................................... 32 3.3.1 Work Breakdown Structure .............................................................................................. 32 3.3.2 Responsibility Charts ....................................................................................................... 34 3.3.3 Gant Chart for Implementation Stage ............................................................................... 37

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ACRONYMS
AsgiSA BBBEE BOD CAD CIPRO DI DAC DEFSA DOL DOE DOF DST DTI ICOGRADA ICSID IDA IMS JipSA NR&DS SA SETA : Accelerated and shared growth initiative for South Africa : Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment : Board 0f Directors : Computer Aided Design : Companies & Intellectual Property Registrations Office : SABS Design Institute : Department of Arts & Culture : Design Education Forum of SA : Department Of Labour : Department Of Education : Department Of Finance : Department of Science & Technology : Department of Trade & Industry : International Council Of GRAphic Design Associations : International Council for Society of Industrial Designers : International Design Association : Integrated Manufacturing Strategy : Joint initiative on priority Skills Acquisition : National Research & Development Strategy : South Africa : Sector Education & Training Authority

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INTRODUCTION
Background: It is important to understand the role and activity of industrial design in a broad economic and manufacturing context for this document. The Bureau of European Designers Associations describes the nature of design requiring “exceptional talent and dedication supported by thorough aesthetic, technological and economic analysis, to be devoted to the application of structure, form & colour to systems & materials in the resolution of problems of human needs and the environment within the capability of industrial processes”. Purpose of document: The SABS Design Institute invited a broad cross section of participants from the industrial design sector to a meeting on 26 June 2006 to assist in establishing a professional body for the benefit of industrial design in South Africa. The idea of a forming a professional body through a strategic process discussed in the meeting was unanimously approved. A temporary steering committee of eight volunteer members was established to direct this process. The structure of this committee was divided into four working groups that broadly covered the issues that were discussed: membership, marketing, government and education. The first task was to hold a workshop on 9 September 2006 at the Innovation Hub in Pretoria where participants could expand on the issues that were discussed at the initial meeting. . On 18 September 2006, the SABS DI also selected some industrial designers to meet with the board members of the International Council for the Society of Industrial Designers for guidance in setting up a professional body. The resulting information from these initiatives has been distributed using the Delphi method whereby all interested parties are kept informed via emailand asked for input, which is then collated and redistributed. This report is based on the information from the above process and is presented in the following format. A Strategic Analysis that uses a PRESTLE analysis of the external environment to provide a general picture of the variety of macro and micro forces at work around the industrial design sector taken from the contents of the workshop. The key influences and structural drivers of change that pertain to the professional body are identified from this information. These will then be analysed in a SWOT analysis, forming the Core Competencies and derived Stakeholder Expectations of the sector. During the Strategic Option Analysis & Selection section, possible options for taking the professional body forward are identified and one selected after testing it against the current key success criteria. In the Implementation Plan section, the strategic option is objectified and the implementation planned, that if followed, should ensure that an industrial design professional body becomes a reality. Key success criteria: Or more appropriately known as guiding principles determined by the committee at the beginning of the process of establishing a professional body. These issues will be used as a benchmark in determining the relevance of the selected strategic option:  A representative body for Industrial Design both in South Africa and internationally  Policies that continually shape the future of this profession  Status & recognition within government, business and community  An enabling environment for the collaboration of its members  Membership benefits through collective bargaining  Standards and values for the protection of its members, their clients, society and the environment.  Fostering a competitive transdisciplinary design culture within South African society  Financially sustainable  Effective human resources
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1. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS
An external environmental analysis - using the PRESTLE method - defines the macro issues that broadly influence the industrial design sector. In the internal analysis, micro issues define the direct influences on the industrial design sector that can be evaluated with a SWOT analysis and can be tactically addressed, giving a professional body greater clarity about the vision, mission and objectives that should be pursued.

Macro Economic

Micro Economic

Organization al
Political Industry Services Industrial Environment Designers Competitors Legal Technological Social

Regulatory Economic

1.1 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS (Macro) 1.1.1 PRESTLE Analysis Annexure A is a diagram called SA Design Landscape and Annexure B & C are AsgiSA and JipSA documents that were included in the workshop packs on 9 September 2006 for participants to understand some of the external environmental factors that are driving change in the SA economy as well as the industrial design sector. Content from these documents forms the basis for this analysis and they are acknowledged accordingly. Political: The state has a key role in foreseeing and contributing to international and regional standards of business making and creating consent and cohesion nationally among domestic forces. Typical standards are environmental, safety and human rights in industrial and business activities. SA, as a young democracy that was established in 1994, has a government that is keenly active in these areas. In 2004 the SA government was mandated to halve poverty and unemployment by 2014. Nothing short of a skills revolution by a united nation will extricate SA from this crisis. However, one of the binding constraints on the country‟s growth potential is the deficiencies in state organization, capacity and leadership. This is due to the way the government is organised in the capacity of key institutions, including some of those providing economic services and insufficient leadership in policy development and implementation. AsgiSA and its skills JipSA are such interventions that aim to get the various government departments to work together in a coordinated strategy. JipSA will also work with business to meet its BBBEE obligations to skills development.

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Regulations One of SA‟s binding constraints is the mediocre performance of the small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in terms of contribution to GDP and employment partially arises from a sub-optimal regulatory environment. This is relative to the administration of tax, the planning system, the administration of labour law and in specific regulatory environments, regulations that unnecessarily hampers the development of business. (AsgiSA) Economic The state can encouraging investment in South Africa by providing a stable economic environment of low inflation, stable growth, low interest rates and encourage entrepreneurial activity. In order to reduce poverty in SA to below 15%, the government must halve the poverty rate through sustained and economic leadership in partnership with stakeholders such as labour and business. The government’s vision of their development path is that of a vigorous and inclusive economy where products and services are diverse, more value is added to our products and services, costs of production and distribution are reduced, labour is readily absorbed into sustainable employment, and new businesses proliferate and expand. However, some of the binding constraints for SA are the concentration in the upstream production sectors such as iron, steel, paper and chemicals that create barriers to entry for down production creating restricted competition and limiting new investment opportunities. Countering these constraints is firstly public sector investment primarily in infrastructure. However, the government is seeking to maximise the potential spin offs of the domestic supply industries, small business and empowerment on the domestic economy. Some of these interventions occur at national and provincial level. Secondly, Sector Strategies promote private sector investment within a broad National Industrial Policy Framework. Metal beneficiation, creative industries, durable consumer goods and wood pulp & paper are future priority sectors. Interestingly, the sector development strategy for furniture identifies world-class design facilities as one of its key action programmes to enhance the competitiveness of SA furniture on the local and international markets. Economic Policy of The New Democratic Government: Since 1994, government policy has been directed at macroeconomic issues such as fiscal and monetary policy and the opening of new trade routes through trade agreements that would allow South Africa to trade openly in world markets. At the time, government faced an enormous challenge of how to grow the economy while, at the same time, provide the structures for social reform in a new, non-racial society. In essence, government sought to push economic growth while at the same time, creating the mechanism for redistribution of wealth. This thinking was set out in the RDP Strategy and later the GEAR Strategy which in principal aimed to achieve “Growth Through Distribution” or rather “Redistribution Through Growth”. Government Development Policy: The broad vision for economic policy of government is defined as: “ To develop an open-oriented, competitive, modern, knowledge economy”. This vision is then extrapolated to the different government departments who then set policy and intervention strategies to meet these targets such as: international competitiveness, value-added raw material, knowledge systems and development of a market economy. Different departments, although working towards the same goal, will interpret these challenges according to their mandate. For instance for design, the five most important departments and their responsibilities that affect design are:

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1. Department of Science and Technology: National System of Innovation (NACI), Research and development and promotion of a Knowledge Economy. Science Parks and research centres (CSIR, NRF). 2. Department of trade and Industry: Industry competitiveness, industry marketing, industrial zones, trade agreements, cost of R&D and funding mechanisms (IDC), business regulator, intellectual property (CIPRO), standards (SABS) and industrybased skills training (SETA‟s), BEE charters, industrial policy. 3. Department of Education: GET, FET and HET curricula development, education policy, scarce skills. 4. Department of Arts and Culture: Heritage, Indigenous Knowledge Systems and intellectual property, culture, craft. 5. Department of Finance: Fiscal and monetary policy, national budget and departmental budgets, policy for tax breaks for R&D. Each department has a structure of how to develop policy and strategies. For instance, DESIGN in the Department of Science and Technology should be approached through the „national system of innovation‟ and the development of a „knowledge economy‟ because design is a „knowledge generating activity‟ and results in new patents and design registrations. Advanced manufacturing is also the domain of the DST because the manufacturing process relies heavily on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Typically, the design process uses tools such as computer aided-design and rapid prototyping. On the other hand, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) is concerned with the competitiveness of industry and will thus focus on how to make manufacturing more productive in using new production methods or creating mechanisms to foster R&D through competitiveness funds, export incentives and use of intellectual property. The DST works through „technology missions‟ defined by the national research and Development Strategy whereas the DTI works through targeted „industry sector‟ interventions such as furniture, tooling or craft sector. Both DST and DTI will have initiatives for Human Resource Development but will take a different approach – DST through developing programmes to encourage learners in subjects such as Maths and Science and careers in science, technology and engineering, whereas the DTI will concentrate on the skills levy and SETA‟s for the specific industry sectors. However, both DST and Dti will have to comply and collaborate for new education programmes that align to the Department of Education and their curricula policies. The Department of Finance has to fund all these different initiatives and ensure that they align to the „national development agenda‟. Therefore, any approach to government for the development of Industrial Design has to take ALL relevant departments into consideration. The roles, mandate, functioning, strategies and programmes and funding mechanisms of all relevant departments have to align and make sense to the overall government agenda and programmes such as the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA) and the associative skills development committee of AsgiSA, known as JipSA. The entry point for discussions with government concerning a professional body should be aimed at our core industry sector which is MANUFACTURING. The two most important departments to approach are the DST and DTI as both share the mandate for developing the manufacturing sector. Social The most fatal constraint that apartheid left is a legacy of inferior education that resulted in insufficient skilled professionals, managers and artisans. Particularly adults, who are illiterate and poor, need to be drawn into the economy. (See Annexure B for more information on AsgiISA & JipSA).
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JipSA is one of the interventions that have been introduced to address this skills challenge. JipSA will also work with business to meet its BBBEE obligations to skills development. Technological The economist Schumpeter believed that technological change and capital accumulation are the drivers of growth. The neo-Schumpeterian economists support the notion that economic growth arises out of competition among companies who try to increase their profits by utilising resources to create new products and developing new ways of making existing products. However, this requires both macro-economic and technical change which, together with market uncertainties, creates risk-averse companies that do not invest in innovative projects. Therefore the state must promote such investment by providing a stable economic environment of low inflation, stable growth, low interest rates and encourage entrepreneurial activity through subsidising, providing tax incentives and supporting a national system of innovation. The DST is responsible for SA‟s national system of innovation that maintains an adequate science base and translates it into jobs and growth. The approach of NSI in recognising the non-linearity of innovation – where performance is a function not only of the innovation in individual organisations but also of the relationships and networks between institutions – is increasingly driving government towards the role of catalyst, facilitator and strategic investor. The DST‟s mission is to co-ordinate interdepartmental partnerships to leverage coherence in the Science & Technology system by supporting sector-specific departments to develop their R&D strategies, thereby consolidating for government a national science and technology expenditure plan. The SA Government, in recognising the importance of manufacturing in the economy, recently identified two strategies, The National Research & Development Strategy and the Integrated Manufacturing Strategy. The first, released by the DST aims at ensuring that technology resources are better developed, focussed, and utilized. With the second, the DTI recognizes that SA‟s future competitiveness will depend on the capacity of the manufacturing sector to master advanced technology domains, to innovate and to meet the precise needs of customers. The CSIR has been redirected to operate from within the DST, along with the new incubator and technology transfer programmes Godisa and Tshumisano. These were established to serve the needs of small businesses with current technology. The National Research Foundation supports and promotes research through funding, human resource development and the provision of the necessary research facilities, in order to facilitate the creation of knowledge, innovation and development in all fields of the natural and social sciences, humanities and technology. The Frontier Science and Technology Programme provides leadership in respect of long-term and cross-cutting research, and human capital development in the National System of Innovation. The programme has two focus areas: the Frontier sub-programme focuses on the determination and development of cross-cutting research, development and innovation that would support the evolution of the National System of Innovation towards a worldclass science and technology portfolio. The Human Capital sub-programme focuses on the formulation, development and implementation of national programmes aimed at the provision of knowledge and human capital. The sub-programme addresses the renewal of human resources for science and technology, taking into account the entire human capital pipeline. A better incentive for private R&D investment is one of the cross-cutting industrial policy challenges that is being addressed by the government. This has resulted in the DOF offering a 150% tax deduction on R&D to become effective in 2007.

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Legal The public nature of knowledge that underpins innovation refers to the role that can be played by government in the process of idea generation and its subsidisation and distribution. This way, economic participants such as design and manufacture may be stimulated to work alongside state organizations on new ideas that can be converted into marketable goods and services, for instance, by granting intellectual property rights to producers of new knowledge and by establishing the necessary legal infrastructure to support these rights. Intellectual Property is an exclusive right given by the State to the owner/creator of an immaterial object for a certain period of time. Examples of such immaterial objects are inventions, designs, literary works and computer programs - i.e. any creations of the human mind. CIPRO is the government‟s business agency responsible for the registration, protection and promotion of intellectual property rights in South Africa. Environmental Sustainable development was defined by the Bruntland Commission (the World Commission on Environment and Development published in 1987) as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The implication is that for the development to be sustainable, it must not only take account of economic factors, but also environmental and social factors, and must assess long-term consequences of actions as well as the short-term results.

1.1.2 Market Analysis Manufacturing Industry Analysis South Africa‟s isolation during sanctions prompted the development of local armaments, power and fossil fuel extraction processes for self-sustainability. Only a few of the resulting spin-off products and services are still globally or commercially competitive. The isolation also encouraged part of the local science, engineering and technology community to copy products and services in violation of international patent, design and copyright laws. This sheltered economy often exploited a local market that could not effectively address the supply and demand imbalances. Many SA products and businesses have struggled since sanctions were lifted, as they were exposed to more competitive global market forces. For decades SA relied on the raw material commodities derived from mining and agriculture to form the backbone of its economy, whereas other countries added value to raw material by manufacturing and exporting finished products. This turned South Africa into a passenger in other economic vehicles, where their external demands for raw materials significantly determined growth of the local economy. Currently, the financial sector is the biggest contributor to the national GDP, with manufacturing second at approximately 17.4%. The manufacturing sector has to align to world trends in advanced manufacturing and technology in order to become internationally competitive in the global market. The graph below illustrates that value is added to a raw material as it gets converted to a finished product. If raw materials are sold to other countries to create finished products, SA denies itself the chance to add this value. Economic power lies in owning the intellectual property used to turn raw materials into value-added finished products. Innovation and design is essential to both owning the intellectual property and adding value. South Africa has performed poorly when it comes to turning intellectual property into competitive goods and services. Companies often lack the strategic vision and many do not budget for R&D expenditure for new products, services, design, etc.

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Research

Design

Development
Development time

Manufacture

This diagram and information is adapted from a paper delivered by Dr. M. Hunt at a seminar on Leadership through Technical Excellence and Innovation, hosted by the Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Pretoria. The above diagram indicates design‟s strategic fit into a normal successful product manufacturing enterprise as costs incurred rise in developing the product. In essence research is seen as the gathering of information about things that exist, whereas design is seen as the creation of things that do not exist.
The South African Problem

Overseas
ACTUAL FLOW OF DESIGN INTO SA

Intension of the advanced manufacturing technology strategy

Defining Industrial Design as part of the solution Intension of the national research strategy

Intension of the tooling strategy

Innovation Chasm Manufacture Development Design Research

South Africa

In SA, research, development (tooling) and manufacture are organised and funded nationally by government, with the tooling initiative being the most recent beneficiary. Although manufacturing is organised and receives major support from government, they may still prefer to utilize the design pipeline from overseas companies by importing products, tooling or acquiring licence agreements to manufacture products for the local market. One of the reasons is that this has less risk and is much quicker, but it does not encourage long-term economic growth as it is limited to a small local market and cannot be exported. Secondly, products that are manufactured under licences or that are reverse engineered cannot be exported back through the same global market channels. The graph below indicates that gaining manufacturing rights under licence from other countries may create jobs and develop raw materials into finished products, but denies SA from gaining added-value from the intellectual rights inherent in the development/
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Costs

innovation process. As a result there is an innovation chasm that has to be addressed through a National Industrial Design Strategy which should be co-presented by an Industrial Design Professional Body.
Adapted from Dr. M. Hunt, Leadership through Technical Excellence and Innovation

The South African opportunity is firstly, to take advantage of a favourable exchange rate by exporting finished value-added products rather than commodities. Secondly, to create and develop intellectual property, sold under license to the rest of the world in order to retain the inherent value. In addition, the new political dispensation in SA has created many opportunities for manufacturers to enter the global economy if they can provide unique, desirable products for segmented or nich global markets. The solution is to change the manufacturing sector‟s mindset to move from a copy cat economy to a globally competitive economy. The challenge for industrial design is to promote value added & differentiating benefits of local product design to government and the manufacturing sector. Government in response developed national strategies to progress the economy towards achieving these goals. The most important concerning the manufacturing industry are:  The National Research and Development Strategy (NRDS) – DST  The Integrated Manufacturing Strategy (IMS) – DTI  The Advanced Manufacturing Technology Strategy (AMTS) – DST In the global context, the progression towards the creation of a knowledge economy is determined largely by the implementation and success of a nation to develop an effective „national system of innovation‟ (NSI). One of the critical elements of a national system of innovation is a country‟s demonstration of world-class capacity and capability in product design. Product design methodologies have changed rapidly over the past two decades with the introduction of technology tools in the design process namely computer-aideddesign and manufacture. Furthermore, design methodology has become much more „integrated‟ with other technology sectors such as electronics, mechatronics, marketing, economics and management. Today, the industrial designer is a highly qualified individual with a varied skill set. Product design is a cross cutting activity vital to all industry sectors and technology focus areas. It is imperative that South Africa develop product design capabilities to enable the manufacturing sector to become internationally competitive. The irony is that the industrial design sector will always struggle for sustainability in a developing economy until such time that a strong manufacturing sector is established. South Africa is in the process of addressing many social and environmental issues as it struggles for economic independence. It is a country where all businesses, groups and people need to adapt to the changes. The opportunity exists to create a new way of doing things, a new ethic, a new experience and ultimately a new African identity. Industrial Designer Analysis The following diagram offers insight into industrial design as a sector that essentially develops consumer type products for mass production, but not excluding other products and using job & batch production. What is unique about the role of industrial design is that it is positioned midway between the world of art and engineering. Similar to architecture, it draws on the creative/intuitive aspects of the arts and the technical/industrial aspects of engineering. The creative aspects of the arts are used for both communication and differentiating products to precise customer needs while the technical aspects of engineering consider production processes. To a lesser degree than the arts & craft sector, industrial designers can also be influenced by indigenous knowledge systems in trying to reflect a local heritage.
Diagram: Positioning industrial design between art & engineering (CSIR)

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IKS design influence Product design for mass production = wealth generation > GDP

ART
Service and infrastructure dev. Communication /Graphic design Interior design /Architecture Craft/job/batch production Ceramics design Industrial design Crafts/ jewellery

ENGINEERING
Job/batch/mass production

Component design engineer

Tool design engineer

(Source: CSIR Knowledge Services)

The industrial design sector is relatively new in SA having been established in the 1960‟s. The situation of industrial design (also referred to as „product design‟) today is that SA graduates on average twenty-two industrial designers from two tertiary institutions each year. Although there are no official figures for industrial design, estimates are that there are approximately 150 practicing industrial designers in our country (those designers that are actively involved in projects that develop „ideas to market realisation‟). Recent statistics show the financial sector being the biggest contributor to the national GDP, boasting 25 007 registered chartered accountants (Sunday Times, October 8 2006). By comparison, South Korea boasts over 200 tertiary institutions offering courses in product design and graduates around 3 800 professionals per year. This is linked to highlevel support in government for design and innovation (presentation: Prof. Kyung-Won Chung KAIST, DEFSA conference, Pretoria June 2004). Prof. Chung further states: “ In an age of global competition, good design can give an important competitive advantage”. South Korea‟s success in using the value of good design to increase economic growth through advanced manufacturing was reported in Business Week on July 8, 2002 as: “The South Korean company is becoming a DESIGN powerhouse on the world scene”. Alan Hirsch describes this phenomenon: “The success in East Asia – essentially Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong – showed that there is a powerful connection between economic development and strong manufacturing capabilities. All five countries had grown rapidly and achieved much higher living standards largely on the basis of competitive exports of manufactured products”. The quest and plight of the poor capacity of product design in South Africa has been ongoing, however, some significant steps towards supporting this sector have taken place. These include:  2001 - A call by industry was made to government.  2002 - Industry and government workshops were held in collaboration with the South African design institute and industry.  2002 – Members of the above initiative were also involved in the development of the „Product Technologies‟ sector as part of the AMTS strategy.  2002 - NACI conducted a workshop for industrial design. A report was tabled.  2003: DESIGNation: The CSIR with support of DST launched a national initiative for product design as a „national system of design‟.  2004/2005 - DST conducted a national baseline study of industrial design (this was extended to include the design function).  2006: The CSIR‟s DESIGNation team was requested to develop with DST a National Strategy for Industrial Design.  2006: The process of establishing a professional industry body for industrial design commenced with collaboration of SA Design Institute/DESIGNation and industry.

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Production engineer

Visual Art

Industrial engineer

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Competitor Analysis There are many reasons for beginning an association and very often they are blurred in trying to accommodate all the members‟ needs. There are valid reasons such as quality assurance for which an association would place restrictions on its membership. However, it would be a mistake to do so if the restriction was to eliminate other designers because the market is small and they are potential competition. In fact, industrial designers are primarily consultants in the services sector where there are a multitude of other consultants that compete for the same share of the market. All consultants, such as management, HR, PR, marketing, etc. promote bottom line value in some form or another to the manufacturing sector. Therefore it is essential for members to see other consultants as the competition and for a professional body to promote and differentiate its “service offering” and “benefits” to the manufacturing sector. The advice frm the outgoing International Council for Society of Industrial Designers (ICSID) president in a private discussion was that it is imperative that the industrial design sector collaborate in establishing an inclusive professional body rather than an exclusive one. An effective professional body relies on an extensive membership base and it is better to have all practising designers within the organization that can then address membership issues of concern over time. This is the same approach that ICSID has with its Asian members and why it does not have an enforceable code of conduct. The reasoning is simple; if you can‟t reach them you can‟t influence them, but united you can achieve far more in promoting the cause of design. Similarly, the other design disciplines could be seen as competing for the same share of the market, but ICSID took the same approach by forming the International Design Association (IDA) with International Council Of GRAphic Design Associations (ICOGRADA). Therefore “One Voice” should be seen in the same light and collaboration would benefit the greater cause of design. ONE VOICE has not been mentioned before!

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1.2 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS (Micro) 1.2.1 Internal Analysis There is no current internal environment for this professional body; however, industry and environmental issues raised during the Workshop on September 09 2006 are discussed. As a result the internal analysis will be defined but not limited to the sections called Membership, Government, Marketing & Education. Membership Members are important stakeholders of this professional body and require services and benefits in return for membership fees. The more members there are, the more representative and feasible the organization. Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive database of practising or qualified industrial designers in SA. The SABS DI and the two universities that offer the qualification have recently installed databases, however, these are insufficient for a professional body to claim that it is representative. An audit of practicing professionals and qualified industrial designers is the first priority. The universities and the World Design report can assist with this audit. Thereafter, the membership categories and requirements thereof can be defined. Suggestions for such categories are:  Practicing Professional members  Associate members  Corporate members  Educational members Advice from the ISCID board members was not to create barriers to entry in the formative stages, as the biggest threat to the body would be a lack of critical mass. Therefore, admission requirements and their timing must be carefully considered. Similar organizations use academic qualifications and experience amongst other requirements. Suggestions were made that admissions follow a peer review process. The core competency of a professional body should be to benefit its members. Some suggestions include: marketing & promotions, medical aid, public liability, insurance, legal advice, arbitration, labour relations and finance. It is important that the organization links its members to ICSID so that they can benefit from its experience and global understanding of the industrial design profession. Issues that must be addressed are whether the body aligns with Design and/or Engineering and the appropriate definitions, i.e. Product Design, Industrial Design and Engineering Design. In this small fragmented sector, achieving critical mass to operate a sustainable organization is unlikely. An aggressive funding strategy is required. However, membership fees cannot be too high but could increase according to the other membership categories, such as corporate members. Other associations received substantial seed funding from only a few members initially, who in turn received free membership for a period that was beneficial to them. Members that contribute to the organization in time could also receive a discount on their fees. An alternative funding model is suggested where government and corporate funding is included. Government Various government initiatives have expressed a willingness to assist the industrial design sector in recent years. However, they have no contact point or representative body that they can negotiate or discuss issues with. The initial purpose of establishing this professional body was to form a representative body that can liase with the various government initiatives. To be effective, this professional body must be involved in the development of policies that can give both its members and government a positioning statement or framework of
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intent. Ideally the organization needs to work in partnership with government and its policies need to align to both the national strategy (AsgiSA & JipSA) as well as to the various government ministries and their individual initiatives. Annexure A provides a diagrammatic representation of the SA design landscape with links to most of these initiatives. The partnership needs to be a highly active one whereby the association reacts to existing strategies with submissions and is proactive with its own strategies in the form of proposals to government. The success of this is crucial to accessing funding, because without the funding it would not be feasible to create a professional enabling environment for its industrial design members. The positioning statement that was discussed at the workshop on 9 September, 2006 was that the input of industrial design is key to developing SA as an outward orientated, competitive, modern knowledge economy. It should become a lead sector for competitiveness and sustainability that will help define SA‟s place in global trade. The spin off of all of this contributes to the government‟s greatest challenge by addressing income inequality, job creation & revenue generation. In addition, the industrial design sector can be positioned as a solution to resolving the gaps in the innovation chasm and this would also contribute to reversing the R18 billion of annual capital outflow on licensing. The Government Liaison working group will be tasked to establish policies, assist with policy making, and to lobby government and its various agencies. The first of these policies will be that of a National Strategy for Industrial Design. It would also co-present with the Education working group, the industrial design sector‟s contributions and requirements towards the New National Education Curriculum. Other advice from the ISCID board members is that there are international case studies on the successful partnering of industrial design and government to present to the government. It is more credible if organizations like ICSID or its high profile members present these case studies. Marketing Design South Africa (DSA) has long been the established organisation dealing with government and industry on behalf of design professions in South Africa. DSA is now in the process of disbanding and this process will be concluded by September 2007. A new organisation, referred to as „One Voice’, is being established to replace DSA. The new organisation strives to be more balanced, offering equal representation for all design professional bodies that are registered with it. One Voice will have the mandate and correct profile to deal directly with government and industry bodies. The challenge to industrial design is to establish its own professional body that can be linked to One Voice as part of its organisational structure so that it can leverage marketing and exposure. The marketing objective of this association is to be the voice of the industrial design profession, by advancing the quality and positive impact of design. The positioning statement of this industrial design body is that industrial design is key to developing SA into an outward orientated, competitive, modern knowledge economy. In effect, this is the core value statement for the organization. This message can be presented from different angles depending on who is receiving it. The marketing strategy will focus on two broad areas, external and internal communications, all stakeholders can be reached within these categories. External communications - International: There are various initiatives that are beneficial to the cause of industrial design in SA and the professional body, through its members must continue to contribute or participate in:  The participation of the SABS Design institute in ICSID and in particular the role that Adrienne Viljoen has on the ICSID board is vital to the international standing and the cause of this professional body.
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

 

There is currently a World Design Report that the SABS Design Institute has submitted a proposal to on behalf of the South Africa design sector. The report is expected to be completed in September 2007 and if approved, will put South African design on the world map. The Design for Development Summit 2006 hosted by the SABS Design institute not only exposed the industrial design sector to international trends in developing countries but showcased the possibilities from within South Africa. In addition, the CSIR Knowledge Services, under the leadership of Bernard Smith, has been invited to contribute to the International Book on World History of Industrial Design on behalf of South African Industrial Design.

External communications - National: As discussed under the government section, it is imperative to have extensive communication with government not only as a stakeholder but also as a partner. The SA manufacturing and tooling sector are key stakeholders if the industrial design sector is to deliver real value. Corporate SA also needs to participate more actively and may be approachable indirectly through current initiatives such as the Top Technology 100 awards, the SABS Design Institute awards and the Design Indaba. The challenge here is to be able to align with the other design disciplines that have established relationships with these stakeholders but to still be able to differentiate industrial design from the rest. It is also possible to reach related industries through their own publications, i.e. Engineering Nnews, Pisa news letters, etc. by either advertising or contributing articles. There is a dual purpose for this as it gains exposure and also elevates the professional status of industrial design in SA. Internal communications: A critical success area for this professional body is to attract an extensive, representative membership base. The initial internal communication thrust will be to establish a database by which to reach the entire sector. The universities are currently the only registry of qualified industrial designers in SA. Unfortunately, their electronic databases only go back ten years to 1994, forcing the professional body to use a network strategy to establish a more comprehensive one. The facilities of the professional body must be conducive to creating an enabling environment for its staff to operate in and its members to participate in. The body will be tasked with public relations exercises, workshops, exhibitions, board meetings, committee meetings and other similar events. Central to all communication strategies is to establish A website that acts as a hub with which it can reach and communicate with all stakeholders at all levels. It can have a significant impact on connecting its members with work opportunities in the manufacturing and corporate sector. Although the design and development of a website could be done pro bono by one its members, the marketing working group will be tasked with creating and updating its content. The more effective this website is as a communication and networking tool, the less the operational workload on the staff members, allowing them to focus on the more strategic issues such as government & corporate liaison and policy making. However, before this can happen, the association needs to be legally registered with a name and thereafter a Corporate Identity must be established. From this all communication collateral can be developed. Education The long-term view is that the education working group will be assisted by the government liaison working group to develop policies and proposals that help integrate design education in schools and universities in SA. It is important to align all design education to the governments national strategies (JipSA) if industrial design is to become key to developing SA as an outward orientated, competitive, modern knowledge economy.
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Design education can certainly be a significant role player in developing a National Strategy for Industrial Design in SA. All training programmes in SA have to be accredited by certain authorities in order to grant qualifications and receive the relevant funding. The Sector Education & Training Authorities (SETAs) report to the Ministry of Labour while the Colleges and Universities report to the Ministry of Education. Regardless, their roles are to ensure the quality of training, however, the content and relevance of the training can be influenced by the industry. In the short term, industry must be represented in an advisory capacity within these structures for any effective change to take place. Key areas of curriculum development that should be addressed in the short term are designing for the environment and sustainability. Although participation is seen as short term, it is important to realise that the results of any changes in the curriculum are only visible in the long term (up to five years). The industrial design sector contributes 1% of its salary towards skills development levies (SDL). These are collected and redistributed by the SA Revenue Services to the SETAs who utilize 20% for overheads and 80% for skills training programmes, such as learnerships and special projects. Unfortunately, the industrial design sector has not been able to participate and engage with the MAPP Seta who administers industrial design levies. However, there are other SETAs that may be more appropriate such as the Services Seta. This will require investigation and recommendations from the Education Working Group. The industrial design sector‟s strategy needs to anticipate and train ahead of economic growth. An initiative called DesigNation is already in progress under the CSIR Knowledge Services, whereby CAD is introduced at schools. More importantly, this initiative is a good case study for the organization on the benefits of public/private partnerships. Research, technology and innovation are important drivers of building intellectual capacity in SA‟s design sector. They need to be embedded in the design curricula and linked to the Tshumisano Technology Stations initiative, which aim to harness the knowledge and resources that exist in universities and use this to demonstrate and provide technological interventions for SME development in SA. By extension, entrepreneurship and design management should be embedded in the curriculum. Furthermore, training and education can become an income generating activity as it upskills its members. As the economy advances and creates a demand for industrial designers with better qualifications, so the status and need for postgraduate qualifications will increase. Through ICSID, it is possible to create international partnerships and exchange programmes with design training institutions of international standing.

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1.3 ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS 1.3.1 Service Organizations An industrial design professional body is a service type organization that promotes the services of it its members to a group of external stakeholders. By doing this it makes promises on behalf of its members that must be fulfilled. It is therefore dependant on the professionalism of its members to deliver to keep those promises. The risk lies in the inability of the member or industrial designer to keep the promises. This is either because they do not clearly understand the promise made, nor are they committed or capable of delivering the promise. This makes it essential to establish an organization based on several tripartite alliances for it to be successful.

Professional Body

Service Providers (Members/ Designers)

Clients/funders (Government/ Manufacturers/ Entrepreneurs)

Thus, the nature of a professional body is to promote a professional working relationship that protects both the designer and the client. Some related service industries have standard working agreements that can be adapted to each project with recommended professional fee structures. Other international industrial design professional bodies also include a code of conduct.

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1.3.2 Service offering from related organizations

DESIGN ASSOCIATION
Business Insurance
  Professional Indemnity insurance Employers' Liability Insurance Office insurance

ICSID/IDA
Access to members lists

DESIGN INSTITUTE AUSTRALIA
Networking

B

Free legal and advice


  

Business Planning
Business plan writing Competitor analysis Industry research Strategic planning

Promotion on ICSID website

Referal – Other designers/New clients

Free use of bu document tem



Credit Referencing

Newsletters/congresses

Eventing

Access to che  Medical & L collective b

Copyright Advice
 Brandprotect: A service for businesses that own registered trade marks or domain names. Designlife: The online resource providing legal solutions and management of intellectual property rights for the design industry ManufactureChina: Briffa has extensive experience in helping clients develop successful relationships with manufacturers in China and has launched a new service which links designers and inventors with reputable manufacturers in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Multidisciplinary access to consultancies via IDA

Lobbying: Government/Industry

Discounts on s





Meeting Room and Office Space

Discounts on software/ magazines

Listing on web

DesignProtect
 DesignProtect is an innovative service that allows members to register any of their designs on-line. Included in the service is a minimum £25,000 fighting fund which can be use to: bring an action in the UK against anyone who has illegally copied any design registered on DesignProtect. defend an action in the UK brought by anyone who wrongly claims that the designs have been copied from others.

Insurance

Free access to (Body) events







Debt Recovery Helpline

Accreditation

Networking

Design Business Best Practice Documentation
   Copyright & Intellectual Property Employment Law Design Practice Business Practice

Website promotion

Discounts on t organized by b



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Matching Service
DA will match members to:   Clients seeking specific design provision Other design businesses seeking collaborative partners Educational institutions seeking collaboration



Accreditation Designers and clients

DESIGN ASSOCIATION
Business Insurance
  Professional Indemnity insurance Employers' Liability Insurance Office insurance

ICSID/IDA
Access to members lists

DESIGN INSTITUTE AUSTRALIA
Networking

BNO
Free legal and business advice

DSA
Design South Africa offers a free client referral service to members from potential seekers of design services professional development opportunities: discounts on activities organised through Design South Africa, such as workshops, seminars; conferences; short courses, forum events at international, national and regional levels free web site link for Design South Africa „Group‟ members to this web site



Business Planning
   Business plan writing Competitor analysis Industry research Strategic planning

Promotion on ICSID website

Referral – Other designers/New clients

Free use of business document templates



Credit Referencing

Newsletters/congresses

Eventing

Copyright Advice
 Brand protect: A service for businesses that own registered trade marks or domain names. Design life: The online resource providing legal solutions and management of intellectual property rights for the design industry Manufacture China: Briffa has extensive experience in helping clients develop successful relationships with manufacturers in China and has launched a new service which links designers and inventors with reputable manufacturers in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Multidisciplinary access to consultancies via IDA

Lobbying: Government/Industry

Access to cheaper insurance:  Medical & Liability through collective bargaining Discounts on subscriptions



free assistance with matters concerning intellectual property rights



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Meeting Room and Office Space

Discounts on software/ magazines

Listing on website

DesignProtect
 Design Protect is an innovative service that allows members to register any of their designs online. Included in the service is a minimum £25,000 fighting fund which can be use to: bring an action in the UK against anyone who has illegally copied any design registered on Design Protect. Defend an action in the UK brought by anyone who wrongly claims that the designs have been copied from others.

Insurance

Free access to organized (Body) events







free listing in the business to business Design South Africa quarterly magazine Recruiting staff the Design South Africa web site has a members only area that has a section dealing with employment opportunities; and to also have listings for designers seeking work.

Debt Recovery Helpline

Accreditation

Networking

Free Access to Intellectual Property Lawyers: Alan Dunlop of Hahn and Hahn, Pretoria Hans Muhlberg of Muhlberg Attorneys, Johannesburg will give Design South Africa members in good standing one FREE consultation

Design Business Best Practice Documentation
   Copyright & Intellectual Property Employment Law Design Practice Business Practice

Website promotion

Discounts on training organized by body



Matching Service
DA will match members to:  Clients seeking specific design provision Other design businesses seeking collaborative partners Educational institutions seeking collaboration





Accreditation Designers and clients

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1.4 SUMMARY OF EXTERNAL, INTERNAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS 1.4.1 SWOT Analysis The SWOT Analysis summarizes the key issues from the macro and micro environment and evaluates the strategic capabilities required to determine the strategic options. Based on this, the core competencies and stakeholder expectations are determined.
STRENGTHS Government‟s role is that of catalyst, facilitator and strategic investor in an open-orientated, competitive, modern, knowledge economy with diverse products and services where more value is added, costs of production & distribution reduced, labour absorbed and businesses proliferate. DTI specifically states that future competitiveness requires advanced technology domains, to innovate and meet the precise needs of customers. In support, there is a National R&D Strategy and an Integrated Manufacturing Strategy with a 150% tax rebate on R&D spending. CIPRO is its intellectual property regulator that can assist innovators. Future priority sectors include metal beneficiation, creative industries, durable goods and wood pulp & paper. Coupled with this is substantial support for entrepreneurial activities. ID is a wealth creating service sector that through design enhances competitiveness by adding value to diverse products that generally require technology advanced domains, such as CAD, rapid prototyping and links to the National Tooling strategy. ID can align to the National R&D Strategy through its university programmes and the Integrated Manufacturing Strategy as it services the manufacturing sector through the commercial output of R&D that aims to meet precise customer needs. This can result in innovations that realise value through IP protection, which can assist in reversing capital outflows and create inflow from international licence fees. The SABS DI is assisting the current committee in establishing a professional body. It also has links to ICSID and promotes industrial design through its national awards programmes. Design is gaining more exposure through the Technology Top 100 Award scheme and the annual Design Indaba conference. DesigNation is a public/private partnership initiated by the CSIR Knowledge Services to form a National System for Design. This technologically advanced project links ICT and design by introducing CAD at schools and linking up with universities and industry. WEAKNESSES The ID sector has had an informal history of working with government since 2001. There are formal relations with the CSIR knowledge unit and SABS DI. There is a need for a professional body to formally represent ID at government level and promote and align the ID sector and assist in developing policies that can address ongoing issues. The ID sector will always struggle for sustainability in a developing economy until such time that a strong manufacturing sector is established. Exacerbating this problem is the reluctance for risk-averse manufacturers to invest in R&D or innovative projects and who prefer acquiring licenses for products from other countries. In addition, there is a copy cat culture that disregards IP rights of international products and local designers. Industrial designers regularly claim that they have to educate the manufacturers on the process and value of design before establishing an effective working relationship The ID sector is small, fragmented and does not have a complete database of graduates from the universities. Therefore attracting an extensive, representative membership will be a logistical challenge. Even then, industrial designers have limited financial resources and time to fully support a professional body. This poses a dilemma as a part time secretariat will be more affordable but less effective in delivering the scope of work required to transform the industry. A full time organization will be more effective but will require substantially more external funding. Design education is not integrated from schools to universities nor aligned to the government‟s national strategies. Two or potentially three universities cannot supply sufficient graduates for the anticipated economic or manufacturing sector growth. The ID sector does not actively participate with the MAPP Seta which can assist with skills training.

OPPORTUNITIES
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THREATS

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There is a need for a professional body to formally represent ID at government level and promote its value in advancing the economy by assisting with & aligning to government policies such as AsgiSA and JipSA. The entry point for discussions with government concerning a professional body should be aimed at DST and DTI as both share the mandate for developing the manufacturing sector. DesigNation is an existing example of a public/private partnership that works across these departments and includes DoE. More importantly it may be the ideal vehicle from which to open dialogue with and request funding from government as it champions the cause of design within a national design system. There is opportunity to integrate ID into other national strategies by establishing a sector plan with formal links to the National Tooling strategy, National R&D strategy and the Integrated Manufacturing strategy DEFSA is an opportunity for ID to participate in and to coordinate and implement industry strategies between industrial designers, universities, governments and the SETAs. The Tshumisano Technology stations are set up in the universities and create ideal opportunity to drive technology and knowledge that exist in the institutions into the ID industry. The national awards programmes for design & technology and the Design Indaba are key opportunities to support and leverage exposure. The SABS DI remains a key partner in this regard and in championing the cause of global interdisciplinary design through the IDA & ICSID. One Voice provides a similar opportunity in SA. CIPRO has already expressed interest in forming closer links with the ID sector in order to have better understanding of the problems and opportunities the ID sector faces. The legal protection of designers should be addressed. The main objective of a professional body should be to benefit its members through: marketing & promotions, medical aid, public liability, insurance, legal advice, arbitration, labour relations, institutional and finance. An internet based communication hub could facilitate most the above and assist in reducing the operational workload, especially in the initial stages. Of the above, the core competency of the organization should be marketing and promotions by being the voice of the industrial design profession, thereby advancing the quality and positive impact of design. Initially, this must focus on promoting value added & differentiating benefits of local product design to the manufacturing sector. In addition an external funding campaign must be aimed at government, corporates, etc. to alleviate the threat of insufficient funding from members. The universities also provide an opportunity to broaden the reach, communication, infrastructure and facilities in Gauteng and the Cape Province. The SETAs can assist with funding for special programmes to uplifting the skills in the ID sector. The development of an employment equity plan or black participation in the industry will encourage the support of government.Tthis will have to be addressed at school and university levels initially.

The greatest threat to the ID sector is that if the supply of design services remains more than the demand required by manufacturers/entrepreneurs, the current situation will continue. There is an external intervention from the government in the form of a 150% tax rebate on R&D to encourage businesses to use design as a competitive resource. However, if the ID marketing strategy does not focus on influencing the demand and cannot promote this value to the manufacturing sector, the situation will largely remain as it is. If demand is increased, the ID professional body will have to have sufficient members to supply the demand. This is the second biggest threat. Firstly, an ineffective internal communication strategy that cannot reach the entire sector and establish a representative membership base will nullify any other marketing effort. In addition, any other restrictions on growing the membership base, i.e. admission criteria, codes of conduct, etc. will be just as counteractive. In this regard, it is well documented that in any effective organization, be it business, sports or politics, growing the movement must precede the implementation of the organization. If promoting the greater cause of design, attracting the manufacturing industry and leveraging benefits for all members is not the initial priority of the ID, then there will be a lack of support from members and critical mass will not be achieved. Critical mass is important because it needs to be able to supply the demand and to contribute to the financial sustainability of body with substantial full time resources. However, it is unlikely that this small, fragmented sector can afford significant membership fees to cover the costs of the association. Therefore, another significant threat is the lack of funding. This must be addressed by an internal and external funding campaign, be it members, government, corporates, events, etc. In the event of a lack of sufficient funding for a wellresourced association, a part-time secretariat with members undertaking activities in their part time will be necessary. Again, the threat is whether this small fragmented ID sector has the time or commitment to achieve this. Even if all the above threats have been addressed and the professional body has achieved a significant level of success, there are other potential threats. Members and their clients (manufacturing sector) must have protection from each other. There can‟t be any recourse if there are no minimum standards, code of conduct prescribed and punitive measures to discourage behaviour that is contrary to the greater cause of the body. A broad framework based on fairness for all concerned may be more appropriate for members and clients, rather than a loaded, prescriptive one. CIPRO should assist in this regard. A threat to acquiring government support could be changes in policy or the lack of an ID industry employment equity plan or black participation.

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1.4.2 SWOT Review & Recommendations It is imperative that SA develops product design capabilities to enable the manufacturing sector to become internationally competitive. However, the irony is that the industrial design sector will always struggle for sustainability in a developing economy until such time that a strong manufacturing sector is established. Therefore the 150% R&D tax rebate is an external intervention from government that encourages risk-averse companies to invest in innovative projects. However, if this is effective and SA continues with its current economic growth, and when compared to Korea, there will not be enough graduates and there are not enough practicing designers to service the manufacturing sector‟s needs. This may require that the government gazettes industrial design as a scarce skill and imports designers from other countries. In late 2005 the Government Gazette declared Jewellery Designers as a scarce skill, thereby making it possible for manufacturers to import 200 jewellery designers from outside of South Africa. This could be an unexpected threat and a substantial one as well, unless there is a professional body with a strategy to accommodate an unprecedented growth in the manufacturing sector. There are significant implications to this that must be carefully considered by a special task team in the form of a sector strategy called The National Industrial Design Strategy. The reason for the special task team is that these issue cut across the various working groups. It needs to integrate design education from schools to universities to SETAs, align to government‟s other national strategies such as tooling and advanced manufacturing and work with the manufacturing sector in determining their requirements to be globally competitive. 1.4.2. Core Competencies The core competency should be to act in the interest of members by:  Promoting ID to government, business, communities and members.  Setting policies for ID.  Establishing benefits for ID through collective bargaining.  Generating income for sustainability. 1.4.3 Stakeholder Expectations The following are stakeholder expectations:
 Our government wants an organization to partner with and a sector that can contribute to economic growth  Our clients, the manufacturing industry wants the design and manufacture of competitive products for a favourable return on investment.  Our board of directors wants execution of their vision in a sustainable manner within limited resources  Our members want promotion, protection and efficient services in lieu of fees  Our staff want to be valued, motivated and work in an empowering, enabling environment  Our society/public wants responsible design and sustainable resources for future generations

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2. STRATEGIC OPTIONS
The strategic option stage is used to provide a desired set of objectives to evaluate various options and select the most relevant one for implementation. 2.1. REASON FOR EXISTENCE 2.1.1. Vision A collaborative and representative professional body that promotes the positive impact of design on business, society and the environment while directly benefiting industrial design and its members. 2.1.2. Mission To consolidate the industrial design profession and to promote the benefits of industrial design to all stakeholders as a competitive, value adding resource in SA: Definition:  To consolidate the industrial design profession by forming a collaborative & representative body that creates extensive access for its members at all levels with the aim of increasing their revenue and productivity.  To promote the competitiveness of industrial design to government, the manufacturing industry and others through the ability to add value to products, reduce costs of production and distribution, thereby contributing to the absorption of labour into sustainable employment and expanding & proliferating new businesses. 2.1.3. Code of conduct/ethics A code of conduct and ethics statement is published separately for the benefit and protection of the organization, its members, their clients, society and the environment. 2.1.4. Membership Members can be individuals, groups, organizations, associations that have interests within the industrial design sector. They must subscribe to the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the company and their names will be entered into a register as provided for in section 103(2) of the Companies Act. 2.2. STRATEGIC GOALS 2.2.1 Leadership To have leaders with a clear vision and a management team who can implement the vision by creating an enabling environment with the appropriate systems for motivated employees to provide efficient services and members to participate in. 2.2.2 Structure To create an enabling environment and communication channels for the delivery of efficient services to its members, their clients and all other stakeholders. 2.2.3 Systems To provide efficient and reliable access to information that is most relevant to the industrial design profession 2.2.4 Human Resources To create an empowering, enabling environment for employees to be effective and deliver efficient services through a human resource system that includes performance management, training, salaries and intangibles such motivation, morale and attitude. 2.2.5 Marketing
To be the voice of the industrial design profession, advancing the quality value and positive impact of design.

2.2.6 Finance To be a financially sound, sustainable, non-profit organization by leveraging maximum benefits from minimal resources.

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2.3 STRATEGIC OPTIONS ANALYSIS There are two options that have been proposed for review. The first is a part-time secretariat and the second a full-time professionally managed organization. 2.3.1. Option A A part time secretariat that administers a professional body with limited resources. The body will be established as a Section 21 non-profit organization that is governed according to a constitution by a board of directors elected from its members. The advisory body made up of members is directly responsible for all activities in the organization via the working groups. The members of the board of directors chair the working groups. A part-time secretariat will attend to the operational activities. A possible option to consider would be to join “One Voice” and utilize their resources. Analysis:  The benefits: A part-time secretariat is more affordable, easier and quicker to establish and can be flexible to work with limited resources. This option may appeal to members that cannot commit significant funds but can undertake activities on behalf of the organizations. This would be the only option should the organization not be able to raise sufficient funds from its members or external organizations such as government, corporates, etc.  The disadvantages: This body requires the commitment in the form of time from its members to be responsible for and to undertake all activities via the working groups. However, it has already been established that the industrial design sector consists of small businesses that do not have much capacity for activities beyond their business. In addition, a full portfolio of services would not be possible to administer in a part-time capacity. This would make it difficult to create a credible perception and an enabling environment with efficient services to benefit its members. 2.3.2. Option B A full-time sustainable body/association. Established as a Section 21 non-profit organization that is governed according to a constitution by an elected board of directors. An advisory body made up of members democratically elects the board of directors. The BOD employ a Chief Executive Officer and an Office Administrator. They are managed according to key performance objectives. The advisory body indirectly participates in the organization by assisting the CEO via the working groups. Analysis:  The benefits: This option still requires the commitment in the form of time and money from its members, but they not have to undertake all activities in the working groups because many will be done by the CEO and Office Manager. This will encourage the small industrial design companies to participate in the association because it can support a full portfolio of services that are expected of such an organization.  The disadvantages: It is doubtful whether members have sufficient funds to fully support a fulltime body with extensive services. Each working group will have to develop the means to generate additional funding opportunities in order to afford a CEO for at least the first year. Once in place, the CEO will be tasked with generating external funding with the assistance of the working groups, thereby sustaining not only theassociation, but generating his/her own salary for year two, etc. as well.

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2.4 STRATEGIC OPTION SELECTION
for changes see Marketing plan

2.4.1

Evaluation Criteria & Recommendations Option A
This is suitable as a part-time association with a secretariat that can provide limited services with limited resources. This may appeal to members that cannot commit significant funds but can undertake essential activities in the working groups on behalf of the organization

Option B
This is suitable as a full time association with a CEO and secretariat that can provide a full range of services with substantial resources. This may appeal to members that can or cannot commit significant funds but can undertake activities in the working groups on behalf of the organization to raise additional funds or develop additional services. This will not appeal to members who cannot commit significant funds nor undertake activities in the working groups on behalf of the organization. This will require substantial operational budget and capital to establish. However, it will still require a significant membership drive and external funding from government, corporate sponsors to make this feasible. It would be acceptable to a large membership in the medium to long term with significant demand for services, policies and design from the members, government and manufacturing sector respectively.

Suitability

Feasibility

Acceptability

Recommendations

This will not appeal to members who cannot commit significant funds nor undertake activities in the working groups on behalf of the organization. This will require less operational budget and capital to establish. However, it will still require a significant membership drive to make this feasible, unless some form of temporary arrangements can be made. This is acceptable in the short, medium & long term if a part time secretariat and limited service offering is acceptable to a large membership without much demand from government and the manufacturing sector. However, this would not be acceptable in This is unlikely to be acceptable in the short the medium to long term should the term unless there is substantial funding from demand for services, policies and design members, government and corporate increase from the members, government sponsors. and manufacturing sector respectively. Short term: Initially begin with Option A; build up the membership base and attract external funding. Medium - Long term: Continue with Option A if it working and if there isn‟t extra demand nor enough external funding to establish Option B. Implement Option B if there is extra demand and external funding available.

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3.0 STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION
To achieve the above recommendations from the strategic option selection, it is necessary to align the structure, capabilities and resources of the organization to the strategic objectives. In doing so, the most appropriate structure is designed for Option B so that the full extent of the resources and funding requirements can be determined. This will then be adapted to Option A so that the start up costs can be determined. The two options will then be combined into an implementation strategy that allows the Board of Directors to evaluate the sustainability of Option B and present it to the membership to decide on. Work breakdown structure will assist in delivering the operational requirements to do the work. These are then linked to Key Performance Indicators (KPI‟s) from which group, team and individual assessments can be measured and performance rewarded. 3.1 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES 3.1.1 Short Term Objectives

The steering committee has had to extend the initial strategy‟s schedule because the SWOT analysis identified the lack of an extensive membership base as a major threat. Therefore the initial priority is to establish a potential membership database so that invitations to the Strategy Report Feedback Workshop can be distributed. Many participants are expected to be new to the concept of an advisory body and the process followed to date. Therefore a proposed National Strategy for Industrial Design presentation will open the workshop to position the professional body and the report. In addition, the membership committee members will present a draft Constitution and possibly a Code of Ethics. The secondary aim would be to get additional support from the industry to be actively involved in the working groups so that the Constitution can be finalized and seed funding acquired to begin the organization. Early in June 2007 the first Annual General Meeting will be held to sign up members, ratify the constitution and vote in a Board of Directions. They will appoint accountants, legal advisors, strategy advisors, open a bank account, acquire a postal address, etc. as the minimum requirements to register a Section 21 company. Thereafter, the BOD would operationalize Option A, (secretariat) by acquiring office space, furniture and equipment so that an Office Manager and book keeper can be appointed. During this period, the working groups will continue with establishing the services and communication for roll out, membership verification and formalizing relations with government. In addition several policies and a 3 year rolling plan will be required in order to guide the staff and members in their daily activities and as key performance areas. A Special Meeting will be called by the BOD when they establish that Option B may be feasible. This will be presented to the members in a vote of approval will take place. In the event of Option B being selected, the BOD will advertise, interview and approve a CEO. It must be noted that throughout this process, the working groups will remain active, however, they may be scaled down but would be essential for the CEO to create a well resourced organization. 3.1.2 Medium Term Objectives The three year rolling plans establish by each working group and approved by the BOD will be used to determine the medium term objectives for the organization. These will be reviewed annually and presented at the AGMs. 3.1.3 Long Term Objectives A five-ten year strategic view will be established and reviewed annually by the BOD and the presented at the AGMs.

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3.2 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY Meetings & Agendas
11 April 2007Meeting to review AGM requirements, name submissions. Email to Advisory body the date of the AGM & the terms of reference. Tasks to be done by 11 April: Review Constitution, Strategy & Business Plan

Tasks/Action
Steering committee with Advisory Body feedback

Membership
Finalize Constitution

Government
Government Liaison with DST

Marketing
Name & Corporate ID

Education
Membership database

23 May 2007 Meeting to present final outline of ID Professional Association presentation. Decide on name.

16 May 2007: Distribute info to advisory body. Place Constitution, Strategy & Business
Plan on SABS DI and UJ websites

4 Months

21 May 2007: Feedback deadline
9 June 2007 Working Groups continue 1st Annual General Meeting Formalize membership, Approve Constitution; vote in Advisory Body and Board of Directors. Establish working groups

Approve Constitution

Founding Members join, adopt constitution and votes in a Board of Directors

Board of Directors Register Section 21

23 June 2007 Establish bank accounts and postal addresses Appoint auditors & legal advisors Register the section 21 Acquire office space. Personnel search, interview and appointment of office manager 6 July 2007 Working Groups meet every 2 weeks Acquire furniture & equipment Commence operations with basic services and communications from the secretariat 6 August 2007 Working Groups meet every 2 weeks. Secretariat continues with basic services 3 September 2007 Working Groups meet every 2 weeks & submit policies to the BOD for review and approval. Secretariat continues with basic services. 1 October 2007 Preparation for special meeting. Personnel search, interview and Working Groups meet every 2 weeks & appointment of CEO submit CEO‟s Key performance areas to BOD for approval 13 October 2007 Special Meeting * on continuing with Option A or proceeding to Option B. 5 November 2007 Interview and appoint CEO starting 1 January 2008 for a 14 month contract, renewal after 9 m. Working Groups submit strategy and rolling plans to the BOD for review, integration and approval 3 December 2007 Year End Meeting 14 January 2008 Working Groups continue. Commence operation with new CEO. Establish relations with key stakeholders. Submission of 2008/9 budgets for BOD approval 4 February 2008 Working Groups continue. BOD Approval of Budgets and roll out plans for 2008/9/10/ I March 2008 Roll out 2008/9 implementation plan. Preparation of year end results for 2nd AGM.

App: Book Keeper

Secretariat

App: Office Manager

Create Advisory Body with highly active working groups

Membership
Membership Drive/Funding Finalize Values/Ethics

Government
Government Liaison Government Funding

Marketing
Website & brochure Corporate funding

Education
Participate in NQF structure for ID Communication infrastructure

Operationalize secretariat: Role out of basic services Finalize Proforma documents Approve Membership policy Formalize gov. discussions Approve Gov. Liaison policy
Role out of basic communication

8 Months

Membership acad. verification Approve Educational policy

Approve Marketing policy

CEO‟s Key Performance Areas Members vote for Option A or Option B

Board of Directors review financial sustainability and reports
back to membership

Submit 3 year membership strategy & rolling plan

Submit 3 year government strategy & rolling plan

Submit 3 year marketing strategy & rolling plan

Submit 3 year education strategy & rolling plan

12 Months

Annual shutdown, Year end staff lunch, Year end association party for all members.

Appoint Bookkeeper

CEO

Office Manager

Advisory Body with normally active working groups
Membership Government Marketing Education

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3.3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION The implementation of the professional body will be project managed for a period until the staff and members can meet specific objectives to operational the organization. It would be necessary for a project manager to be appointed so that the planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved can be achieved according to the project objectives on time and to a specific cost, quality and performance. 3.3.1 Work Breakdown Structure
WORK WORKING GROUPS Membership GROUP LEADERS
J. Louriero J. Engel

TACTICAL PLAN
Meeting to review AGM requirements, name submissions. Email the date of the AGM & the terms of reference to the Advisory body. Steering committee to review Constitution, Strategy & Business plan Steering committee agrees and signs off Constitution, Strategy & Business plan. Working Groups discuss and prepare presentations to members at AGM. Update membership database Select name, develop brief for corporate identity. Initiate Government liaison. Establish communication infrastructure. Finalize membership database. Begin funding drive with private sponsors Place constitution, strategy & business plan on UJ and SABS DI websites. Receive feedback. 1st Annual General Meeting Formalize membership, approve Constitution; vote in Advisory Body and the rest of the Board of Directors. Establish working groups. Individual working groups meet over 6 sessions @ 17.00 to resolve specific issues and policies: WG Sessions 1: BOD meeting @ 17.00 Operationalize secretariat (see operational).

Person(s) responsible

Deadlines
11 April 2007 16 May 2007

Budget

16 May 2007

Marketing

H. De Fosse A. Nizetich

7 May 2007

16 May 2007 21 May 2007 9 June 2007

Government

P. Manshon B. Smith

18 June 2007

Education

G. Mametja C. Duff

23 June 2007

BOD meeting @ 15.00 for operational issues WG Sessions 2: WG Sessions 3: WG Sessions 4: BOD meeting @ 17.00 WG Sessions 5: BOD meeting and WG presentations @ 17.00 WG Sessions 6: Working Groups submit policies to the BOD for review and approval. BOD meeting and WG presentations @ 17.00 Working Groups submit CEOs Key Performance Area.s Special Meeting: on maintaining Option A or proceeding to Option B. BOD meeting and WG presentations @ 17.00 Working Groups submit strategy and 3 year rolling plans to the BOD for review, integration and approval. BOD meeting with new CEO @ 17.00 Working Groups reduce meetings to monthly but still continue to be active.

2 July 2007

16 July 2007 30 July 2007 6 August 2007 20 August 2007 3 Sep 2007

1 October 2007

13 October 2007 Saturday 5 Nov 2007

14 January 2008 From January 2008

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OPERATIONAL Board of Directors HR

Establish bank accounts and postal addresses Appoint auditors & legal advisors Register the section 21 Personnel search, interview appointment of office manager starting 1 August 2007 Personnel search, interview and appointment of CEO starting 1 January 2008 for a 14 month contract, renewal after 9 m. Acquire office space starting 1 August 2007. Acquire & install furniture & equipment Commence operations with basic services and communications from the secretariat Commence operation with new CEO Roll out 2008/9 implementation plan Establish relations with key stakeholders. Submission of budgets for BOD approval Preparation of year end results for 2nd AGM

4 June 2007

4 June 2007 2 July 2007 1 Oct 2007 5 Nov 2007

Organisation Infrastructure Operations

2 July 2007 6 August 2007

1 August 2007 1 January 2008 I March 2008 1 January 2008 4 February 2008 I March 2008

Marketing Finance IT/Other

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3.3.2 Responsibility Charts Work consists of a task to be performed and person to perform the task. In order for the task to be performed, it needs money to purchase the people, materials, tools and time.
Membership Working Group Project Develop working group to tactical plan Activity Develop and deliver presentation for Code of Conduct and membership database at Workshop 2 Discuss & prepare constitution Discuss & prepare ethics/working agreement Acquire alternative funding Membership drive Finalize membership database Develop and submit Membership policy Develop and submit strategy & 3 year rolling plans Develop and submit strategy key performance areas for CEO Government Working Group Project Activity Develop working group Initiate government liaison to tactical plan Acquire funding Develop and submit Government policy Develop and submit strategy & 3 year rolling plans Develop and submit strategy key performance areas for CEO Deliverables PowerPoint presentation PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation Responsibility Deadline Budget

Funds Email and PowerPoint presentation

Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation

Description PowerPoint presentation Seed funds Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation

Responsibility

Deadline

Budget

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08 November 2009

Marketing Working Group Project Develop working group to tactical plan Activity Develop and deliver market strategy presentation at Workshop 2 Adapt existing generic PP presentation Acquire alternative funding Assist in establishing communication infrastructure Develop organizational CI Develop website Develop and submit Marketing policy Develop and submit strategy & 3 year rolling plans Develop and submit strategy key performance areas for CEO Education Working Group Project Develop working group to tactical plan Activity Assist in develop membership database at Workshop 2 Establish communication infrastructure Acquire alternative funding Participate in NQF framework Develop and submit Education policy Develop and submit strategy & 3 year rolling plans Develop and submit strategy key performance areas for CEO Description PowerPoint presentation Responsibility Deadline Budget Description PowerPoint presentation Responsibility Deadline Budget

PowerPoint presentation Funds

Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation

Email and PowerPoint presentation Funds Meeting with Defsa Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation Email and PowerPoint presentation

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08 November 2009

PROJECT MANAGER
Company registration Project

Activity

Description

Responsibility

Deadline

Budget

HR Project

Activity HR policy

Description

Responsibility

Deadline

Budget

Organizational infrastructure Project Activity Organizational policy Description Responsibility Deadline Budget

Communication Project Activity Communication policy Description Responsibility Deadline Budget

Marketing Project Activity Marketing policy Description Responsibility Deadline Budget

Finance Project Activity Finance policy Description Responsibility Deadline Budget

IT Project Activity IT policy Description Responsibility Deadline Budget

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08 November 2009

3.3.3 Gant Chart for Implementation Stage This chart gives an instant overview of the entire project and is useful when comparing the duration of the various stages and establishing overlaps of activities. Monthly Schedule
April 07 May 07 June 07 July 07 Aug 07 Sep 07 Oct 07 Nov 07 Dec 07 Jan 08 Feb 08 Marc 08

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

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18

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21

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36

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48

49

Projects list
1. Prepare for AGM 1a. Constitution, Code of ethics, Strategy & Bus plan 1b. Government liaison 1c. Communication infrastructure 1d Membership database & academic verification 1e Select name, develop CI, website & brochure 1f Funding drive 2. 1st AGM, formalize constitution, vote BOD 2a. Form active working groups 3. Personnel search, interview of secretariat, and begin operations on 1 August 4. Set up office & infrastructure 5. Working groups to resolve specific issues 5a. Working groups to submit policies 5b. Working Groups to submit strategies and rolling plans 5c. Working Groups to submit CEO key performance areas 8. Selection of Option A or B at Special Meeting 8a. Personnel search, interview appointment of CEO 9. Submission of budgets 10. Preparation for 2nd AGM in July

▲ ▲ A or B ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ A or B ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

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50

1

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9


				
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