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					Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 3- Kinds of Ecosystems Indicators from Scope and Sequence: 6.3 Expectation: The student will recognize how the living environment is comprised of interrelated, dynamic systems 6.3.2 The student will compare adaptation strategies and biological mechanisms necessary for survival. Lesson Plan for December 14, 2005 Objective: Students will be able to outline the process of natural selection in order to understand natural selection as a mechanism for evolution Engagement (Warm-up)
Maryland has over a dozen different species of oak tree. How do you think so many species developed?

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
Read “Of Hawaii, Evolution and Poetry in Science”

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
Class discussion: What are some characteristics of the birds that help them in surviving? How do you think one species of bird evolved into many different species with their own adaptations? Do you think these adaptations helped them to survive and pass on their genes to the next generation? What might have happened if they didn’t evolve into many different species? What were the environmental changes that led to the demise of many species? Do you think environmental changes are always bad for a species or can they be helpful sometimes? Do you think environmental changes can lead to extinction of species? What do you think will happen to future generations of the birds?

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)
Activity on Natural Selection: See attached sheet

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Over time what happened to the different species? Homework: Graph the number of species according to time (generation), answer questions found under the section “What Did you Find Out By Doing this Activity”

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able to describe the levels of organization in an ecosystem in order to complete the worksheet. Engagement (Warm-up)
List 4 abiotic factors. What is a biotic factor?

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
(From day 1) Movie "Predators" about leopards and cheetahs, students need to identify the connections within the system in the movie. How do non-living things affect the living things? What are the predators eating? What is the relationship between the acacia tree and the leopard? etc.

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
Levels of Organization *Vocabulary 1) Organism- one individual living thing 2) Population- multiple organisms of the same species that are in a given area 3) Community- multiple organisms of multiple species in a given area 4) Ecosystem- community including the abiotic factors in a given area 5) Biosphere- all the living things and non-living things put together in the world Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups) Worksheet "Levels of Organization"

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Go over worksheet ensure that students understand all the levels of organization and the definitions. Homework: How is your neighborhood community different from a biological community? Also bring in pictures of examples of biotic factors in an ecosystem.

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able to describe an ecosystem in order to make an ecosystem diorama. Engagement (Warm-up)
Give an example of a population Give an example of a community What are the abiotic factors in the classroom? What about biotic factors?

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
(From day 1) Movie "Predators" about leopards and cheetahs, students need to identify the connections within the system in the movie. How do non-living things affect the living things? What are the predators eating? What is the relationship between the acacia tree and the leopard? etc.

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
What is an ecosystem?

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)
In groups of 3-5. Make an ecosystem diorama using the pictures brought in and the art supplies. The diorama must include: 4 abiotic factors, 3 different plants, 2 different insects, 3 plant-eaters, 1 carnivore.

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Present ecosystems to the class. Team evaluation as well as teacher evaluation. Quiz: Abiotic factors and levels of organization.

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able to explain the niche concept as well as habitat in order to understand every organisms place in the world. Engagement (Warm-up)

The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's "address", and the niche is its "profession", biologically speaking. Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology - W B Saunders 1959 After reading this quote what do you think niche and habitat are?
Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
On chalkboard, have 3 students draw their homes, inside and out. Then review what is in the homes. Next have 3 other students come to the chalkboard and draw the home of their favorite animal. How does your home and the animal's home compare? Is an organism defined by its home?

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
* Vocabulary 1) Habitat- particular area or home where an organism lives 2) Niche- the function of the organism

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)
Begin by describing your niche in life. Then have students write down their place in their family, school, environment etc. Students should state clearly why their niche is unique and important to the world.

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Students share their niches to the class in order to comprehend the concept of niche. Homework: Write the niche of your favorite animal.

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able to categorize animals based on their feeding habits in order to understand food chains and food webs. Engagement (Warm-up)
What role does sunlight play in the ecosystem? Could there be life on earth without plants? Why?

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
Overhead "Food Chain" Students should fill out the accompanying worksheet using the "What Eats What" chart on pg. 57 of the textbook.

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
Vocabulary 1) Herbivore- organism that eats only plants 6) Producer- organism which makes its own food 2) Carnivore- organism that eats only animals 7) Consumer- Gets energy by eating other animals 3) Omnivore- organism that eats both plants and animals 4) Decomposer- breaks down dead organisms returning the nutrients to the soil 5) Food chain- sequence which energy is transferred from one organism to another

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)
Case Study "DDT in an Aquatic Food Chain" pp. 58-59. Answer the thinking critically questions in complete sentences.

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Class discussion on the case study. Ensure students understand the concept of a food chain. HW: Worksheet on food chain.

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able describe a food web in order to compare a food web with a food chain. Engagement (Warm-up)
Compare herbivores and omnivores Do all organisms eat only the next thing in line on the food chain? Explain.

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
Food web activity. Have students name different types of producers, primary consumers and secondary consumers. Assign each student an organism that they will be in the activity. Teacher is the sun. With a ball of string first have students identify all the organisms that "eat" energy from the sun. Connect them to the sun with a piece of string. Then one by one, identify all the organisms that would eat the producers, connect them with a piece of string. Continue until all the organisms are connected to one another by what they eat. Ask the students is this is a food chain. What does the class represent now?

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
Food web is a series of interlocking food chains. Food webs are vital in the stability of an ecosystem.

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)
Worksheet "Food Web" and "Forest Food Web" with accompanying overhead

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Go over worksheets if time permits. Homework: Finish worksheets

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able to use prior knowledge of food chains and food webs in order to understand the energy pyramid. Engagement (Warm-up)
Could more people be supported by 20 acres of land if they ate only plants instead of animals AND plants? Explain your reasoning.

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
Outside activity, food web game. Assign at random one person to be the bear, about 4 to be rabbits and the rest to be plants. The plants must stay still the entire game unless "eaten" by a rabbit. The rabbits tag the plants for 5 seconds in order for the plant to be eaten; once the plant has been eaten it must sit down. The bear chases after the rabbits and may simply touch the rabbit in order for the rabbit to be eaten. The rabbit must sit down after being eaten by the bear. (lots of running involved so be sure there is a lot of space) Allow the game to go on for only 5 minutes. Is it possible for the bear to eat all the rabbits in the area? Is it possible for the rabbits to eat all the plants in the area?

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
Energy degrades as it is transferred to the next trophic level; therefore, there are less primary consumers than producers and even less secondary consumers than primary consumers, etc. Vocab 1) trophic level 2) energy pyramid 3) rule of ten

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)
Divide class into 2 groups: group A and group B. Group A needs to determine the price per ounce of rice, flour, dried beans, and rolled oats. Group B is to determine the price per ounce of ground beef, pot roast, chicken and pork chops. Then ask each group to calculate the number of calories per ounce of each food type. Find the cost of one calorie for each food type and record findings on a bar graph. Compare results. Why does it cost less per calorie for plants? What is the significance of your findings for humans?

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Present a graph and paper with the answers to the questions. Homework: Evaluate your food costs and energy quality. Is your diet higher in plants of animals? How could this affect you?

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able to analyze the impact of invasives on the ecosystem in order to understand the necessity of native species. Engagement (Warm-up)
Biodiversity: Variety of Life. In the Alien Invaders module for the Bridging the Watershed program.

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
Bean There, Done That. In the Alien Invaders module for the Bridging the Watershed program. Teaches students how to sample a tiny measured area in order to collect data.

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)
What is an invasive species, what is an exotic species? How do these organisms affect the ecosystems?

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Present class data on overhead. Discuss the effectiveness of this type of field measurement. Homework: Pre-lab activity

Content Discipline: Environmental Science Overview: Unit 1- Everything's Connected: How Ecosystems Work. Indicators from Scope and Sequence: Lesson Plan for the week of: Objective: Students will be able to identify invasive species in order to describe the impact invasives have on the food web. Engagement (Warm-up)
Do you feel that too many species in your neighborhood are invasive? Explain.

Exploration/ Introductory Development Activity (Teacher Directed)
Plant Identification Decision Tree. In the Alien Invaders module for the Bridging the Watershed program.

Explanation/ Guided Practice (Teacher Monitored)

Elaboration/ Independent Activities/ Meaningful Use Task (Independent or Cooperative Groups)
Measuring the Invasion. In the Alien Invaders module for the Bridging the Watershed program. Using the sampling method learned, determine whether Parkdale's forest is under an alien invasion.

Evaluation/ Assessment and Closure (Assessment Activity)
Present class data on overhead. Discuss if students feel that aliens overrun the environment around Parkdale. Homework: Type up lab


				
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