Chapter 1 - Theoretical Foundations

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					Chapter 1 - Theoretical
     Foundations
  Dee Lee Smith – ETEC 562
   Do these apply to
Educational Technology?
   Educational Technology?

The text’s definition:

    “Any technology used by educators
 in support of the teaching and
 learning process.”
       Studying Educational
           Technology
 International Society for Technology
  in Education (ISTE)
 National Educational Technology
  Standards for Teachers (NETS-T)
     -”The world is different. Kids are
     different. . .learning is different
     . . .and teaching must be different
     too.”
    Instruction using Educational
             Technology
   Instructional events include everything
    needed and created by teachers to
    facilitate the transfer of learning

   The learning environment is made up of
    the physical and non-physical aspects of
    where instruction takes place

   Teachers use educational technology as a
    tool to create effective instructional events
              Learning

Theories:
 Diverse theories give explanation of
  how we learn
 Offer different perspectives
 Some contradict each other
 Which theory do you identify with?
Learning as Communication

 Both teachers and learners as
 individuals are affected by:
 - Personal filters
 - Environmental variables
 - Psychological factors

 All of these can change the message
 of communication
          Learning Theories
Environmental Factors

   Any factors that cause the learner to
    become disengaged from participation
   Can cause a distorted or blocked
    communication
   Dim lighting, excessive movement, and
    uncomfortable temperatures
       Learning Theories

Psychological Factors

 Emotions when message is sent
 Learning styles that are not
  addressed by sender
 Individual preferences
        Learning Theories

Personal Filters

 Personal values, cultural heritage,
  and social belief system
 Both sender and receiver are
  influenced by these
        Learning Perspectives
Behaviorists

   View all behavior as a response to external stimuli
   Behavior, skills, and knowledge all occur in
    response to rewards, punishments, or withheld
    responses
   A passive process – learning as a response to the
    environment
   Key theorists – Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, & B.F.
    Skinner
    Learning Perspectives
Cognitivists

 Learning as a mental operation
 Explained as how one thinks
 Learning is more complex than
  behaviorist responses
 Key theorists – Jerome Bruner &
  David Ansubel
       Learning Perspectives
Constructivists

   Knowledge is a constructed element
   Knowledge can best be learned in a social
    environment
   Presently, most influential force in shaping
    contemporary education
   Key theorist – Jean Piaget
     Learning Perspectives

More theorists:
  Seymour Papert – adapted Piaget’s
   perspective and applied it to children
   who were using technology, LOGO
  Robert Gagne’ – cognitive-constructivist
   view
  Lev Vygotsky & Albert Bandura – social-
   constructivist view
Learning Theories


        Building Blocks of
        Effective Teaching
        Teachers should develop
        their own style after the
        learning environment is
        developed and knowledge of
        learning theories is studied.
     Learning Characteristics


   Cognitive style

   Learning style

   Intelligence
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
 Each individual possesses some of all of the intelligences,
 but one or more dominates:

 -Linguistic               -Mathematical
 -Spatial                        -Bodily
 -Interpersonal                  -Intrapersonal
 -Naturalistic                   -Existential
 -Musical

 Find out which intelligence you are dominate in at:


http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/
      Teaching & Learning

 Teaching is a planned sequence of
  events
 Teaching style is usually a function of
  one’s own personal experiences
 Always keep in mind the goal of
  teaching: learning
      Teaching and Learning
   Technology a part of the teaching and
    learning process
       - Educational technology includes
         resources that enhance teaching
         and learning
       - This was not always the view
       - Consistent with the learning
         theories
    Learning and Teaching

 Teaching and learning work together
 Holistic planning is the key to
  effective learning
 Educational technologies selected
  after planning completed to enhance
  instruction
           A Brief Educational
          Technology Timeline
   Audiovisual movement – 1900’s
      - early movies

   Thomas Edison says “Books will soon
    be obsolete in schools” – 1913
      -He also predicted the movie projector would replace
       teachers

   Slides, radio, sound recordings –
    1920’s & 1930’s
Technology Timeline (cont.)

 Television – 1950’s
 CAI 1950’s & 1960’s
 View of educational technology
  changed – 1960’s to 1970’s
 Invention of microcomputer – 1970’s
    - this helped to redefine and expand
    educational technology to include all
    technologies
Technology Timeline (cont.)

   Educational technology enters the
    Digital Age – 1980’s
    Educational Technology

 How can we as teachers use
  technology? How we choose to utilize
  the technology provided to us is our
  choice!
 Holistic view exists as all media and
  systems that support teaching and
  learning

				
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posted:4/19/2013
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