Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West Section 1The by yaohongmeiyes


									           Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West

Section 1: The Market Revolution
     Farmers are self-sufficient – make own food, clothing, soap, ect.
     Shift to specialization – raising one or two cash crops
     Market Revolution – sell goods for profit instead of personal use
     More goods and services…….income rises
     Investors risk own money for huge profits
     Capitalism –private business and individuals own factors of

The Economic Revolution
     More goods produced…..price declines
     Telegraph – carries messages tapped in code
     Transportation – steamboats allow for travelling against current.
     Railroads faster than steamboats, travel in winter, travel on land.
     National road allows for western travel
     South Cotton….West grain (crops) Livestock (animals)….East
     John Deere – Stainless steel plow
Section 2: Manifest Destiny
     God intended Americans to expand to the Pacific Ocean
     American citizens and immigrants continue to push west into
     Native American Lands
     1840’s people begin to expand west (steel plow, railroad, more
     people = less land)

Settlers and Native Americans
     Some natives, but very few, assimilate (become part of) to
     American culture
    Natives fight back to keep land that Americans continually steal.
    Black Hawk lead a rebellion against U.S. 200 natives slaughtered.
    Forced to move further west.
    Fort Laramie Treaty – Control of Central plains given to
    Natives/money. (present day Kansas, Nebraska, N/S Dakota) In
    return natives could not attack settlers and allow for construction
    of roads/forts
Moving Far West
    Oregon Trail – Independence, Missouri – Portland, Oregon.
    Settlers take wagons with few possessions. Many die.
    Mormons – led by Joseph Smith. Seek religious freedom. Smith
    murdered in Illinois. Brigham Young leads Mormons to Utah.
Section 3: Expansion in Texas
     More immigrants lead for demand of more land.
     Stephen Austin – Austin,Texas. American Settler in Texas.
     Controlled by Mexico
     Few Mexican settlers at first Majority are there to convert natives.
     Mexico becomes independent from Spain. Mexico controls Texas,
     California, New Mexico…..
     Land Grants – cheap land in return for obedience to Mexican
     laws. Roman Catholics. Large number are Americans

Conflict in Texas
     Settlers bring American culture with them. Many own slaves.
     Slavery outlawed in Mexico.
     Texas Revolution – Independence from Mexico 1836.
     Remember the Alamo! – Texans drive Mexicans from the Alamo.
     Santa Anna comes back with more troops. Kill all Texan forces.
Texas becomes independent
     Sam Houston – Houston, Texas…President of the Republic of
     Many Texans call for annexation – become part of U.S.
     US worried about slavery issue and potential war with Texas
Section 4: The War with Mexico
     Tensions between US and Mexico grow
     James Polk – President responsible for annexation of Texas,
     California, Oregon……
     Polk sends agent to Mexico to purchase California/N.M. Mexicans
     refuse. Polk orders troops to blockade Rio Grande hoping for
     Mexican aggression. Mexicans claim Rio Grande is their land.

Nation divided
     Some welcomed war to gain land. Others worried about slavery
     issue/ethics of taking land.
     Wilmot Proviso – proposed amendment prohibiting slavery in
     Mexican gained lands. Turns into debate on slavery. Argued
     soldiers are dying to fight for slavery.

U.S. “purchases” the west
     Mexicans kill 9 soldiers. Polk claims they started the war. Does
     not tell whole side of story.
     New Mexico joins US without a battle. California gained very
     easily. US has better leadership.
     Mexico loses 25,000 soldiers, half its land. Americans lose
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Rio Grande border of Texas. N.M.
and California to US for 15 million. Gold found in California 1848.
1849 – gold rush in California.
Gadsden Purchase – small piece of territory used for railroads
bought for 10 million.

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