Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West Section 1: The Market Revolution Farmers are self-sufficient – make own food, clothing, soap, ect. Shift to specialization – raising one or two cash crops Market Revolution – sell goods for profit instead of personal use More goods and services…….income rises Entrepreneurs Investors risk own money for huge profits Capitalism –private business and individuals own factors of production The Economic Revolution More goods produced…..price declines Telegraph – carries messages tapped in code Transportation – steamboats allow for travelling against current. Railroads faster than steamboats, travel in winter, travel on land. National road allows for western travel South Cotton….West grain (crops) Livestock (animals)….East textiles/machinery John Deere – Stainless steel plow Section 2: Manifest Destiny God intended Americans to expand to the Pacific Ocean American citizens and immigrants continue to push west into Native American Lands 1840’s people begin to expand west (steel plow, railroad, more people = less land) Settlers and Native Americans Some natives, but very few, assimilate (become part of) to American culture Natives fight back to keep land that Americans continually steal. Black Hawk lead a rebellion against U.S. 200 natives slaughtered. Forced to move further west. Fort Laramie Treaty – Control of Central plains given to Natives/money. (present day Kansas, Nebraska, N/S Dakota) In return natives could not attack settlers and allow for construction of roads/forts Moving Far West Oregon Trail – Independence, Missouri – Portland, Oregon. Settlers take wagons with few possessions. Many die. Mormons – led by Joseph Smith. Seek religious freedom. Smith murdered in Illinois. Brigham Young leads Mormons to Utah. Section 3: Expansion in Texas More immigrants lead for demand of more land. Stephen Austin – Austin,Texas. American Settler in Texas. Controlled by Mexico Few Mexican settlers at first Majority are there to convert natives. Mexico becomes independent from Spain. Mexico controls Texas, California, New Mexico….. Land Grants – cheap land in return for obedience to Mexican laws. Roman Catholics. Large number are Americans Conflict in Texas Settlers bring American culture with them. Many own slaves. Slavery outlawed in Mexico. Texas Revolution – Independence from Mexico 1836. Remember the Alamo! – Texans drive Mexicans from the Alamo. Santa Anna comes back with more troops. Kill all Texan forces. Texas becomes independent Sam Houston – Houston, Texas…President of the Republic of Texas Many Texans call for annexation – become part of U.S. US worried about slavery issue and potential war with Texas Section 4: The War with Mexico Tensions between US and Mexico grow James Polk – President responsible for annexation of Texas, California, Oregon…… Polk sends agent to Mexico to purchase California/N.M. Mexicans refuse. Polk orders troops to blockade Rio Grande hoping for Mexican aggression. Mexicans claim Rio Grande is their land. Nation divided Some welcomed war to gain land. Others worried about slavery issue/ethics of taking land. Wilmot Proviso – proposed amendment prohibiting slavery in Mexican gained lands. Turns into debate on slavery. Argued soldiers are dying to fight for slavery. U.S. “purchases” the west Mexicans kill 9 soldiers. Polk claims they started the war. Does not tell whole side of story. New Mexico joins US without a battle. California gained very easily. US has better leadership. Mexico loses 25,000 soldiers, half its land. Americans lose 13,000. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Rio Grande border of Texas. N.M. and California to US for 15 million. Gold found in California 1848. 1849 – gold rush in California. Gadsden Purchase – small piece of territory used for railroads bought for 10 million.
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