Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West
Section 1: The Market Revolution
Farmers are self-sufficient – make own food, clothing, soap, ect.
Shift to specialization – raising one or two cash crops
Market Revolution – sell goods for profit instead of personal use
More goods and services…….income rises
Investors risk own money for huge profits
Capitalism –private business and individuals own factors of
The Economic Revolution
More goods produced…..price declines
Telegraph – carries messages tapped in code
Transportation – steamboats allow for travelling against current.
Railroads faster than steamboats, travel in winter, travel on land.
National road allows for western travel
South Cotton….West grain (crops) Livestock (animals)….East
John Deere – Stainless steel plow
Section 2: Manifest Destiny
God intended Americans to expand to the Pacific Ocean
American citizens and immigrants continue to push west into
Native American Lands
1840’s people begin to expand west (steel plow, railroad, more
people = less land)
Settlers and Native Americans
Some natives, but very few, assimilate (become part of) to
Natives fight back to keep land that Americans continually steal.
Black Hawk lead a rebellion against U.S. 200 natives slaughtered.
Forced to move further west.
Fort Laramie Treaty – Control of Central plains given to
Natives/money. (present day Kansas, Nebraska, N/S Dakota) In
return natives could not attack settlers and allow for construction
Moving Far West
Oregon Trail – Independence, Missouri – Portland, Oregon.
Settlers take wagons with few possessions. Many die.
Mormons – led by Joseph Smith. Seek religious freedom. Smith
murdered in Illinois. Brigham Young leads Mormons to Utah.
Section 3: Expansion in Texas
More immigrants lead for demand of more land.
Stephen Austin – Austin,Texas. American Settler in Texas.
Controlled by Mexico
Few Mexican settlers at first Majority are there to convert natives.
Mexico becomes independent from Spain. Mexico controls Texas,
California, New Mexico…..
Land Grants – cheap land in return for obedience to Mexican
laws. Roman Catholics. Large number are Americans
Conflict in Texas
Settlers bring American culture with them. Many own slaves.
Slavery outlawed in Mexico.
Texas Revolution – Independence from Mexico 1836.
Remember the Alamo! – Texans drive Mexicans from the Alamo.
Santa Anna comes back with more troops. Kill all Texan forces.
Texas becomes independent
Sam Houston – Houston, Texas…President of the Republic of
Many Texans call for annexation – become part of U.S.
US worried about slavery issue and potential war with Texas
Section 4: The War with Mexico
Tensions between US and Mexico grow
James Polk – President responsible for annexation of Texas,
Polk sends agent to Mexico to purchase California/N.M. Mexicans
refuse. Polk orders troops to blockade Rio Grande hoping for
Mexican aggression. Mexicans claim Rio Grande is their land.
Some welcomed war to gain land. Others worried about slavery
issue/ethics of taking land.
Wilmot Proviso – proposed amendment prohibiting slavery in
Mexican gained lands. Turns into debate on slavery. Argued
soldiers are dying to fight for slavery.
U.S. “purchases” the west
Mexicans kill 9 soldiers. Polk claims they started the war. Does
not tell whole side of story.
New Mexico joins US without a battle. California gained very
easily. US has better leadership.
Mexico loses 25,000 soldiers, half its land. Americans lose
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Rio Grande border of Texas. N.M.
and California to US for 15 million. Gold found in California 1848.
1849 – gold rush in California.
Gadsden Purchase – small piece of territory used for railroads
bought for 10 million.