Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy

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					Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy
Anatomy=the study of the structure of the human body.
[What is the definition of “Biomedical Sciences?”]

To study anatomy you will need to sharpen your powers of observation, and you will have to learn a new language.

Basic Terms
Many terms have Greek and Latin roots; see: ossary/ le02/medterm.htm

Basic Terms
Use correct terminology on exams; avoid nonspecific, general terms, like “front,” “up,” and “behind.”

Disciplines of Anatomy
Gross Anatomy: structures studied with the naked eye.
Systematic anatomy: organized by systems, e.g., digestive, nervous, endocrine, etc. Regional anatomy: study of all structures in an area of the body, e.g., upper extremity bones, muscles, blood vessels, etc.

Disciplines of Anatomy
Microscopic anatomy (histology) Cell biology Developmental anatomy (embryology) Pathological anatomy Radiologic anatomy (x-ray, CT, MRI) Other areas? (surgery)

Disciplines of Anatomy
Who else is interested in anatomy?

Disciplines of Anatomy
Who else is interested in anatomy?

Disciplines of Anatomy
Who else is interested in anatomy?
Alien(?) autopsy

Disciplines of Anatomy
Anatomically correct cartoons. Harry Potter, The Lion King, Mulan, 101 Dalmations, Lilo and Stitch, Shrek II, Beauty and the Beast, Hercules, Tarzan, Brother Bear, Spirit
From The Chronicle for Higher Education, 11/21/2003

Levels of Structural Organization
Biochemical (atoms, molecules) Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism (Fig. 1.1)

The Metric System
Be familiar with and able to convert: Meters (m) Centimeters (cm) Millimeters (mm) Micrometers (mm) Nanometers (nm) See appendix A, p. 799 Have a sense of sizes and structures.

The Anatomical Position
The standard reference position:


Gross Anatomy Terms
Superior (cranial) Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal) Medial – lateral Proximal – distal Superficial – deep (1.4)

Planes of the Body
Frontal (coronal) (antpost) Transverse (horizontal) (sup-infer) Midsagittal (R-L) Parasagittal (unequal R-L) (1.5)

Body Cavities
Dorsal body cavity
Cranial & vertebral/spinal cavity

Ventral body cavity
Thoracic & abdominopelvic cavity


Serous Cavities
Thorax & Abdomen Closed to outside Double walled sac (serous membrane)
Pleural cavity pericardium peritoneum

Parietal serosa Visceral serosa Serous fluid/cavity (1.9a)

Double walled sac
Pleural cavity pericardium peritoneum

Serous Cavities

Parietal serosa Visceral serosa Serous fluid (1.9bcd) [name views and planes]

Mucous Membranes
Lines body cavities open to the outside
Respiratory system Digestive system Urinary system Reproductive system

Microscopic Techniques
Light microscopy (LM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Tissue must be cut into thin sections Tissue must be stained Limitations
2-dimensional Static image (EM)

Advantages: 0.2 mm and 0.2 nm resolution, respectively

[Naked eye = 100-200 mm resolution]

Microscopic Techniques
Ciliated epithelium seen with LM, TEM, & SEM


Microscopic Techniques
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
3-D image

Limitation Lower resolution than TEM

Medical Imaging Techniques
X-rays (1.14) CT Scan (1.15) PET (1.17) Ultrasound imaging (1.18) MRI (1.19) fMRI Anatomy is important!

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