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Behaviorism-Cognitivism

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					Behaviorism-Cognitivism


       By: Belen Abarca
    Behavioral Theorist-B.F. Skinner
    Skinner developed the
     operant conditioning model.
    He believed two types of
     learning existed: classical
     conditioning and operant
     conditioning
     Skinner says that a learner
     “does not passively absorb
     knowledge from the world
     around him but must play
     an active role.”
    Learners learn by doing,
     experiencing, and engaging
     in repeated trial and error.
         Behavioral Theory

   Behaviorism operates on a principle of
    “stimulus-response.”
   All behavior is caused by external
    stimuli.
   All behavior can be explained without
    the need to consider internal mental
    states or consciousness.
       Operant Conditioning

   When an organism does something,
    the consequences of that behavior are
    reinforcing, it is likely to be done again.
    What counts as reinforcement, of
    course, (whether positive or negative),
    is based on the evidence of the
    repeated behavior, which makes the
    whole argument rather circular.
The ABCs of Behavioral Learning
Operant Conditioning simply put…

   reinforcing what you want people to do
    again; ignoring or punish what you
    want people to stop doing.
Cognitive Theorist- Robert Gange
   is best known for his Nine
    Events of Instruction.
   Gagne believes that
    effective instruction should
    reach beyond traditional
    learning theories.
   He supports cumulative
    teaching that transitions
    from simple to complex
    skills.
   This hierarchical framework
    is widely used in many
    instructional environments.
              Gange’s
      Nine Events of Instruction

   Gain Attention         Elicit Performance
   Inform Learner of      Provide Feedback
    Objective              Assess
   Recall Prior            Performance
    Knowledge              Enhance Retention
   Present Material        and Transfer
   Provide Guided
    Learning
         Cognitivism Theory

   The cognitivist model essentially argues that
    the “black box” of the mind should be
    opened in order to understand how people
    learn.
   The learner is viewed as an information
    processor (like a computer).
   Learning is a change in mental
    representations and associations brought by
    experiences.
    How learning theories impact
      teaching-behaviorism.

   Breaking down the skills and information to be
    learned into small units.
   Checking student's work regularly and providing
    feedback as well as encouragement
   (reinforcement).
   Teaching "out of context." Behaviorists generally
    believe that students can be taught best when the
    focus is directly on the content to be taught.
   Direct or "teacher centered" instruction, teacher
    controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral
    classrooms.
    How learning theories impact
       teaching-cognitivism.

   Learning is active.
   Students explore various possible response
    patterns and choose between them.
   Learning can be intrinsically rewarding.
   Knowledge is a matter of acquiring information
   Understanding is a matter of creating new patterns.
   Applications require the learner to see relationships
    among problems.
   Students must direct their own learning.
    Manifestations in adult learning

    Behavioral Objectives   Cognitive Development
    Competency based          Intelligence,
     education                   learning and
    Skill development          memory as function
     and training               of age
                               Learning how to
                                learn
    Congitivism and Adult Learning

   Cognitivism, like constructivism, views the learner
    as an active participant in the knowledge
   acquisition process. Therefore, instruction should
    be designed to fully engage the learner. To
   do so, instructional materials can utilize
    demonstrations and illustrative examples.
   The use of various media, such as videos and
    graphics, may also be helpful in engaging the
   learner's cognitive processes.
    Behaviorism and Adult Learning

    Behaviorist Adult Education has its roots in
     modern philosophic and scientific
     movements.
    Behaviorism in adult education emphasizes
     such concepts as control, behavioral
     modification, learning through reinforcement
     and management by objectives.
References
   Atherton, J.S. (2005). Learning and Teaching: Behaviourism. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the
    World Wide Web: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm
   Behavioral Theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional Technology. Retrieved February 25,
    2008, from the World Wide Web: http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm#instruction
   Killpatrick, L. (2001). Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of
    Educational Technology. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from World Wide Web: about:blank
    http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/gagnesevents/start.htm
   Learning-Theories.com. (2007). Behaviorsm. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide
    Web: http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html#more-21
   Learning-Theories.com. (2007). Cognitivism. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:
    http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html#more-34
   Smith, M. K. (1999). Learning Theory. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved February
    25, 2008, from the World Wide Web: http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm
   Spurgeon, Linda P., Moore Gary E. (1997). The Educational Philosophies of Training and Development
    Professors, Leaders, and Practitioners. Journal of Technology Studies, 22.2, 11-19. Retrieved
    February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/Summer-Fall-
    1997/PDF/3-Spurgeon.pdf
   Tway, Duane C. (2003, September 22). Cognitivism, Constructivism, and Work Performance The Free
    Library. (2003). Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:
    http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cognitivism, constructivism, and work performance-a0111848863

				
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