By: Belen Abarca
Behavioral Theorist-B.F. Skinner
Skinner developed the
operant conditioning model.
He believed two types of
learning existed: classical
conditioning and operant
Skinner says that a learner
“does not passively absorb
knowledge from the world
around him but must play
an active role.”
Learners learn by doing,
experiencing, and engaging
in repeated trial and error.
Behaviorism operates on a principle of
All behavior is caused by external
All behavior can be explained without
the need to consider internal mental
states or consciousness.
When an organism does something,
the consequences of that behavior are
reinforcing, it is likely to be done again.
What counts as reinforcement, of
course, (whether positive or negative),
is based on the evidence of the
repeated behavior, which makes the
whole argument rather circular.
The ABCs of Behavioral Learning
Operant Conditioning simply put…
reinforcing what you want people to do
again; ignoring or punish what you
want people to stop doing.
Cognitive Theorist- Robert Gange
is best known for his Nine
Events of Instruction.
Gagne believes that
effective instruction should
reach beyond traditional
He supports cumulative
teaching that transitions
from simple to complex
This hierarchical framework
is widely used in many
Nine Events of Instruction
Gain Attention Elicit Performance
Inform Learner of Provide Feedback
Recall Prior Performance
Knowledge Enhance Retention
Present Material and Transfer
The cognitivist model essentially argues that
the “black box” of the mind should be
opened in order to understand how people
The learner is viewed as an information
processor (like a computer).
Learning is a change in mental
representations and associations brought by
How learning theories impact
Breaking down the skills and information to be
learned into small units.
Checking student's work regularly and providing
feedback as well as encouragement
Teaching "out of context." Behaviorists generally
believe that students can be taught best when the
focus is directly on the content to be taught.
Direct or "teacher centered" instruction, teacher
controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral
How learning theories impact
Learning is active.
Students explore various possible response
patterns and choose between them.
Learning can be intrinsically rewarding.
Knowledge is a matter of acquiring information
Understanding is a matter of creating new patterns.
Applications require the learner to see relationships
Students must direct their own learning.
Manifestations in adult learning
Behavioral Objectives Cognitive Development
Competency based Intelligence,
education learning and
Skill development memory as function
and training of age
Learning how to
Congitivism and Adult Learning
Cognitivism, like constructivism, views the learner
as an active participant in the knowledge
acquisition process. Therefore, instruction should
be designed to fully engage the learner. To
do so, instructional materials can utilize
demonstrations and illustrative examples.
The use of various media, such as videos and
graphics, may also be helpful in engaging the
learner's cognitive processes.
Behaviorism and Adult Learning
Behaviorist Adult Education has its roots in
modern philosophic and scientific
Behaviorism in adult education emphasizes
such concepts as control, behavioral
modification, learning through reinforcement
and management by objectives.
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