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					Early Artificial Intelligence
     Our Working Definition of AI

Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make
computers do things that people are better at or
would be better at if:
• they could extend what they do to a World Wide
  Web-sized amount of data and
• not make mistakes.
                    Why AI?
"AI can have two purposes. One is to use the power of
computers to augment human thinking, just as we use
motors to augment human or horse power. Robotics
and expert systems are major branches of that. The
other is to use a computer's artificial intelligence to
understand how humans think. In a humanoid way. If
you test your programs not merely by what they can
accomplish, but how they accomplish it, they you're
really doing cognitive science; you're using AI to
understand the human mind."
- Herb Simon
The Dartmouth Conference and the
    Name Artificial Intelligence

 J. McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, and C.E.
 Shannon. August 31, 1955. "We propose that a 2
 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence be
 carried out during the summer of 1956 at
 Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire.
 The study is to proceed on the basis of the
 conjecture that every aspect of learning or any
 other feature of intelligence can in principle be
 so precisely described that a machine can be
 made to simulate it."
          Time Line – The Big Picture

     academic                 $        academic and routine




50       60      70      80       90         00       10


       1956 Dartmouth conference.
       1981 Japanese Fifth Generation project launched as the
            Expert Systems age blossoms in the US.
       1988 AI revenues peak at $1 billion. AI Winter begins.
           The Origins of AI Hype

1950 Turing predicted that in about fifty years "an average
interrogator will not have more than a 70 percent chance of
making the right identification after five minutes of
questioning".


1957 Newell and Simon predicted that "Within ten years a
computer will be the world's chess champion, unless the rules
bar it from competition."
       Evolution of the Main Ideas
•Wings or not?
•Games, mathematics, and other knowledge-poor tasks
•The silver bullet?
•Knowledge-based systems
•Hand-coded knowledge vs. machine learning
•Low-level (sensory and motor) processing and the resurgence
of subsymbolic systems
•Robotics
•Natural language processing
        Symbolic vs. Subsymbolic AI

Subsymbolic AI: Model
intelligence at a level similar to
the neuron. Let such things as
knowledge and planning emerge.


Symbolic AI: Model such
things as knowledge and              (blueberry (isa fruit)
planning in data structures that                (shape round)
make sense to the                               (color purple)
programmers that build them.                    (size .4 inch))
   The Origins of Subsymbolic AI

1943 McCulloch and Pitts A Logical Calculus of the Ideas
Immanent in Nervous Activity




 “Because of the “all-or-none” character of nervous
 activity, neural events and the relations among them can
 be treated by means of propositional logic”
 Interest in Subsymbolic AI




40   50   60   70   80   90   00   10
     The Origins of Symbolic AI

• Games


•Theorem proving
                         Games
•1950        Claude Shannon published a paper describing how
             a computer could play chess.
•1952-1962   Art Samuel built the first checkers program
•1957        Newell and Simon predicted that a computer will
             beat a human at chess within 10 years.
•1967        MacHack was good enough to achieve a class-C
             rating in tournament chess.
•1994        Chinook became the world checkers champion
•1997        Deep Blue beat Kasparpov
•2007        Checkers is solved
•AI in Role Playing Games – now we need knowledge
                   Logic Theorist
• Debuted at the 1956 summer Dartmouth conference, although
  it was hand-simulated then.

• Probably the first implemented A.I. program.

• LT did what mathematicians do: it proved theorems. It
  proved, for example, most of the theorems in Chapter 2 of
  Principia Mathematica [Whitehead and Russell 1910, 1912,
  1913].
                   Logic Theorist
• LT used three rules of inference:
   • Substitution (which allows any expression to be
     substituted, consistently, for any variable):

       • From: A  B  A, conclude: fuzzy  cute  fuzzy

   • Replacement (which allows any logical connective to be
     replaced by its definition, and vice versa):

       • From A  B, conclude A  B

   • Detachment (which allows, if A and A  B are theorems,
     to assert the new theorem B):


       • From man and man  mortal, conclude: mortal
                        Logic Theorist
In about 12 minutes LT produced, for theorem 2.45:

     (p  q)  p                     (Theorem 2.45, to be proved.)
1.   A  (A  B)                       (Theorem 2.2.)
2.   p  (p  q)                       (Subst. p for A, q for B in 1.)
3.   (A  B)  (B  A)               (Theorem 2.16.)
4.   (p  (p  q))  ((p  q)  p)   (Subst. p for A, (p  q) for B in 3.)
5.   (p  q)  p                     (Detach right side of 4, using 2.)
     Q. E. D.
                    Logic Theorist
The inference rules that LT used are not complete.

The proofs it produced are trivial by modern standards.

For example, given the axioms and the theorems prior to it, LT
tried for 23 minutes but failed to prove theorem 2.31:

               [p  (q  r)] ) [(p  q)  r].

LT’s significance lies in the fact that it opened the door to the
development of more powerful systems.
                      Mathematics
1956   Logic Theorist (the first running AI program?)

1961   SAINT solved calculus problems at the college
       freshman level

1967   Macsyma

Gradually theorem proving has become well enough
understood that it is usually no longer considered AI.
                  The Silver Bullet?
Is there an “intelligence algorithm”?
1957           GPS (General Problem Solver)




  Start                                 Goal
                    The Silver Bullet?
Is there an “intelligence algorithm”?
1971              STRIPS                A planning system for
                                        Shakey.
   Precondition:    ONTABLE(x)
                    HANDEMPTY
                    CLEAR(x)


   Delete list:     ONTABLE(x)
                    HANDEMPTY


   Add list:        HOLDING(x)
                   The Silver Bullet?
Is there an “intelligence algorithm”?
1971            STRIPS

Precondition:   ONTABLE(x)
                HANDEMPTY          Does x have to be on the
                CLEAR(x)           table?
Delete list:    ONTABLE(x)         Are there other constraints on
                HANDEMPTY          x?
Add list:       HOLDING(x)         Might something else also
                                   happen?
                                   Are we guaranteed that we’re
                                   holding x if we try to pick it up?
         But What About Knowledge?


•Why do we need it?

     Find me stuff about dogs who save people’s lives.




•How can we represent it and use it?


•How can we acquire it?
         But What About Knowledge?


•Why do we need it?

     Find me stuff about dogs who save people’s lives.
                          Two beagles spot a fire.
                          Their barking alerts
                          neighbors, who call 911.
•How can we represent it and use it?


•How can we acquire it?

				
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posted:4/19/2013
language:English
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