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Schultz_Organism_Notes12013.ppt

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									Organism Notes
                  6 Kingdoms
 Eubacteria- prokaryotes, Bacteria (E.Coli)
 Archabacteria-extremophile prokaryotes
(Yellowstone bacteria, live near sulfur vents, Salt Lake)
 Fungi- heterotrophs (mushrooms, yeast)
 Plantae- Autotrophs (trees, shrubs, etc.)
 Animalia- Heterotrophs (Hydra,
  Grasshopper, Earthworm, human)
            Digestive     Specialized   Excretion     Specialized   Circulation   Specialized
            Mechanism     Organs        Mechanism     organs        Mechanism     Organs




Protists    Small         Food          Waste is      Contractile
(pg 500)
            cavity that   Vacuole       eliminated    Vacuole
            temporar-                   through
            ily stores                  contractile
            food.                       vacuole.

Bacteria




Plants
(pg. 560)
            Digestive     Specialized   Excretion     Specialized   Circulation   Specialized
            Mechanism     Organs        Mechanism     organs        Mechanism     Organs




Protists    Small         Food          Waste is      Contractile
(pg 500)
            cavity that   Vacuole       eliminated    Vacuole
            temporaril                  through
            y stores                    contractile
            food.                       vacuole.

Bacteria    Absorbs
            materials     NO            Releases
                                        wastes        NO
            through the                 through the
            cell walls.                 cell wall.



Plants
(pg. 560)
            Digestive     Specialized   Excretion         Specialized   Circulation   Specialized
            Mechanism     Organs        Mechanism         organs        Mechanism     Organs




Protists    Small         Food          Waste is          Contractile
(pg 500)
            cavity that   Vacuole       eliminated        Vacuole
            temporaril                  through
            y stores                    contractile
            food.                       vacuole.

Bacteria    Absorbs
            materials     NO            Releases
                                        wastes            NO
            through the                 through the
            cell walls.                 cell wall.



Plants      Absorbs                     Cells eliminate
(pg. 560)   water
                          Roots and
                          chloro-
                                        water and         Stoma
                                        oxygen out of
            through       plasts        pores in
            roots and                   leaves.
            make their
            own food
            with light
            (photosyn-
            thesis)
Digestion, Excretion and Circulation
               Digestive       Specialized   Excretion   Specialized   Circulation   Specialized
               Mechanism       Organs        Mechanism   Organs        Mechanism     Organs

Grasshoppers
(pg. 752)


Earthworm
(pg. 697)


Hydra
(pg. 671)

Fungi          Thin            Mycelium
(pg. 528)      filaments
                               and
                                             Diffusion
                                             out of      NO
               clumped                       cells.
               together like   Hyphae
               roots that
               absorb food
               from their
               host.
               Digestive          Specialized   Excretion       Specialized   Circulation   Specialized
               Mechanism          Organs        Mechanism       Organs        Mechanism     Organs

Grasshoppers
(pg. 752)




Earthworm
(pg. 697)




Hydra          Water and          Mouth/        Waste           Mouth/
(pg. 671)      nutrients                        products
                                  Anus (1                       Anus
               come into          opening)
                                                leave
               GVC. The                         through
               chamber is                       mouth/anus      Gastro-
               lined with         Gastro-                       vascular
               cells that         vascular                      cavity
               absorb             cavity
               nutrients
Fungi                                           Diffusion out
                                                                NO
               Thin filaments
               clumped together
                                  Mycelium
(pg. 528)                                       of cells.
               like roots that    and
               absorb food from
               their host.        hyphae
               Digestive          Specialized      Excretion       Specialized   Circulation   Specialized
               Mechanism          Organs           Mechanism       Organs        Mechanism     Organs

Grasshoppers
(pg. 752)




Earthworm      Food              Mouth,           Eliminate
(pg. 697)      Mouth             pharynx, crop,
                                  gizzard,
                                                   the non-        ANUS
               Pharynx                             absorbed
               crop             intestines,
                                  anus (2          foods out of
               gizzard
               intestines        openings)        anus
               anus
Hydra          Water and
                                  Mouth/           Waste           Mouth/
               nutrients come
(pg. 671)                                          products
               into GVC. The
                                  Anus (1                          Anus
               chamber is lined
                                  opening)
                                                   leave
               with cells that
               absorb nutrients
                                                   through         Gastro-
                                  Gastro-          mouth/anus      vascular
                                  vascular                         cavity
                                  cavity
Fungi                                              Diffusion out
                                                                   NO
               Thin filaments
               clumped together
                                  Mycelium
(pg. 528)                                          of cells.
               like roots that    and
               absorb food from
               their host.        hyphae
               Digestive          Specialized      Excretion       Specialized     Circulation   Specialized
               Mechanism          Organs           Mechanism       Organs          Mechanism     Organs

Grasshoppers   1 way              Mouth,           Sac-like        Malpighian
(pg. 752)      digestive track    pharnyx, crop,   structures
               w/ 2 openings      stomach          extract waste   tubules (like
                                                                   our liver)
                                  (digestive       from the
                                  glands),         blood- moves    (pg. 717)
                                  intestines and   through the
                                  anus             gut and out
                                                   the anus
Earthworm      Food              Mouth,           Eliminate
(pg. 697)      Mouth             pharynx, crop,
                                  gizzard,
                                                   the non-        ANUS
               Pharynx                             absorbed
               crop             intestines,
                                  anus (2          foods out of
               gizzard
               intestines        openings)        anus
               anus
Hydra          Water and
                                  Mouth/           Waste           Mouth/
               nutrients come
(pg. 671)                                          products
               into GVC. The
                                  Anus (1                          Anus
               chamber is lined
                                  opening)
                                                   leave
               with cells that
               absorb nutrients
                                                   through         Gastro-
                                  Gastro-          mouth/anus      vascular
                                  vascular                         cavity
                                  cavity
Fungi                                              Diffusion out
                                                                   NO
               Thin filaments
               clumped together
                                  Mycelium
(pg. 528)                                          of cells.
               like roots that    and
               absorb food from
               their host.        hyphae
         Digestion              Specialized    Excretory        Specialized   Circulation   Specialized
         Mechanism              Organs         Mechanism        Organs        Mechanism     Organs
         (pg. 971-
         989


Humans   Digestion starts       Mouth          Skin excretes    Skin
         in the mouth.                         salt and water
         Teeth help you         (teeth and                      Kidneys
                                               through the
         chew. Amylase in       saliva)                         Bladder
         saliva break                          pores of the
         down food.             Esophagus      skin             Anus
         Espohagus
         pushes food
                                Stomach        Kidneys have
                                               a series of
         through using          Small
         peristalsis. HCl in                   tubes that
         the stomach
                                Intestine      reabsorb
         breaks down            Liver          water so that
         food more. Villi in                   urine is
         the small              Gall Bladder
         intestine absorb                      concentrated.
         nutrients. Liver       Pancreas
         filters toxins. Gall   Large
         bladder has bile.
         Pancreas               Intestine
         regulates the
         sugar in the
         blood. Large
         intestine’s main
         function is to
         absorb water.
         E.Coli in large
         intestine gives
         you Vitamin K.
            Digestive     Specialized   Excretion         Specialized   Circulation     Specialized
            Mechanism     Organs        Mechanism         organs        Mechanism       Organs




Protists                                                                Most one
(pg 500)
            Small
            cavity that
                          Food
                          Vacuole
                                        Waste is
                                        eliminated
                                                          Contractile
                                                          Vacuole
                                                                        celled
                                                                        organisms
                                                                                        NO
            temporaril                  through                         have free
            y stores                    contractile                     flowing
                                                                        cytoplasm so
            food.                       vacuole.                        nutrients
                                                                        diffuse.
Bacteria    Absorbs
            materials     NO            Releases
                                        wastes            NO            Diffusion
                                                                        out of cells.   NO
            through the                 through the
            cell walls.                 cell wall.



Plants      Absorbs                     Cells eliminate
(pg. 560)   water
                          Roots and
                          chloro-
                                        water and         Stoma
                                        oxygen out of
            through       plasts        pores in
            roots and                   leaves.
            make their
            own food
            with light
            (photosyn-
            thesis)
            Digestive           Specialized   Excretion         Specialized   Circulation          Specialized
            Mechanism           Organs        Mechanism         organs        Mechanism            Organs




Protists
                                                                                                   NO
            Small cavity that
            temporarily
                                Food          Waste is
                                              eliminated
                                                                Contractile   Most one celled
                                                                              organisms have
(pg 500)    stores food.        Vacuole       through           Vacuole       free flowing
                                              contractile                     cytoplasm so
                                              vacuole.                        nutrients diffuse.


Bacteria
                                NO            Releases
                                                                NO            Diffusion
                                                                                                   NO
            Absorbs
            materials through
            the cell walls.                   wastes                          out of cells.
                                              through the
                                              cell wall.
Plants      Absorbs                           Cells eliminate
                                                                Stoma
                                Roots and                                     Capillary            Xylem (takes
(pg. 560)   water                             water and                       Action (pulling      water from
                                chloro-       oxygen out of                   up a tiny            the roots to
            through             plasts        pores in                        tube)                the rest of the
            roots and                         leaves.                                              plant) and
                                                                              Cohesion
            make their                                                        (water               Phloem (takes
            own food                                                          molecules            sugars and
            with light                                                        stick together)      nutrients
            (photosyn-                                                        Adhesion             throughout
                                                                                                   the plant)
            thesis)                                                           (water
                                                                              molecules            Roots (apical
                                                                              stick to the         meristem)
                                                                              sides of the         Root Hairs
                                                                              wall)
                                                                              (pg. 581, 602)
               Digestive          Specialized        Excretion        Specialized       Circulation   Specialized
               Mechanism          Organs             Mechanism        Organs            Mechanism     Organs

Grasshoppers   1 way              Mouth,             Sac-like         Malpighian
(pg. 752)      digestive track    pharnyx, crop,     structures
               w/ 2 openings      stomach            extract waste    tubules (like
                                                                      our liver)
                                  (digestive         from the
                                  glands),           blood- moves
                                  intestines and     through the
                                  anus               gut and out
                                                     the anus
Earthworm      Food              Mouth,             Eliminate
(pg. 697)      Mouth             pharynx, crop,
                                  gizzard,
                                                     the non-         ANUS
               Pharynx                               absorbed
               crop             intestines,
                                  anus (2            foods out of
               gizzard
               intestines        openings)          anus
               anus
Hydra          Water and          Mouth/             Waste products   Mouth/
               nutrients come     Anus (1 opening)   leave through    Anus
(pg. 671)      into GVC. The                         mouth/anus
                                  Gastro-vascular                     Gastro-vascular
               chamber is lined   cavity                              cavity
               with cells that
               absorb nutrients


Fungi                                                Diffusion out
                                                                      NO                Fluids
                                                                                                      NO
               Thin filaments
               clumped together
                                  Mycelium
(pg. 528)                                            of cells.                          diffuse
               like roots that    and
               absorb food from
                                  hyphae                                                through
               their host.
                                                                                        hyphea and
                                                                                        circulated
                                                                                        by the
                                                                                        cytoplasm
               Digestive          Specialized      Excretion       Specialized     Circulation      Specialized
               Mechanism          Organs           Mechanism       Organs          Mechanism        Organs

Grasshoppers   1 way              Mouth,           Sac-like        Malpighian
(pg. 752)      digestive track    pharnyx, crop,   structures
               w/ 2 openings      stomach          extract waste   tubules (like
                                                                   our liver)
                                  (digestive       from the
                                  glands),         blood- moves
                                  intestines and   through the
                                  anus             gut and out
                                                   the anus
Earthworm      Food              Mouth,           Eliminate
(pg. 697)      Mouth             pharynx, crop,
                                  gizzard,
                                                   the non-        ANUS
               Pharynx                             absorbed
               crop             intestines,
                                  anus (2          foods out of
               gizzard
               intestines        openings)        anus
               anus
Hydra          Water and
                                  Mouth/           Waste           Mouth/          Water and        Gastrovas-
               nutrients come
(pg. 671)                                          products                        Nutrients go     cular Cavity
               into GVC. The
                                  Anus (1                          Anus
               chamber is lined
                                  opening)
                                                   leave                           in and cells
               with cells that
               absorb nutrients
                                                   through         Gastro-         absorb
                                  Gastro-          mouth/anus      vascular        water and
                                  vascular                         cavity          nutrients.
                                  cavity
Fungi                                              Diffusion out
                                                                   NO
                                                                                   Fluids diffuse
                                                                                                    NO
               Thin filaments
               clumped together
                                  Mycelium
(pg. 528)                                          of cells.                       through
               like roots that    and                                              hyphea and
               absorb food from
               their host.        hyphae                                           circulated by
                                                                                   the cytoplasm
               Digestive          Specialized        Excretion            Specialized       Circulation        Specialized
               Mechanism          Organs             Mechanism            Organs            Mechanism          Organs

Grasshoppers   1 way              Mouth, pharnyx,    Sac-like
                                                                          Malpighian
(pg. 752)      digestive track    crop, stomach      structures extract
               w/ 2 openings
                                  (digestive         waste from the       tubules (like
                                  glands),           blood- moves         our liver)
                                  intestines and     through the gut
                                  anus               and out the anus

Earthworm      Food              Mouth,             Eliminate
                                                                          ANUS
                                                                                            HAS TO STAY        Skin
(pg. 697)      Mouth             pharynx, crop,     the non-                               MOIST!
                                  gizzard,                                                  Closed
                                                                                                               Blood
               Pharynx                               absorbed
               crop             intestines,                                               circulatory        Vessels
                                  anus (2            foods out of                           system. Blood      (Dorsal and
               gizzard
               intestines        openings)          anus                                   goes through       Ventral)
               anus                                                                         vessels.
                                                                                                               (pg.697)
                                                                                            Dorsal feeds
                                                                                            the head.
                                                                                            Ventral feeds
                                                                                            the head and
                                                                                            tail.
                                                                                            O2 through
                                                                                            the skin.
Hydra          Water and          Mouth/             Waste                Mouth/            Water and          Gastrovas-
               nutrients come     Anus (1 opening)                        Anus              Nutrients go in
(pg. 671)      into GVC. The                         products                               and cells absorb   cular Cavity
                                  Gastro-vascular                         Gastro-vascular
               chamber is lined   cavity             leave                cavity            water and
               with cells that                                                              nutrients.
               absorb nutrients
                                                     through
                                                     mouth/anus
Fungi                                                Diffusion out
                                                                          NO
                                                                                            Fluids diffuse
                                                                                                               NO
               Thin filaments
               clumped together
                                  Mycelium
(pg. 528)                                            of cells.                              through
               like roots that    and                                                       hyphea and
               absorb food from
               their host.        hyphae                                                    circulated by
                                                                                            the cytoplasm
               Digestive          Specialized       Excretion       Specialized       Circulation           Specialized
               Mechanism          Organs            Mechanism       Organs            Mechanism             Organs

Grasshoppers   1 way              Mouth,            Sac-like        Malpighian        Open                  Heart
(pg. 752)      digestive track    pharnyx, crop,    structures                        circulatory
               w/ 2 openings      stomach           extract waste   tubules (like     system. Blood
                                                                                                            Arteries
                                                                    our liver)
                                  (digestive        from the                          bathes the            Spiricles
                                  glands),          blood- moves                      sinuses               (Spiders
                                  intestines and    through the                       (cavities),
                                                                                                            have book
                                  anus              gut and out                       bathes the
                                                    the anus                          organs, goes          lungs; Fish
                                                                                      back to the           have gills)
                                                                                      heart and gets        (pg. 717)
                                                                                      pumped back
                                                                                      into the
                                                                                      sinuses again.
Earthworm      Food              Mouth,            Eliminate
                                                                    ANUS                                    Skin
                                                                                      HAS TO STAY
                                                                                      MOIST! Closed
(pg. 697)      Mouth             pharynx, crop,    the non-
                                  gizzard,
                                                                                      circulatory system.   Blood
               Pharynx                              absorbed                          Blood goes through
               crop             intestines,                                         vessels. Dorsal       Vessels
                                  anus (2           foods out of                      feeds the head.
                                                                                                            (Dorsal and
               gizzard                                                               Ventral feeds the
               intestines        openings)         anus                              head and tail.        Ventral)
               anus                                                                   O2 through the
                                                                                      skin.

Hydra          Water and          Mouth/            Waste           Mouth/            Water and             Gastrovas-
               nutrients come                                                         Nutrients go
(pg. 671)      into GVC. The      Anus (1           products        Anus                                    cular Cavity
                                  opening)                                            in and cells
               chamber is lined                     leave           Gastro-
               with cells that    Gastro-                           vascular cavity   absorb water
               absorb nutrients
                                                    through                           and nutrients.
                                  vascular cavity   mouth/anus
Fungi                                               Diffusion out
                                                                    NO
                                                                                      Fluids diffuse
                                                                                                            NO
               Thin filaments
               clumped together
                                  Mycelium
(pg. 528)                                           of cells.                         through
               like roots that    and                                                 hyphea and
               absorb food from
               their host.        hyphae                                              circulated by
         Digestion              Specialized    Excretory        Specialized   Circulation       Specialized
         Mechanism              Organs         Mechanism        Organs        Mechanism         Organs
         (pg. 971-
         989


Humans   Digestion starts       Mouth          Skin excretes    Skin          Closed            Heart
         in the mouth.                         salt and water                 Circulatory
                                (teeth and                      Kidneys
         Teeth help you
                                               through the                    sytem             Arteries
         chew. Amylase in       saliva)                         Bladder
                                               pores of the                   4 chambered
         saliva break
         down food.             Esophagus      skin
                                                                                                Veins
                                                                Anus          heart
         Espohagus
                                Stomach        Kidneys have                   Lungs bring in    Capillaries
         pushes food
                                               a series of                    O2
         through using          Small
                                               tubes that
                                                                                                Spleen
         peristalsis. HCl in                                                  The heart and
         the stomach
                                Intestine      reabsorb                                         Blood
                                                                              vessels
         breaks down            Liver          water so that                  circulate O2 in   (contains
         food more. Villi in                   urine is
         the small              Gall Bladder                                  the blood        Red Blood
         intestine absorb                      concentrated.
                                Pancreas                                      Exchange O2
         nutrients. Liver
                                                                              for CO2 the
                                                                                                Cells-contain
         filters toxins. Gall   Large                                         blood lungs      hemoglobin,
         bladder has bile.
         Pancreas               Intestine                                     are used to       White
         regulates the                                                        exhale
         sugar in the                                                                           Blood
                                                                              Spleen-
         blood. Large
                                                                              dissolve dead     Cells-fight
         intestine’s main
         function is to                                                       blood cells       infection
         absorb water.
         E.Coli in large
                                                                              Types of          Platelets-
                                                                              Blood: A, B,
         intestine gives                                                                        clotting and
         you Vitamin K.                                                       AB, O
                                                                              Rh factor + or    Plasma)
                                                                              -
Diseases of the Digestive and Circulatory System


Diabetes            Autoimmune disease that attacks the islets of Langerhorn
                    (cells in your Pancreas that make insulin




PKU                 Disease where you can’t process phenoalanine (foot stick
                    at birth and test)




Ulcers              Used to think this was from overproduction of acid but
                    now some ulcers have been proven to have a bacterial
                    origin.



Heart disease       100% preventable with diet and exercise! Fatty deposits
                    called plaque build up on the walls of the arteries.

(Arterosclerosis)

								
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