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LOOKING CLOS·ER 5
edited by: Michael Bierut, William Drenttel, and Steven Helier




                        ALLWORTH PRESS
                           NEW YORK
i
                                                                                                                                     , l




                               CONTENTS




                         FOREWORD-EDITORS / vii



                            INTRODUCTION / ix
                                 Steven Heller


                   SECTION I: GRAPHIC DESIGN AS'SYSTEM

         THE GRAND UNIFIED THEORY OF NOTHING: DESIGN, THE CULT
                OF SCIENCE, AND THE LURE OF BIG IDEAS / 3
                               Randy Nakamura

    TOWARDS CRITICAL AUTONOMY, OR CAN GRAPHIC DESIGN SAVE ITSELF? / 8
                               Andrew Blauvelt

    METHOD DESIGNING: THE PARADOX OF MODERN DESIGN EDUCATION / 11
                                Jessica Helfand

                      PAINTING THE WORLD PINK / 13
                     William Owen and Fenella Collingridge

                         DEFAULT SYSTEMS DESIGN
        A DISCUSSION WITH ROB GIAMPIETRO ABOUT GUILT AND LOSS IN
                           GRAPHIC DESIGN / 16
                               Rudy VanderLans

                        THE BIRTH OF THE U:SER / 23
                                 Ellen Lupton

             QUANTUM LEAP: BEYOND LITERAL MATERIALITY / 26
                               Johanna Drucker

           FROM THE (A) TRIVIAL TO THE (B) DEADLY SERIOUS, LISTS
                      DOMINATE VISUAL CULTURE / 32
                                Alice Twemlow                ,
                                                                  .
                                                                 I ..... '   " .. "
                                                                             ~               --
                                                                                      .................. _ ........
                                                                                      ~                    ~
                                                                                                                      _"'~

                                                                                                                      ~       .
                                                                                                                             ___ ,




                                                                                      141191


                                                                 1111111111111111
IV                              LOOKIN G CLOSER      5
                                                                               -
                    SECTIO N II: GRAPH IC DESIGN AS CULTU RE

                             THE BEAUT Y PART / 43
                                   Rick Poynor

                            THE IMAGE CULTU RE / 45
                                  Christine Rosen

                 THINK ING INSIDE THE BOX: ASPEN REVISI TED / 62
                                   Emily King

                            WHERE THE GIRLS GO / 69
                                   Maud Lavin
                             ~.
                                                                          -
                                                     M OF MODER N ART / 75
     GRAPH IC DESIGN IN THE COLLE CTION OF THE MUSEU
                                  Paola Antonelli

                              AMERI CAN MUTT / 77
                                  David Barringer


                    SECTIO N III: GRAPH IC DESIGN AS FASHIO N
                                                                                i
                                                                                I
                   THE DECRI MINAL IZATIO N OF ORNAM ENT / 87
                                   Alice Twemlow
                                                                               I
                                                                               j
                     STYLE IS NOT A FOUR LETTE R WORD / 94
                                     Mr. Keedy                                 I
                                                                               I
                 NOT YOUR GRAND PAREN T'S CLENC HED FIST / 103
                                                                               :/
                                     Phil Patton                               1

                                                            / 106              !
               THE SHOCK OF THE OLD: RETHI NKING NOSTA LGIA                    1
                                   Jessica Helfand
                                                                               J
                                                                               I
                                                            GARDE / 108
           CRIME S AGAIN ST TYPOG RAPHY : THE CASE OF AVANT
                                    Steven Heller
                                                                               I
                                                                               1
                     SECTIO N IV: GRAPH IC DESIGN AS POLITI CS

                          A PRESID ENT AND HIS DOG / 115
                                   . Karrie Jacobs
                                                                               j
                            THE CITIZE N DESIGN ER / 118
                                                                               I
                                                                               1
                                   Victor Margolin
                                                                               1
                                                    WOMA N'S BUILD ING / 129
      WHERE PUBLIC MEETS PRIVAT E: THE LOS ANGEL ES                            1
                                      Teal Triggs



                                                                               I
                          FIGHTI NG THE IMAGE WARS / 136
                                     Steven Helier

                                                                               1
                                                                               1
f
I




                                 CONTENTS                           V




    HUMAN DIGNITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS: THOUGHTS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF       , 1
                     HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN / 140
                             Richard Buchanan

                            SINCE THEN / 144
                              Milton Glaser

                           RAGING BULL / 149
                               Rick Poynor

                      CASTLES MADE OF SAND / 152
                              Lorraine Wild

                   MY COUNTRY IS NOT A BRAND / 161
                       a     William Drenttel


                 SECTION V: GRAPHIC DESIGN AS PASSION

                   THE CULT OF GRAPHIC DESIGN / 167
                           Adrian Shaughnessy

                         GRAPHIC FANTASIES:
                REFLECTIONS IN THE GLASS CEILING / 170
                             Veronique Vienne

         EXPERIMENTAL TYPOGRAPHY. WHATEVER THAT MEANS / 172
                               Peter Bilak

                       DESIGN AS RELIGION / 176
                              Nick Currie

                DESIGNING UNDER THE INFLUENCE / 179
                             Michael Bierut

                           PART NOTES / 181
                             Rob Giampietro

                    DESIGN OUT OF BOUNDS? / 185
                               Dan Nadel

                   DESIGNING THE REAL WORLQ / 188
                              Al Robertson

                    INNOVATION AND RESTRAINT:
            THE BOOK DESIGNS OF RICHARD ECKERSLEY ! 191
                            Roy R. Behrens


                 SECTION VI: GRAPHIC DESIGN AS IDEA

                           DUMB IDEAS / 197
                               Mr. Keedy
                                                                q
VI                       LOOKING CLOSER     5



     WONDERS REVEALED: DESIGN AND FAUX SCIENCE / 202
                jessica Helfand and William Drenttel

               ED WORDS: RUSCHA IN PRINT / 207
                           Michael Dooley

                        VISITATIONS / 215
        'Denise Gonzales Crisp, Kali Nikitas, Louise Sandhaus

                  VISITATIONS REVISITED / 221
                          Rudy VanderLans

     MAD DUTCH DISEASE: TEN PROPOSALS FOR A LECTURE
                 ,9N DUTCH DESIGN/ 224
                            Michael Rock

                WHY DESIGNERS CAN THINK / 234
                           ·Ralph Caplan·


                        BIOGRAPHIES / 237



                            INDEX / 240
                                                       INDEX




                     A                    Bell, Daniel, 226                            Chappel, Warren, 194                           i
Acosta-Azuru, Carolina, 73                Bell, Nick, 161, 162, 163                    Chicago,Judy, 130, 135n21                      !
                                                                                                                                      i
Acuff, Dan, 73                            Belt, Leslie, 133                            Chrysalis, 134                                 1
Adbusters, 222, 223                       Bengston, Billy Al, 211                      Cieciorka, Frank, 104
aesthetics, 80, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102      Bierut, Michael, vii, viii, x, }49,          citizen designer, 128, 148                     I
Airside,169                                         150,179,236,237                    Cole, Henry, 88
Amaya, Mario, 63, 67                      Bilak, Peter, 172                            Collingridge, Fenella, 13
                                                                                                                                      j
American Girl Place (AGP), 69-74          Blackburn, Bruce, 180.                       Communicate: Independent British               i
Analogue, 176-177, 178                    Blauvelt, Andrew, 8, 37, 38                           Graphic Design since the
Antonelli, Paola, 75                      blogs, viii, ix, x, xi, 89, 115, 116, 138,            Sixties, 169
Archis magazine, 233, 233-234
architecture, 75, 76, 88-89,118, 135n7,
                                                    149, 154, 197
                                          Blowhard, Michael, 177
                                                                                       computers, 9, 18-19,21,22,91
                                                                                            See also desktop publishing;
                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                                      j
         157,178,232
Artforum, 211, 212
                                          Boltanski, Christian, 37
                                          Bonnell, Bill, 152
                                                                                                Internet
                                                                                       Conceptual art, 20-21
                                                                                                                                      i
Art in America, 131-132                   book design, 191-194                         consumerism, 78-79, 97, 98
ARTnews,210                               Boom, Irma, 231, 232                         context, 199-200
                                                                                                                                      :1
Arts and Crafts movement, 91, 95          Boorstin, Daniel, 47, 59, 60                 "Context in Critique" (Siegel), 159
"Art Under Plutocracy" (Morris),
         119-121,128
                                          Bourdieu, Pierre, 3, 7
                                          boxed publications. See Aspen magazine
                                                                                       Cranbrook, 18, 157
                                                                                       "Crisis In Perception, A" (Irwin), 4-6
                                                                                                                                      I
Asmal, Kadir, 140-143                     Boxer, Sarah, 36                             CrolI!well, Thomas, 46
Aspen, Colorado, 63, 64, 66               brain,S7-58                                  Crouwel, Wim, 228, 230-231, 232                1
Aspen magazine, 62-69                     branding, 161-163, 170,225,227,              "Cult of the Ugly" (Helier), 18


                                                                                                                                      I
authenticity, 98, 199                               229-330                            Cuppens, Brecht, 174
autonomy, 10-11, 200                      Bravi, Enrico, 174                           Currie, Nick, 176
Avant Garde, 108-111                      Bringhurst, Robert, 191, 192, 194            Cushing, Lincoln, 104                          1
avant~garde, 10, 11                       Brodovitch, Alexey; 65, 156
                                          Brolin, Brent C, 88                                              D

Ba~a, Judy, 131 .
                    B                     Buchanan, Richard, 140
                                          bullet P?ints, 33-34, 38
                                                                                       Daguerre, Louis-Jacques-Mande,
                                                                                                48,49
                                                                                                                                      I
Bailey, Stuart, 37, 38                    bullshit, 149-151, 186                       daguerreotypes, 48, 53                         1
Banharn, Reyner, 64, 89                   Burden, Chris, 217                           Dalton, David, 63, 65, 66
                                                                                                                                      J
Bankowsky,Jack,212                        Burdick, Bruce, 237                          Daly, Mary, 131
                                                                                                                                      1
Bantjes, Marian, 91                       Burns, Aaron, 110                            Daniell, Thomas, 232
Barnbrook, Jonathan, 92                                                                Davis, J Francis, 54                           1
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 75, 76                                  C                        de Certeau, Michel, 131
Barringer, David, 77                      Caplan, Ralph, 236                           defaults, 21, 28, 219
Barthes, Roland, 23, 60                   Capra, Fritjof, 4, 5, 6                      Default Systems, 16-23
Baseman, Frank, 146                       Carlos,John, 105                             Design and Crime (Foster), 96, 218
Bass, Saul, 236
beauty, 43-45
                                          Carnase, Tom, 109, 110
                                          Carson, David, 168, 173, 175, 186
                                                                                       design-culture graphics, 167-170
                                                                                       Design, Form and Chaos (Rand), 94
                                                                                                                                      I
Becker, Serge, 33                         Center for the Study of Political            Designfor the Real World (papanek), 189
Behrens, Roy R., 191                              Graphics (Los Angeles), 104          Design Observer, ix, x, xi, 149, 197,223
                                                                                                                                       j
                                                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                                                  crunJ
                                                          INDEX



Design of Dissent (Glaser and llic), 145   FOEW&OMBWHNW (Higgins), 26               human rights/human-centered design,
design theory, 197, 198, 200-201           Foster, Hal, 8, 9, 96~97, 218, 229             140-143                            , I
Design Within Reach, 101                   Foundation, 33, 37, 216                  Huot-Marchand, Thomas, 173-174
Design Writing Research (Lupton and        Frankfurt, Harry G., 149, 151
         Miller), 194                      Frank!, Viktor, 147, 148
desktop publishing, 10, 19,28              Friedman, Dan, 179                       ideas, dumb, 197-202
Die Gestalten Verlag (DGV) publica-        Froomkin, Dan, 116, 117                  !lic, Mirko, 145
         tions,185-187                     fungible designs, 81                     images, 45-61
di Sciullo, Pierre, 175, 176                                                              brain and, 57-58
Dooley, Michael, 207                                            G                         control of, 46-47
Doordan, Dennis, 142                       Gass, William, 36                              disasters and, 45-46
DotDotDot, 94                              George, Robert, 161                           manipulation of, 46-47, 50-53
Dowding, Geoffiey, 191                     Gerstanzang,James, 138                        moving, 53-58, 61
Drawing is Thinking (Glaser), 237          Gerstner, Karl, 217                           photography and, 48-53
DrenJtel, William, vii, viii, x,           Giampietro, Rob, 16-23, 181                    Power Point and, 58-59
         161,202                           Gill, Eric, 191                               technology and, 60-61
Droog,92                                   Gil(Tburg, Ralph, 108-109, 110                war and, 136-139
Drucker, Johanna, 26                       GLAMORALization, 81                      indexes, 37, 38
Duft)r,Joe, 155                            Glaser, Milton, vii, xi, 144,237         Inevitable Ornament, 92
Dumbar, Gert, 228-229                      Gomrich, E. H., 146                      InFocus "Presenters University"
Dutch Design, 225-235                      Gonzales Crisp, Denise, 89, 91, 92,                Web site, 34                             I   j
Dwiggins,WA., 89                                    93,215-221                      Interiors, 72
Dworkin,Andrea,133-134                     Gordon,Anne,138                          International Design Conference
                                           Goudy, Frederic W, 89                              Aspen (IDCA), 64, 68
                   E                       Graham, Dan, 63, 66, 67                  International Style, 17, 19,20,106
Eames, Charles, 94                         Graham, Robert, 104, 105                 Internet, x, xi, 9, 32, 46, 115-117
E.A. T. (Experiment and Typography), 174   Grammar of Ornament (Jones), 88               See also online journals;
Eatock, Daniel, 20, 37, 38                 Graphic, 168                                       Web sites
Eckersley, Richard, 191-194                Graphic Design: A History (WeilJ), 177   Irwin, Terry, 4--5, 5-6, 6-7
Eckersley, Tom, 193                        Graphic Imperative, 146
ecology, 4, 5                              Graphic Thought Facility, 216, 218                           J
efficiency, 79-82                          Graves, Michael, 99                      Jacobs, Karrie, 115
Ehrenberg,Jennifer,72                      Gropius, Walter, 118                     Javal, Louis Emile, 174
Ellertson, Charles, 192
Elliman, Paul, 37-38
                                           Guardian, 107
                                           Gursky, Andreas, 53, 60
                                                                                    Jean, Sean, 105
                                                                                    Jensen, Elizabeth, 138
                                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                                           I
Emigre, vii, x, xi, 9, 16, 17,20, 155,
          158,186,194,222                                       H
                                                                                    John, Sean, 105
                                                                                    Johns,Jasper, 208, 210
                                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                                           I
English Popular and Traditional Arts       Hacker, Harvey, 104                      Johnson, Jack, 105                                         I
          (Lambert and Marx), 89           Hall, Edward, 126                        Johnso;', Philip, 76
Epstein, Lee, 38                           Hamilton, Richard, 157                   Johnson, Phyllis, 63, 68
EROS, 108, 110                             Hammer, Melle, 173                       Johnson, Steven, 54
                                                                                                                               I   i
Esquire, 3, 5, 65, 180                     Hand, The (Wilson), 237                  Jones, Owen, 88
ethics, 122, 146, 188                      Harlemworld,105                          Jongerius, Hella, 92                                   1·


Europe, 13, 14--15,215-221,222,            Hay, Greg, 149                           Journal of Communication, 73
                                                                                    Journal of Design and Manufactures, 88
         223,224
     See also Dutch Design
"Examples of False Principles in
                                           Haystack Mountain School
                                                    of Crafts, 236
                                           Helfand, Jessica, vii, viii, x, xi,
                                                                                    Judt, Tony, 105
                                                                                                                                           I
         Decoration," 88                            11,106,202                                         K
experiment, 172-176, 198-199               Helier, Steven, vii, viii, ix, 18,       Kalman, Tibor, vii, 155,201
Experimental Jetset, 20, 216, 217, 233              108, 128, 136                   Keedy, Mr., vii, 94, 197
experts, 99                                Hendel, Richard, 191,                    King, David, 50                                            '
Eye, vii, x, 18, 19,43,154,161,162,                 193, 194                        King, Emily, 62
          194,216                          Henderson, Richard, 177                  King,Susan, 132, 135n21
                                           Hickey, Dave, 43, 212                    Kisman, Max, 228
                   F                       Hirst, Darnien, 60                       Klanten, Robert, 186
Farid, Hany, 52, 53                        Hoifer, Eric, 190                        Klein, Naomi, 98,123-124
Fella, Ed, 157                             Household Words, 88                      Knight, Christopher, 215
Ferguson, Russell, 176-177                 Hsu, Karen, 92                           Knoll, John, 51
Fiore, Quentin, 63, 66                     human-computer interaction (HCI)         Koolhaas, Rem, 70, 92, 162,218,232
fist symbol, 103-105                               studies, 23, 24                  Koser, Mikkel Crone, 174
                                                   LOOKING CLOSER            5


Kreshel, Peggy J., 73                       Miller, J. Abbott, vii, 194                                   p
Kruger, Barbara, 179-180, 207               Mitchell,WJ.T,49                          packaging of an album, 181-185
                                            Moore, Michael, 138                       Paepcke, Elizabeth, 64, 65, 66, 68
                      L                     Mooren, Maureen, 92                       Paepcke, Walter, 64, 65, 66, 68
Labowitz, Leslie, 133                       moral content, 82-;83                     Paglia, Camille, 53, 55
Lacy, Suzanne, 133                          Morris,William, 30, 32, 91, 99,           Palma, Paolo, 17 4
Lambert, Margaret, 89                                 118,119-122,124,125,            Papanek,Victor, 189, 190
Lavin, Maud, 69
Levrant de Bretteville, Sheila, 130, 131,
                                                      126, 128
                                            Morton,A. L., 119-121
                                                                                      Parker,Ian, 34
                                                                                      Patton, Phil, xi, 103
                                                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                                                     !
          132, 133, 160-12                  Most, Steven, 57                          Perec, Georges, 36, 175
Lewitt, Sol, 22, 217                        Muir, Hamish, 173                         Peifect Medium: Photography and the
                                                                                                                                     1
Liebeskind, Daniel, 180                     Mumford, Lewis, 126                                 Occult, The, 50
Life Style (Mau), 94                        Museum of Modern Art, 75-76               photography, 48-53
Lippard, Lucy, 131-132                      Musson, Jeremy, 191                       Photolettering Inc., 109
lists, 32-39                                                                          Photoshop, 51-53, 60
literal materiality, 28                                        N                      Plagens, Peter, 207, 209
Lois, George, 3, 5, 65                      Nadel, Dan, 185                           Pleasant Co., 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74
Loos, Adolf, 88-89, 94, 96, 97, 229         l'i~amura, Randy, 3                       pluralism, 8, 9, 10
Lord, M. G., 73                             Nation, 51,144                            posters, 75,104,193
Los Angeles Times, 132, 138,213,215         New Republic, 161                         Postman, N eil, 60
Los Angeles Woman's Building,               News from Nowhere (Morris), 120           Postrel,Virginia, 97-99,100,
          129-135                           New Yorker, 34,56,59,184                            101,198
Louis,Joe, 104, 105                         New York Philharmonic, 56,.57             Postwar (Judt), 105
Lowe, Bia, 133                              New York Times, 37, 50, 52, 53, 54, 56,   Power Point, 33-34, 38, 47,
Lubalin, Herb, 108, 109, 110                         58,97,138                                 58-59, 161
Lubalin Smith Carnase, 109-110              New York Times Magazine, 51, 161          Poynor, Rick, vii, viii, 43,100-101,
Lumbard, Paula, 133                         Nikitas, Kali, 215-221, 222-223                     149,153-159,194
Lupton, Ellen, vU, xi, 23, 170, 194         No Logo (Klein), 98, 123-124              Poynter Online Weblog, 138
                                            No More Rules (poynor), 100-101,          Practice of Everyday Life, The
                   M                                 153-156,158-159                            (de Certeau), 131
Machine Art, 76                             Norsworthy, Ron, 105                      praxis, 189
Mackie, George, 192                         nostalgia, 106-107                        Print, vU, x, 155,207,210
Mackintosh, Charles Renuie, 118                                                       "Problem with Pluralism, The"
Maclise,Angus, 63, 67--68                                      o                                (Foster), 8
Maclise, Hetty, 63, 67-68                   Obey the Giant (poynor), 154              protest, graphics of, 104-105
Maddox, Anne, 73                            O'Doherty, Brian, 63, 66, 67
Magma bookshops, 168, 176, 177, 178         Olympics in Mexico City                                       Q
Makela, P. Scott, 207                                (1968),105                       quantum field/system, 29, 31
Making PCR (Rabinow), 7                     Omit the Unimportant (Rams), 94
Man ~ Search for Meaning (Frankl), 147      On Book Design (Hendel), 194                                  R
maps, 13-16                                 On Bullshit (Frankfurt), 149              Rabinow, Paul, 7
Margolin, Victor, 118                       Ong, Walter, 38                           Rams, Dieter, 94
market, the, 78                             online journals, viii, ix, x, xi          Rand, Paul, 27, 94, 152
Marks, Saul, 213                            On Photography (Sontag), 49               "Rant," 222-224
Marshal!, Richard, 209, 212                 "Ornament, A Modern Perspective"          Rauschenberg, Robert, 208
Marx, Enid, 89                                       (Trilling), 95-96                Raven, Arlene, 130
Mau,Bruce,94,161                            "Ornament and Crime" (Loos),              Ravilious, Kate, 107
Maviyane-Davies, Chaz, 146                          88-89,94-95                       Reading in Detail: Aesthetics and the
McCal!, Shane, 70, 71                       "Ornament and Crime: The Decisive                  Feminine (Schor), 92
McCoy, Katherine, vii, 43, 44, 159-5                 Contribution of Adolf Loos"      real world design, 188-190
McCullough, Malcolm, 91                              (Banham),89                      Reason magazine, 97
McFetridges, Geo£[, 92                      ornament/decoration, 87-93, 94-95,        Re magazine, 68, 233
McGann,Jerome, 29, 32                               96,97,101                         Renner, Paul, 191
McGrath, Mary Ann, 73                       Orr,Jimrny, 116                           Reparation Tower, 105
McKeon, Richard, 141                        Ortho-type, 174                           repose, 98, 103n17
McLuh.an, Marshal!, 49, 60, 63, 66          Otpor· ("Resistance") group, 104          Resnick, Elizabeth, 146
McNealy, Scott, 59                          OuLiPo,21-22                              Restoration Hardware, 101
memory, 107                                 Outing, Steve, 138                        Re-View, 20
method acting/designing, 11-12, 13          overidentification, 77-78                 Richter, Gerhard, 36-37
Metzger, Denna, 129                         Owen, William, xi, 13                     Riley, Terence, 75



                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 j       :



                                                                                                                              wUlmM
                                                                  INDEX
                                                                                                                                  243

    Rise of the Image, The Pall of the Word,                          T                      Veblen,Th orstein, 97, 103n13
             The (Stephens), 54                    taste, 99, 102                            vector graphics, 186
   Robertson , Al, 188                                                                                                                  , I
                                                   Technics and Civilization (Mumford),      Venturi, Robert, 89,118,1 57
   Rock, Michael, 225                                        126                             Vermaas, Chris, 229
   Rodchenk o, Alexander, 6                        technology, 7, 8, 17,47, 60-61,          Victoria and Albert Museum,
   Rosen, Christine, 45                                      101-102, 126                            62,88
   Ross, Alex, 184                                television, 54, 56, 57, 58, 100,          Vienne, Veronique, vii, 128, 170
   Rossman, Michael, 104                                     146,234                        Virilio, Paul, 60
   Rowland, Pleasant, 69, 72, 73, 74              Thiele, Edward, 74                        Visionaire, 62, 68
   rules, no more, 100-101, 102                   thinking, 236-237                         "Visitations;' 222-224
   Ruscha, Ed, 36, 67, 157, 207-215               Tomato, 168, 169                          Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World:
   Ruskin,]o hn, 88, 99, 118                      Triggs, Teal, 129, 172                             A Critical Sourcebook, 102
                                                  Trilling,James, 95-96, 101                Voice, 236
                         S                        Trow, George W. S., 146 ,                 von Bennekom ,Jop, 233
    Sagmeister, Stefan, 36, 94, 168              Tschichol d, Jan, 175, 191
    Salisbury, Mike, 213                         Tufte,Edw ard, 25, 59
                                                                                                                W
    Salon.com, 51, 52                            1Jremlow, Alice, xi, 32, 87               Warde,Be atrice,191
    Sander, Karin, 37                            "Two Tramps in Mud Time"                  Warhol,Andy, 63, 65, 66, 67, 157,
    Sandbaus, Louise, 215-221, 222                          (Frost), 82                              209,211
    Scarry, Elaine, 44, 45                       typefaces, 18, 19,20,37 ,108-111 ,174,    war, images of, 136-139
    Scher, Paula, 154, 170, 179                            175-176,1 99                    Washington Post, 73,116
   Schjeldahl, Peter, 44                               See also typograph y                Washingtonpost.com, 138
   Schor, Naomi, 92                              Typographic Experiment: Radical           I#b of Life, The (Capra), 4
   Schouwenberg, Louise, 91                                Innovation in Contemporary      Web sites, 24, 37, 38, 39,126,1 69
   Schwitters, Kurt, 173, 175                              Type Design, The (Triggs),      Weill, Alain, 177
   science, 7, 8, 202-206                                  172-173,1 74                    Weisman, Leslie Kanes, 129
   Scott, Ridley, 54                            typography, 23, 24, 25, 26-28,             Weiss, Adreinne, 134
   Scruton, Roger, 49, 56                                  152-157                         What Kids Buy and Why: the Psychology
   Shaughnessy,Adrian, xi, 167                        experimen tal, 172-176                        of Marketing to Kids (Acuff), 73
   Short History of the Printed Word,                 Los Angeles Woman's Building         What~ the Big Idea? How to Win with
            A (Chappel), 194                              and, 133-134                              Outrageous Ideas That Sel~
  Siegel, Dmitri, 159,222-2 23                        ornament and, 89, 90                          (Lois),3
  Singer, Dorothy, 57                                Ruscha and, 208, 213                 White, E. B., 56
  Singer,Jer ome,57                                  white space and, 30                  White House Web site, 115-117
  Sinker, Mark, 38                                   See also typefaces                   white space, 24-25, 29-31, 34, 90
  "666 Rule" for visual                         Typography Now (poyner),                  "Wby Designers Can't Think"
            presentations, 34                             154, 194                                 (Bierut), 236
  Smith, Barbara, 70
                                                                                          WhY,I# Shop (Underhill), 71
  Smith, Tommy, 105                                               U                       Wild, Lorraine, vii, 152
  Sontag, Susan, 49, 50, 60, 67                Underhill, Paco, 71                        Williams, Mason, 213, 214
 Souza, Pete, 115                              Unguarded Moments: Behind the Scenes       Wilson, Frank, 237
 space, 14, 131                                         Photographs of President Reagan   Within the Context of No Context
 SpeakUp (blog), ix, 89, 197,223                        (Souza), 115                               (Trow),14 6
 sphere of the legitimizable, 3                users, 23-25                               Wolfe, Susan, 134
 Stanislavsky, Konstantin, 11, 12, 13
                                                                                          Woman Hating, 134
 Stanley, Alessandra, 54                                          v                       women designers, 170-171
 Stanley, Julia, 134                           ValJejo, Linda, 132                        Works of Edward Ruscha, The, 207
 "Steamroller of Branding, The"                VaIli, Marc, 168, 170                      Worthing ton, Michael, 174
           (Bell), 162                         values, calculus of, 118-128
 Stepanova, Varvara, 6                         van den Ende,Joop , 234                                        y
 Stephens, Mitchell, 47, 54, 55                VanderLans, Rudy, xi, 17-22,               Yelavich, Susan, 44
style, 24, 94-103, 198                                  207,222                           Young, Coleman, 104
Substance of Style, The (Postrel), 198         van der Rohe, Mies, 118, 178
Survey of Art History (Gomrich), 146           van der Velden, Daniel, 92, 93
Swanson, Gunnar, 149
                                                                                                             z
                                               van de Wouw,Jol ijn, 230-231               Zakka, 176, 178
systems theory, 4, 7                           Van Toom,Jan , 228, 233                    Ziff, Lloyd, 212

				
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