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Anne of the Thousand Cells

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					 That’s cool… I’m only marrying you for
your money and power anyways. Plus my
daughter, Elizabeth I, will be a better ruler
  than you or any other man ever was.
                 PEACE!




                                                I think you’re hot stuff right
                                                 now, but in a few years I’m
                                                   totally gonna have your
                                                 head cut off so I can marry
                                                        someone else.
Anne of the Thousand
Cells
Chapter 6-
Song: “Anne of the Thousand Days Medley” from Anne
of the Thousand Days
Studying Cells
 Microscopy (Figure 6.2)
     Light Microscopes
         Magnifies the image
     Electron Microscopes
         Allows scientists to examine
         cell ultrastructure (ex: SEM
         and TEM

 Cell Fractionation (Figure 6.5)
     Taking cells apart and
     separating the major
     organelles from one another
     Ultracentrifuges
Cell Fractionation
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
All Cells
    Cytosol (all organelles found
    here)/Cytoplasm
    Ribosomes (used to make
    proteins)
    Plasma Membrane

Prokaryotes (Figure 6.6)
    Nucleoid Region

Eukaryotes
    True Nucleus
    Membrane-bound organelles
    Usually bigger than
    prokaryotic cells
Animal Cell (Figure 6.9)
Plant Cell (Figure 6.9)
        Nucleus (Figure 6.10)
Nucleus: Contains most of the
genes of a eukaryotic cell (others
found in
mitochondria/chloroplasts)

Nuclear Envelope: Membrane
that encompasses the nucleus

     Has pores
     Nuclear lamina: lining on the
     nucleus side (except at pores)

Chromosomes: DNA structures
inside the nucleus (made of
chromatin)

Nucleolus: Structure in the
nucleus where rRNA is made
(ribosomes)
   Ribosomes (Figure 6.11)
Made of rRNA and protein

Carry out protein synthesis

Free: suspended in the
cytosol
    Produces proteins used
    within the cytosol

Bound: Attached to rough
ER
    Produces proteins
    destined for elsewhere
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
       (Figure 6.12)
 Network of membranes
 Smooth ER
    No Ribosomes
    Synthesis of lipids
    Metabolism of carbs
    Detoxification

 Rough ER
    Ribosomes
    Proteins that are secreted
    in transport vesicles
    Membrane factory for the
    cell
Golgi Apparatus (Figure 6.13)
 Products of ER are
 modified, stored, and sent
 out

 Made of membranous
 sacs called cisternae

 Cis face: Receiving end

 Trans face: Shipping end
   Lysosomes (Figure 6.14)
Sac of hydrolytic enzymes that are used by animal cells to
digest macromolecules
Ex: Phagocytosis
Ex: Autophagy
     Vacuoles (Figure 6.15)
Food Vacuoles: formed
by phagocytosis
Contractile Vacuoles:
used by protists
Central Vacuole: found
in mature plant cells
    Tonoplast: Membrane
    that encloses the central
    vacuole
    Aids in keeping turgor
    pressure
Mitochondria (Figure 6.17)
Site of cellular respiration

2 membranes

Infoldings called cristae

Innermost compartment
is the matrix
 Chloroplasts (Figure 6.18)
Site of photosynthesis

Contain the pigment
chlorophyll

2 membranes

Thylakoids: flattened,
interconnected sacs

Granum: stack of
thylakoids

Stroma: fluid outside the
thylakoids
  Peroxisome (Figure 6.19)
Single membrane

Transfer hydrogen to
oxygen (produces
Hydrogen Peroxide)

Contains the enzyme that
converts it to water and
oxygen (catalase)
Cytoskeleton
   Cell Walls (Figure 6.28)
Plants
    Protection, maintains
    shape, prevents excessive
    uptake of water
    Primary cell wall,
    middle lamella,
    secondary cell wall
         ECM (Figure 6.29)
Extracellular Matrix

Space between cells

Found in animal cells

Contains many glycoproteins secreted by cells
           Intercellular Junctions
Plasmodesmata
    Found between plant cells
    Channels in the cell wall that
    allow cytosol to pass from one
    cell to the next

Tight Junctions
    Animal cells
    Membranes of neighboring cells
    are tightly pressed against each
    other and bound by proteins
    (creates a seal)

Desmosomes
    Anchor cells as sheets (animal)

Gap Junctions
    Cytolplasmic channels allow
    communication between cells

				
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