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									                   STUDY MATERIAL B.ED                            S. D. AHANGAR


                                     SPECIAL EDUCATION


                                     EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN

Introduction:

      Educational thinkers have been having different views that either the special types of children
be provided education, integrated with the ordinary education or education in special schools. It
has been argued that separate schools, no doubt, provide them the company of the similar types of
students but creates a type of complex in them. On the other hand, those who have some serious
problem do feel that they need special treatment and equipment to study. Many educationists have
diversified views both in favour of special and integrated education. However, the conscious view is
that as for as possible, for those who have mild handicaps, integrated education favorite, and for
those who have problem of serious nature, special education is to be provided to them at the cost
of the society so as to provide those equal educational opportunities to develop their potentialities.
It has also been scientifically observed that because of their compensation mechanism they
become better and conscious workers.

      Distinction between Integrated Education and Special Education

 1.      Special education is organized outside the ordinary school. It requires efforts over and
above the regular school programme. However, in integrated system disabled children get
education along with other ordinary students.

 2.      Special education characterizes the establishment of special classes and is to be
considered a part of total education. However, an integrated education system stands for taking up
education of the handicapped, as a part of general education.

 3.      The special education for the handicapped was more favored in old concepts but the new
approach is to provide them integrated education as far as possible.

 4.      The emphasis in special education is to provide vocational training whereas emphasis in
integrated education is to provide general with some special provisions to the handicapped.

 5.      Special education isolates the disabled from the normal children. The integrated education
stands for socialization of the handicapped with his equals.
 6.    Special education is more suitable for the severely handicapped and exceptionally gifted
ones, whereas integrated education provides better facilities for the mild handicapped ones.

 7.    Special education has its roots in the philosophy of discrimination, whereas the integrated
education is deeply rooted in the philosophy of equality.

 8.    Special education can be of more clinical in nature while integrated education is based on
the principles of psychology.

 9.    Special education can be provided wholly as well partially. When it is provided wholly it is
provided in social in special schools and when it is provided appreciably, it is integrated with
general education; only a few classes are arranged separately.

Meaning and Definitions of Special education: special education in its simple meaning, stands for a
type of education that is quite specific and special in nature. Thus through its name, it is capable of
reminding us that it has some what different from the education meant for the general population
of students. As a result, the term special education may refer to a distinctive type of education,
specifically or specially designed for meeting the needs of exceptional or special children. It would
be worthwhile for us to take into consideration the view points of some well known thinkers and
educationists in this field to understand the meaning, nature and purpose of the term special
education. Lets begin with certain important definitions as proposed by them.

 1.    Kirk and Gallagher (1986): “When youngisters in the same class room are remarkably
different, it is difficult for the teacher to help them reach their educational potential with out some
kind of assistance. The help that the schools devide for children who differ significantly from the
norm is called special education”

 2.    Heward (2000) “Special education is a profession with its own history, cultural practices,
tools and research base, focused on the learning needs of exceptional children and adults. But at
the level, where exceptional children most meaningfully and frequently contact it, special education
is an individually planned, specialized, intensive, goal directed instruction. When practiced most
effectively and ethically special education is also characterised by the use of research based
teaching method, the application of which is guided by direct and frequent measures of students
performance”

 3.    Ysseldyke and Algozzine (1990): “Special education is the instruction designed for students
with special learning needs. Some of these students have difficulty in learning in the regular
classrooms; they need special education to function in school. Others generally do well in regular
classroom;they need special education to helpthem master additional skills to reach their full
potential in short. Special education is evidence of society’s willingness to recognize and respond to
the indidual needs of students and time limits of regular school ionprogrammes to accommodate
these needs”.

NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION

The foregiong definits of special education help usto draw following conclusions about the nature
and characteristics of special education.

       1.       By its nomenclature as well as definitions, special education is always meant for
meeting the special needs and requirements of the exceptional children.

       2.       It is diagnostic in nature in the sense that it calls upon the necessity of diagnosing
and identifying the nature and degree of the deviations of the children from their normal peers and
consequently labelling and classifying them into one or the other type of exceptionality for
providing special care and education.

       3.       It is inventory in nature in the sense that it always aims to provide a purposeful
intervention for preventing, eliminating for overcoming the problems lying on the path of the child
on account of his exceptionality in the field of learning and adjustment.

       4.       Special education is developmental in nature, meaning thereby that it follows a
child from womb to tomb. A mother should be given an adequate guidance through the special
education services for nourshing and nurturing her special child right from the pre-natal period.

       5.       Special education is quite specific and quite specialised in nature. So it needs
special techers,special students,special methods,aids and special learning environment for making
the special students to learn.

       6.       Special education is highly indidualised in the sense that it takes care of the
exceptionality,speciality or dis ability of an indidual child and helps to develope his potentiality to
the maximum.

       7.       Special education is highlymobile in the sense that it reaches or moves towards the
child instead of expecting from the child to move for receiving it.

       8.       Special education is contineous in the sense that it is provided to the child from the
very beginning till the end or at least upto the time it is needed for the welfare, progress and
adjustment of the child.

       9.       Specail education is intensive in nature that all-round total efforts are done at a
quite intensive level for addressing thr individualiesd specific needs of the exceptional children.
        10.     Special education is goal directed in the sense that it always carries purposeful
instructions and well thougth, planned learning experiences to the children to help them in the
realization     of     their      needs      and      attaining     maximum          adjustment      and
progress as much as possible.

        11.     Spccial education is research oriented and experimental in character. What we
practice in spccial education is always supported through active research and experimentation.

        12.     Special education is quite technical and enriched into the sense that it demands
and makes use of specialised techniques, methods, materials, aids and eqiupments for providing
needed special education to the exceptional children besides taking care of their needs and
adjustment.

        A mere of the above cited nature and characteristics of special education may lead us to
agree that special education is quite vast in its objectives, methodology and and scope, It stands to
serve the varring needs of the exceptional children at all their levels of spain and all places of their
availibility. Such wied thinking about the concept of special education may then, persuade us to
adopt a functional definition in the following words for use of this text:

        Special education is that specially planned and organised education that is imparted in a
special way to all types of exceptional children irrespective of their of the nature of their
exceptionality in proper tune with their well diagnosed special needs for helping them to develop
their potentiality and adjust as well as progress in the life as effectively as possible.

Elements of Special Education

 1.     Executive children need special education services comprising of three elements:

 2.     Trained professional personal including teacher educator's consultants, physiotherapists,
psychotherapists, psychologists, counselors etc.

 3.     Special curricular content suiting different areas of exceptionally-giftedness mental
retardation, deafness, dumbness, (speech retardation), orthopedic handicap, social and emotional
maladjustment.

 4.     Facilities including special building features, special equipment, special extra literary
materials and special crafts according to interests, aptitude and other potentialities of exceptional
children.

0bjectives of Special Education

 1.     To provide better instructional arrangement and procedures for evaluating and meeting the
instructional needs of exceptional children.

 2.        To help the gifted children in making the best use of their potentialities and achieving the
maximum so as to be an asset to human social benefits.

 3.        To help the backward children in achieving the maximum level of effectiveness and making
adequate adjustment both for individual and resource development.

 4.        To know the problems of delinquent children and to develop them in solving their problems,
for making adequate achievements and adjustment.

 5.        To help the physically handicapped children in making the best use of their potentialities
and developing normal attitude towards their deformity.

 6.        To help the mentally handicapped children in providing suitable education, keeping in view
their mental deficiency.

Importance of Special Education

 1.        Insight to Parents and Teachers: Special education provides insight to parents and teachers
of the gifted and the handicapped which help in the process of adjustment of these children in the
society.

 2.        Correct Solution: Special education aims at developing confidence and competencies in
handicapped children to earn their livelihood independently. If they are trained properly, they can
become assets for the society.

 3.        Solution of Problems: Special education will solve many problems of the institutions, which
they face because of their disabilities.

 4.        Active Participation: Special educational arrangements will create in the handicapped
desire to participate in the activities with non-handicapped children. It will develop self-reliance and
self-sufficiency in them and socialise their behaviour.

 5.        Realistic Concept: Special education develops a realistic concept in handicapped children
through this service the children will appraise their abilities, aptitudes, interests and personality
qualities. The children get the chance to understand themselves in a better way. In order to
compensate their disabilities, they excel in some other fields and get recognition, which helps them
as well as the society, in terms of adjustment.

 6.        Suitable Placement: As disabled children are handicapped in various ways, they may not fit
in all jobs. Special education helps the pupils in getting a good start in the vocation, which is both,
suitable to them in the light of their disability.
 7.      Individual Differences: Special education is needed for exceptional children because they
differ with regard to their interests, motivation and aims of life, Special education should be
provided with modified curriculum, special instructional strategies and use of special aids.



GIFTED CHILDREN

      India is the biggest democracy of the world and democracy can not survive on the suppression
of talent. Its progress in various fields depend upon the proper education of gifted children who will
excel in different areas of the life and shoulder the responsibilities of directing the destiny of nation
by giving lead in all walks of life.

      Needless to mention that in the present times due to tremendous technological development
and increasing rapid rate of change, society has a great need for good leadership, not only in
science and mathematics but in other too. This leadership should be directed not only to the
improvement of economic conditions but also the promotion of social welfare and international
understanding. For this purpose, society needs innovations, administrators and statesman. The
gifted children have high potential to excel in various areas of knowledge, provides adequate
provision is made for their education. It has thus been recommended by the educationists,
philosophers, psychologists and economists that these children be given special treatment to
explore their mental potential to the maximum.

Meaning and Definition

      Some thinkers like Lucita confines it to intellectual pursuits, "   the gifted are those children
whose intellectual powers are at such a high ideational level in both productive and evaluative
thinking that it can be reasonably assumed, they could be for those problem solvers, innovators
and evaluators of the culture, if adequate educational experience are provided to them".

      Broadly thinking there can be three types of definitions.

 1.      Intelligent Quotient (I.Q): Even when there is difference of opinion on the cut off stage, most
of the psychologists like Terman lay down 140 as the lowest limit of I.Q.A general consensus id is
that I.Q. from 140 and onwards stands for the gifted children.

 2.      Social potential: According to Witty, "Gifted children are those whose performance is
consistently remarkable in music, art, social leadership and other forms of expression".

 3.      Statistically Most of the educationists agree that gifted children are those who fall between
2% to 4% of intelligence or those who have outstandingly ability in specific knowledge such as art
or science.

      It must be noted that gifted children are superior not only in intelligence but also in physical,
emotional, social, and academic and other intellectual characteristics of children of their age.




Some defitions
Telford and Sawrey (1977):      The intellectually gifted can be defined in terms of test scores or
demonstrated performance, or as the upper 1 or 2 percent of the general population as measured
by some designated intelligence and/or achievement test.
Fleigher and Bish (1959): The term “gifted” encompasses those children who possess a superior
intellectual potentially and functional ability to achieve academically in the top 15 to 20 percent of
the school population; and/or talent of a high order in such special areas as mathematics,
mechanics, science, expressive arts, creative writing, music and social leadership; and a      unique
creative ability to deal with their environment.
Witty (1940): The term gifted or talented stands for those whose performance is consistently
remarkable in some potentially valuable activity.
Prem Pasricha (1964): The gifted child is the one who exhibits superiority in general intelligence or
the one who is in possession of special abilities of a high order in the fields which are not
necessarily associated with a high intelligence quotient.
Marland report (1972): The gifted are those who possess outstanding abilities or potential in the
area of general intellectual capacity, specific academic aptitude, creative or productive thinking,
leadership ability, visual or performing arts and psycho-motor activity.
Havighurst:      The talented gifted child is one who shows consistently remarkable performance in
any      worthwhile line of endeavor.
Tannenbaum: The term giftedness denotes the potential for becoming critically acclaimed
performers or exemplary producers of ideas in spheres of activity that enhance the moral, physical,
emotional, social, intellectual or aesthetic life of humanity.
         Analysis of the above definitions shows that various scholars and thinkers have adopted
different approaches in defining the term giftedness. The first two definitions have tried to provide
a statistical and operational definition by adopting scores on intelligence and achievement tests.
Although the use of the I.Q and achievement test score has the advantage of objectivity, it cannot
be made a sole criterion for deciding giftedness. Moreover, there lies a difficulty in deciding the cut-
off point i.e. the minimum score for labeling one as gifted as some may fix it as 140 (Terman and
Oden, 1947) while others may lower it to 100 (Bentley, 1937).
Characteristics of Gifted Children

      Their characteristics can be divided into two parts i.e., positive and negative.

      1. Positive characteristics

 a.       Physical characteristics: Terman and his associates found in an intensive longitude study
that gifted children were physically well developed. They were not undersized but maintained good
health. They had sharp sense organs, they learnt sitting, standing, walking, crawling, cutting the
teeth and taking at an age than the normal children.

 b.       Intellectual characteristics: Terman and his associate found that they had got superior
intelligence. When their superiority was not recognized they assume boastful attitude. They have
better ability to organize, analyse, memorise, imagine, reason, judge, and to reproduce things
accurately than the normal children of their age.

 c.       Social characteristics: As gifted children had better ability to organise, analyse, memorise,
imagine, reason, think, judge and to adjust; they become active participants in the process of
growing emotionally stable. They had some negative emotional characteristics too.

 d.       Emotional characteristics: These children proved to be more popular in the group because
they were humorous, cheerful, liberal, generous, kind, honest etc. They have friends who were older
than them but they played with those of equal level. They were often interested in activities at
home, school and societies and loved to be assigned tasks, which they carry out with a sense of
responsibilities.

 e.       School Characteristics: They were generally high achievers in schools; they learnt counting,
reading and language very easily. They were able to write their names before they are admitted to
school.

 f. Character and Personality Characteristics: According to Terman, in character and personality
majority of gifted children showed superiority and they were well adjusts.

      II. Negative Characteristics

      They were restless, inattentive and disturbing. They were indifferent to class work when not
interest. They were outspokenly critical before themselves and others. They showed egoistic and
jealous behavior. They were careless in handwriting and poor in spelling.



Identification of Gifted Children
      It is only with the collective efforts of teachers, parents, psychologists and sociologists that the
gifted can be identified at an early stage. However some of the identification methods are given
below:

      1. Identifying characteristics are displayed.

      2. Opinions and reports of parents, friends and teachers.

      3. Achievements Test: Scores of achievement test are valuable for their identification.

      4. Aptitude test: The gifted excel in art, drama, music and other non-academic areas also.

      5. Intelligence Tests: Gifted children score high in intelligence or mental tests.

Some Examples of Gifted Children

 1.       Karl White was taught to read five languages before he was nine years old and was
conferred Ph. D. at the age of 14 years.

      5. Christian Heinrich learnt at the age of 10 months the name of objective pictures and at the
age of four years, he could perform four fundamental operations of arithmetic.

      6. Francis Galton at the age of 5 years could write a letter to his sister, which showed unusual
brilliance in him.

Education for the Gifted Children

      First of all, the teacher of the gifted children need to have some special characteristics i.e.
emotional maturity, healthy self-concept, and superior in intelligence, co-operative, sincere and
dedicated in his work. He may be taught in separate classes or regular classes, he needs greatly
enriched curriculum. The enrichment in curriculum means both quantitative and qualitative rich
curriculum. Qualitative enrichment means both quantitative and should have greater opportunity
than average children to delve more deeply into the subtle and abstract aspects of the topic.
Quantitative enrichment means the breathe of work, an additional unit of work or topic
participation in activities such as production of school magazine, plays, trips to museum visit to
public library, development of hobbies and interests other than regular curriculum.

 1.      Identifying if gifted.

 2.      Segregated classes.



Separate Classes for Gifted Children
  1.      Plato said that we need leaders in different fields and those leaders are provided from
amongst the gifted children and if the country has to survive we should properly educate the gifted
children.

  2.      Whitehead said that in modern world the rule is absolute. Any race that does not value
trained intelligence is doomed.

3. It saves the child from many problems of maladjustment.

  4.      Accelerated promotion.

  5.      Individual attention.

  6.      Diversification courses: To suit to their interest, needs, abilities and aptitudes of such
students.

  7.      Difficult and ample home work.

  8.      To help other weak students.

  9.      Enrichments in co-curricular activities.

10.       Engagement hobbies like painting, music, photography, stamp collecting and preparing
albums etc.

11.       Joint enterprise, socialised recitation and project method.

12.       Enrichment in library facilities gifted children should be given special library facilities. They
should be encouraged to make intelligent use of library. It will help to know new things and acquire
knowledge.

13.       Higher responsibilities.

14.       Competent and noble teachers.

15.       Scholarships.

16.       Hostel facilities: For those who do not have and good home atmosphere.

17.       Guidance and counseling facilities.

       Durr had suggested the following four Principles on which the enrichment of teaching of gifted
is to be based.

    4. The programme of gifted children represents an extension of general educational
objectives.
      5. The programme must provide a simulating learning environment.

      6. The programme should place a special emphasis on creative ability, insight and social
responsibility.

      7. The programme should promote basic fundamental skills, knowledge, appreciation etc. The
teacher should not forget that gifted like other children need certain fundamental competencies in
the language and in arithmetic to work efficiently in the society. The competencies do not have to
be taught in dull manner.

      In nut-shell we can say that the class work for the gifted should be challenging for maximum
intellectual growth.



Existing Programmes for Education of
Gifted Children

 1.      Navodiya Vidyalayas: More than 275 Pace-Setting Schools (Navodiya Vidyalayas) are
imparting special education to the gifted students who are selected in a rigorous way.

 2.      Public schools: Nearly one hundred public schools who are members of Public Schools
Conference, are also imparting quality education to the gifted children.

 3.      Science Exhibitions: Science exhibitions at the district and state levels are organized.
Students, representing their schools take part in these exhibitions. They prepare models, science
material, improvised apparatus or new science based technology.

 4.      Essay writing competitions: Essay writing and story-writing competitions are organized at
district state and national levels. The students who get positions are suitably rewarded. Now
admissions in all dignified channels of professional and technical courses are made on the basis of
such competitions.

 5.      Competitive examination: various competitive examinations are held for making in
selection in services and professional courses at state and national levels. Talented students can
compete in these examinations.

 6.      Independent projects: Talented students at school, college and university level select
project and execute them independently. Financial assistance is provided to carry out such projects.

 7.      Research and Experimentation: Incentives are given for research and experimentation in
the field of general and technical education. University Grants Commission offers Junior and Senior
Research Fellowships to the suitable and deserving students.
 8.      Cultural Trips: Those students who excel in cultural activities, sports and games are made
to participate not only at national level but also taken to foreign lands for demonstration and
recognition. Centres of Cultural Research established in different parts of the country play
significant role in it.




Medical Science Theory Of Giftedness.
         According to this theory. There is mental morbid in gifted persons, which can be seen in the
form of madness. Due to these irregularities, impatience, peculiarities, unusual softness and or
cruelty, stubbornness etc., are seen their behaviour. This morbidness is called the ‘spiritual breath’
in India. These gifted children, with their, eccentricity produce poetic creation, forecast the future
and or often psychic. Their daily routine is unique. Generally they look half mad, but they have
some special power due to which they become responsible for some unusual events which indicate
their exceptional ability.
         The famous anthropologist of Italy, Lombroso propounded his theory in the 19 th century. He
has given an exhaustive description of physically and mentally sick but gifted people in his book
entitled “The Man of Genius”. These people are always found to be short, suffering from rickets,
pale physique may be thin, disabled, stammering, left handed but they have one or the other kind
of specialty.
         Kreschmer and Lange-Eichbaum has also endorsed this theory. According to them, from
psychopathological view, if the composition of demonic unrest and psychic tension are removed
from giftedness then only men with ordinary abilities will remain. Kreschmer thinks that gifted
persons are of weak personality. They have impulses of self-perception. Therefore, they can do
creative work-poetry, panting, sculpture etc. Lange-Eichbaum has not shown any relation between
giftedness and madness but has written that any gifted person has not been entirely free from
madness.


Problems Faced By Gifted Children In The General Class.
      These children create so many problems due to maladjustment too. A few problems are
individual and others are environmental. Their main problems are:-
      1. They feel themselves rejected and isolated because of lack of guidance and thereby
develop feelings of insecurity and inferiority.
      2. They develop a negative attitude towards society.
      3. They feel bored due to very easy class work resort to day dreaming, and truancy.
      4. They cause mischief after completing class work in a short time.
      5. Sometimes they become aggressive and get out of control due to non- fulfillment of their
needs.
      6. Their social development stops due to the absence of friends who could be their equals.
      7. It becomes difficult to select useful activities due to various interests and abilities.
      8. Sometimes they suffer from a superiority complex, become obstinate, dependent, and
proud due to too much attention from parents.



Recommendations Kothari Commission

(1964-66)

 1.       Search for talents: Efforts towards the search for talent should be made at every level.
However, special emphasis is placed at secondary level.

 2.       Scholarship: The programme for scholarships proposed at all stages will ensure that all
gifted students or at least the top 5 to 15 percent of the relevant age-group will be enable to
receive the higher education.

 3.       Enrichment programme: Enrichment programmes for bright students should be introduced
and performance of the students should be recorded in special certificates.

 4.       Summer vacation programme: A five to six week summer vacation Programme can be
arranged for talented students from different schools, brought together to an educational centre
having special facilities of staff, library, laboratory and equipment.

 5.       Co-curricular activities: A variety of co-curricular activities should be introduced.

 6.       Visits: Well-planned visits may be arranged to laboratories, museums and other places.

 7.       Hostels or day-centres: Day-centres or hostels should be made available for those whose
environments are not conducive to proper study.

 8.       Trained teachers: Teachers be trained to deal with the talented and to create an
atmosphere of free expression and for creative work.


MENTAL RETARDATION
      Mentally handicapped children are those children who deviate from the normal children to the
negative side in mental dimensions. They have sub-normal mental development. They possess
limited intelligence and social inadequacy. They can be identified in two ways i.e. intelligence tests
and academic achievements. Those who are recognized on the basis of intelligence are called,
mentally retarded, and those who are identified on the poor performance achievement test are
termed as 'educationally retarded'. Some of the methods of identification of mentally handicapped
are intelligence tests, educational tests, personality inventories, case studies and teacher
observations. It is generally believed that children who possess I.Q. below 75 are mentally
handicapped or mentally retarded children. Mentally handicapped children can be divided into four
categories:

 1.     Idiots (below 25 (I.Q.): Idiots have below 25 I.Q. and are of the lowest grade. Their
maximum level of mental development is less then 3 years. They are helpless children. They
cannot do any work independently. They need special care in daily activities, even in eating,
dressing and washing. They need to be protected against any physical danger. They are not
educatable and cannot be educated or guided for any useful activity.

 2.     Imbeciles (Between 26 to 50 I.Q.): Imbeciles process I.Q. (between 26 to 50). Their level of
mental development develops from 3 to 7 or 8 years. They can be educated for self care for their
physical daily activities. They can be taught to protect themselves against dangerous situation e.g.
Protection against fire, rain etc. And they cannot read or write. They cannot lead an independent
life. They can train to sweep floors, feed animals and other such activities.

 3.     Morons (51 to 75 I.Q.): I.Q. of morons ranges from 51to 75. Their level of mental
development is from 7 to 10 years. They are incapable of receiving proper benefit from the
instructions in ordinary schools. They can learn a limited amount of reading, writing, spelling etc.
With great difficulty and at a very slow rate, they can be trained to do unskilled work in factory or
farm. They can earn their livelihood with much training and supervision

 4.     Border-line cases (75 to 90 I.Q.): I.Q. of borderlines cases ranges from 76 to 90. They
cannot go on well with their class. They constitute a large number of populations.



      Causes of mental retardation: Some of the causes of mental retardation are: defection
chromosomes, severe nutritional deficiency in the mother during pregnancy, abnormal conditions
of delivery, premature separation of placenta, hydrocephalic conditions, glandular disturbance in
the child, and after-effects of diseases like epilepsy, sever small pox, typhoid etc.


Definitions:
1.       According to the definition given by William Hazlitt, “Mental retardation is the stage of worst
mental set-up in which the mentally retarded person thinks and behaves most irrationally and most
absurdly.”
2.       According to the view-point of Johnson Smith, “Mental retardation is that backward state of
mind, in which the mentally retarded person keeps himself behind others by unnecessary and slow
thinking, because his mental powers are benumbed and he cannot undertake quick mental work or
quick mental thinking.”


Main causes of mental retardation:
1.       Factors operative at the time of conception: There can be some factors operative, at the
time of conception, which can become the cause of mental retardation of the child. In such a case
mental retardation may be cause by some defective genes in the chromosomes of one or both
parents at the time of fertilization.
2.       Factors operative inside the womb of the mother: When the child is in the womb of the
mother for a period of about nine months, the improper and deficient intra-uterine environment
may cause mental retardation. Abnormal emotional and undesirable mental conditions of the
mother during pregnancy, her severe illness, chronic infections and the deficiencies with respect to
the food which a human embryo receives from the blood stream of the mother are some of the
factors which may produce mental deficiency or retardation in the child, who is yet to see the light
of the outside world.
3.       Factors operative at the time of delivery: It is possible that, at the time of delivery, due to
too short or too long labour or due to the wrong use of mechanical instruments, the child may
receive head injuries. Such injuries often cause mental retardation.
4.       Post natal factors: Post natal factors are the factors operative from birth to death. In
addition to the cause mentioned above, mental deficiency or mental retardation may be caused by
the following post natal factors: -
(i)      Head injuries due to accidents.
(ii)     Food deficiency and malnutrition in early childhood.
(iii)    Infections and chronic diseases in early childhood.
(iv)     Emotional mal adjustment and mental conflicts at any stage of life, especially at childhood
stage.
(v)      Socio-cultural emotional deprivation.
(vi)     Disturbed environment, such as family quarrels, dru,nkard parents etc.
(iii)       Emotional stress due to low social and moral standards, death of a near one, failure in love
affair, dangerous mental strain, great loss of money, loss of employment etc.
(iv)        General poverty, living in poor condition or playing of poor children in the company of rich
children can cause inferiority complex in poor children.
(v)         Faulty methods of teaching, running away of a child from school due to uninteresting
lessons or faulty methods of teaching.
(vi)        Faulty emotional behaviour of teachers, maladjustment teachers fall a victim of faulty
emotional behaviour and suffer from mental strain. Such maladjustment teachers, having faulty
emotional behaviour can cause faulty emotional behaviour in some children also.
(vii)       Very strict discipline at school or at home and harsh punishment by the teachers can cause
continuous fear, worry and mental strain in the child leading to his mental retardation.
(viii)      Defective physical conditions of school, absence of playgrounds and other physical
facilities.
(ix)        Lack of educational and vocational guidance in the school.
(x)         Heavy curricular work at school and heavy home work.
(xi)        Faulty examination system and giving too much importance to examinations.



Educational programme for mentally handicapped children

         In 1947, there was only one centre in India for the education of mentally handicapped children
but now the number of such institutions is more then 50, with an enrolment of more then 15000.
Some voluntary organisations like "Sanjivni" at Patiala and Pingalwara at Amritsar are doing useful
work in this direction. In 1960, the central government established a 'Model school for Mentally
Deficient Children in New Delhi with an enrolment of 60 students. Two centres are functioning for
training teachers for mentally retarded children.

  1         Location and diagnoses: Mentally handicapped children should be located with the help of
class teachers, achievement tests, and intelligence tests, medical check up and by collecting
materiel from parents, friends, psychologist and psychiatrist. Proper diagnoses must be given to
handicapped children.

  2         Enlightening the parents: The teachers should educate the parents about the mental caliber
of their children. They should be stimulated to do the best for the child by providing them with all
types of guidance.

  3         Individual attention: Teachers should pay individual attention to the child and take him in
confidence. He should devote extra time to him.

 4         Developing understanding in the child: The teachers should develop rapport with the child
and make him understand about his handicaps and develop a realistic understanding in him.
Separate classes, the students do not feel ridiculed by other fellow students as almost all of them
suffer from the same type of handicap.

 5         Special schools, clinics or mental hospitals: Mentally handicapped children (who possess
below 55 I.Q.) must be taught in special schools or they should be kept in mental hospitals or
clinics.

 6         Special teachers: There should be specially trained teachers, psychologists or psychiatrists
for handicapped children. They should teach from the point of view of handicapped children and
put their best to bring out the maximum, out of these children.

 7         Special type of curriculum: Ordinary classroom curriculum will not suit to the mentally
handicapped children, so curriculum may be designed to suit to their caliber. It should have more of
practical work, vocational element and self caring content in it. The group should also be small (15
to 20 students) so as to give individual attention to each one of them. Those who are of very low
I.Q. should be trained only in those activities, which are essential for their survival needs like
physical care or protection, eating and dressing.

 8         Methods of teaching: The teachers should make use of illustrative and audio-visual aids.
Concrete objects should be used for explaining the things. The teachers should make use of love,
affection, sympathy, and patience. Repetition and simple language must be used. He should use
psychologically sound methods.

 9         Time -table: The duration of the period should be short. There should be provision for more
rest intervals. Time-table should be flexible.


Physical characteristics of mentally retarded children.
           Classification on the basis of physical and physiological characteristics.
Mentally retarded children have been categorized as under according to their physical and
physiological specializations:-
     (i) Brain damaged child: This is an organic retardation which occurs due to damage of the
brain or because of some other sickness.
     (ii) Mongoloid:- These children can be recognised by their physical attributes. Although friendly,
modest and jolly they do often manifest obstinate behaviour too.
    (iii) Cretin Child:- This too is a condition of retardation. It occurs due to a disturbance in thyroid
gland. It can be cured at the primary stages. The certain children are also jollying modest and
friendly.
    (iv) Phenylketonuria (PKU):- This is found very rarely. It happens due to metabolic disturbances.
A poisonous matter enters into the brain through the blood circulation and destroys the brain cells.
    (v) Microcephaly and Hydrocephly:- The cerebrospinal fluid stops and the brain is either
enlarged or remains small.
    (vi) Ceberal Palsy:- This is also a sort of brain damage. Some muscle activities become
uncontrolled and such children’s muscular adjustment becomes defective.



Recommendations of Review Committee (1990)

     For the moderately mentally retarded, special curricula should be developed and standardised-
not merely for the purpose of basic education in 3 Rs but for training in self-care skills like motor
integration, perceptual and motor skills, language, communication and conceptual skills. It should
be clearly understood that for the mentally handicapped, academic achievements are relationally
unimportant in comparison to social adaptation and vocational training.

     Vocational schools for the mentally retarded adults are not so many for their benefit, jobs in
sheltered workshops, forms and industries should be provided, as they are not capable of receiving
open employment. The idea is that after receiving training they can work on sub- contract basis.




DELINQUENCY.


Meaning:
        The dictionary meaning of delinquency in “neglect of social law by drifting to crime.”
        Every society establishes some social and moral norms or rules to maintain harmony and
orders in its structure. It tries to persuade and even force its members to follow those norms strictly
by framing legal laws and codes. The person whose behaviour is contrary to these established
norms is referred to as anti-social behaviour or crime.
         Such anti-social behaviour or criminal tendency is not only found among the adults or
grown ups, but children and adolescents also suffer from such social disease. These individuals are
known as juvenile delinquents.


Definitions:
         Many psychologists have tried to give definitions of delinquency. According to Crow and
Crow, “delinquency is deviation seriously from the norms of culture or society and committing acts
that are pronounced under law as crimes”.
         Burt remarked that “a child is to be regarded as technically delinquent when his anti-social
tendencies appear so grave that he becomes or ought to become the subject of official action”.

Behavioural Characteristics of Delinquents:

      Delinquents as well as Young Delinquents develop the bad habit of committing anti social
crimes. They violate the law of the land and commit offences like thefts, gambling, cheating, pick
pocketing, murder, robbery, destruction of property, violence and assault, intoxicating, kidnapping,
abduction and other sexual offence.

      Young Delinquents learn all these bad habits of indulging in anti-social crimes from the adult
delinquents. They begin with cheating, gambling and pick-pocketing and advance towards robbery,
murder, and destruction of property, kidnapping, abduction and all sorts of sexual crimes, which
ultimately put them behind the bars if they are not checked in time.

      Juvenile Delinquency is in fact, a red signal and serious challenge to the well-being of the
society. The young delinquents, if not handled properly, become a permanent headache to society.
Therefore full efforts should be made to root out this social disease before it gets out of control. For
this purpose it is essential to have a clear insight into the nature of this disease and a full
knowledge of its causes.



Causes of delinquency:

      Psychologists have described many factors as the causes of delinquency and juvenile
delinquency. They are given below:

 1.      Hereditary factor. It is thought by some Psychologists like Henry and Dugdale that
delinquency is inherited. They quote this example in their environment that some tribes are known
as criminal tribes. Most of the members of those tribes are criminals and their children also grow
up to become criminals. But this can be said only about the children of only a few tribes. What
about so many other children who grow up to become criminals, but they do not belong to any,
criminal tribe? Hence, moden Psychologists believes that delinquency is not inherited. There are
some other causes of delinquency.

 2.      Constitutional factors. There are some other Psychologists, like Professor Udai Shanker who
blame constitutional factors, like defective constitution, or defective glandular system, for
delinquent behaviour. Prof. Udai Shanker observes, "Poor health and too short or too big stature or
some other physical deformity, give rise to feeling of inferiority, leading a person on to aggression
as a compensatory reaction for his inadequacies.”

         This argument is also applicable to only a few cases of delinquency as there is not much
scientific evidence to support it.

 3.      Intelligence factor. Some Psychologists like Lombroso, Goddard etc. put blame on the
intellectual deficiency for the delinquent behaviour. But many other psychologists contradicted
their comment. According to them there is no link between low intelligence and delinquency. They
also argue that bright intelligence is no guarantee for good behaviour. In many cases, the persons
having superior intelligence have been found to be leaders of notorious gangs and anti-social
organisations. However, some psychologists argue on the basis of statistics that the majority
among the delinquents possess low intelligence. Therefore it can be said that defective intelligence
causes delinquency. But this argument can be refuted by the fact that intelligent individuals are not
caught red handed, whereas the individuals of low intelligence are taken into custody easily. We
can, however, conclude that low intelligence is the cause of delinquency only in a few cases, not in
the majority of cases.

 4.      Environmental and social factors. It has been proved by various researches in the field of
delinquency that delinquent behaviour is a learned or acquired behaviour. Delinquents do not
inherit delinquent behaviour from their parents or ancestors, but are made so by uncongenial
environmental and social conditions. Prof. Udai Shanker writes about it, "Delinquency is the
product of social and economic conditions and is essentially a co-efficient of the friction between
the individual and the communityty. The most important causes of anti-social behaviour are
environmental and sociological in character."

      In fact, it is quite proper to blame uncongenial atmosphere of the family, school, neighborhood
and society for the anti-social behaviour of the child as he picks up delinquent traits from such
situations. Let us see how far uncongenial atmosphere is responsible for the delinquent behaviour
among the children and adolescents.

      (a) Home environment and its effect. Defective family environment is a fertile ground to
germinate the seeds of delinquency. Various researches, in, the field of delinquency have revea1ed
that family life and delinquency are closely correlated. If we try to summarize the findings of such
studies we would find that the family environment, where the following types of conditions prevail,
is most susceptible to delinquency.

    1. Broken home – where the family is incomplete due to death, desertion, separation, divorce
        etc.

    2. Improper parental control.

    3. The delinquent and criminal behaviour of the parents of other family members.

    4. Domestic conflicts.

    5. Economic difficulties and poverty of the family.

    6. Dull, monotonous and uninteresting home environment.

    7. Denial of reasonable freedom and independence to the youngsters.

    8. Maltreatment and injustice done to the youngsters.

    In the above mentioned situations, the child does not get opportunities for the satisfaction of
his basic needs. He becomes victim of the emotional problems like inferiority, insecurity, jealousy
etc. It makes him a maladjusted individual and consequently turns him into a hostile, rebellious
and anti-social personality. In this way, uncongenial home conditions deserve to be blamed for
1uvenile delinquency and in all circumstances form the causes of delinquent behaviour.

Identification of Delinquency:

    While home provides the roots for the delinquent behaviour, social environment outside the
home, nourishes it by supplying some substitute for the satisfaction of unsatisfied basic needs and
urges. For example, the peer group or gang presents itself as a substitute for family love and
belongingness. It also satisfies the need of recognition and gives him opportunity for dependence
and adventurism. Anti-social activities of his poor group drag him into anti-social behaviour and
companionship and persuade him to engage in delinquent acts. Neighbourhood and the places of
social contacts and the social situations, where the elder members of the society are found
engaged in anti-social activities; provide serious temptation for the youngsters to become
delinquents in order to satisfy their unfulfilled desires and needs. Mass media like newspapers,
cheap books, magazines, cinema and television also tempt the children to the acts of delinquency.
Moreover all these units of environment have a combined effect upon the young minds of growing
children and adolescents and offer the temptations, which they cannot reject or resist.
symptoms of Delinquency:

Delonquent children are deviates and they display deviant behaviour. Obviously, the behaviour of
these deviant children departs from the normal children. As they are involved in antisocial
behaviour, they display destructive temperment and aggressive tendency. Kvaraceus (1959) has
described as many as eighteen peculiar features of the juvenile delinquents. Some of them are as
under:

                  1.    The delinquent children arecharacterised by antisocial thinking and
                  perception; and are largely involved in destructive activities.

             2.        They display violec frequently and are aggressive by temperment.

                3. They are bodily strong persons with firm determination, courageous attitude and
                    action.

           4.     They are non cooperative with the heads of the family and administration. They
                challenge authority and question new undertakings.

                  5. They display depressive equivalents and unstable emotional personality traits.

                  6.    They display godlessness in their thinking and non risk-taking behaviour.
                  They seriously lack foresightedness in their personality. Emotional instability is the
                  very core of their personality.

Prevention and Treatment of Delinquency

    Delinquency is basically a psycho-social problem. All types of delinquents, in all their shades,
are essentially maladjusted personalities, and the product of faulty up-bringing and maltreatment.
The solution of this problem, in fact, requires two dimensional attacks:

     (1) Preventive Measure. Initially it is meant to involve improvement of the social or
environmental conditions, which thwart the satisfaction of the basic needs of the individual and
thus help in prevention of delinquency.

    Following suggestions can work well in this direction:

i. Parental education. Parents should know something about the psychology of delinquency so
that they can treat and handle their children properly and provide them proper environment for the
satisfaction of their basic needs and urges. It requires parental education. Help from the guidance
services, clinics and other voluntary social services can be taken for this purpose.

ii. Saving the child from bad company and anti social environment. Parents, family members and
the school authorities should have a close watch on the activities and social environment of the
children and take proper care so that they should not fall in bad company. Some anti-social
elements and criminals try to hire the youngsters for their own purpose. Attempts should be made
to save them from their clutch. In fact, children should be given proper education for keeping them
away from such elements.

iii. Providing substitutes for the defective environment. Sometimes it is difficult to bring changes in
the defective family environment or bad influences of the neighbourhood. Moreover, peer groups
are also uncontrollable. In such cases children should be removed from their original environment
and placed either in the foster homes or well managed special environment so that they may be
provided with healthy environment for their proper emotional and social adjustment.

iv. To rectify school education and school environment. School environment should be made
healthy and congenial. The curriculum, methods of teaching, discipline, class room behaviour of the
teacher and the social atmosphere of the school is rectified in such a manner that children may not
involve themselves in the emotional and social maladjustment problems. There is a need of great
change in the attitude of those teachers who impose their authority on children and do not try to
understand their basic needs. The headmaster as well as teachers should have proper knowledge
of the psychology of individual differences and delinquency.

       (2) Curative Measure. The problem of juvenile delinquency in all circumstances should not be
regarded as a penal problem. It is an educational and welfare problem. Therefore, juvenile
delinquents should not be put behind the bars and treated through the normal channel of the penal
system. Delinquency requires reforms in the shape of rehabilitation and re-education and therefore,
special legal provision should be made to deal with the juvenile delinquents. In the progressive
countries of the world, the legal dealings with the juvenile delinquents have been changed. The
system of U.K. maintained under ‘Children and Young Persons’ Act’ is worth appreciating. We can
also adopt it with some essential changes in our country. Essential features of the system are given
as below :

  1.     Establishment of special Juvenile Court with specially trained magistrate to deal with
juvenile delinquents.

  2.     Appointment of trained zonal workers as probation officers for taking charge of delinquent
cases.

  3.     Taking help from clinical psychologists and psychiatrists for understanding the delinquent
behaviour of the child.
 4.      Establishment of special schools where the essential provision for the education, correction
and rehabilitation is possible.

 5.      Provision of giving the children in the custody of fit persons or social agencies.

 6.      Establishment of ‘Remand Homes’ where the Juvenile .delinquents are placed where they
wait for their trial or for being .given to the custody of some special school or fit agencies as desired
by the probation officer.


Steps To Prevent Delinquency.
         For the prevention and cure of delinquency, not only the teachers, but the presents, social
workers, government and other voluntary agencies have to work together and fight against this
social evil jointly. The following steps are suggested for this purpose:-
      1. Congenial and proper atmosphere in the home. Parents should pay special attention to
home-environment. They should live amicably, understand their children and provide congenial
home environment based on harmony and happiness.
      2. Sympathetic and affectionate attitude:- Love and sympathy shown by the parents prove
vary useful in the treatment of delinquency. Children must feel a sense of security. A delinquent
child gradually acquires confidence.
      3. Parents should understand their children. Parents have to be educated so that they may
understand children’s needs and choices, their mental traits, urges and emotions. Parents should
have the knowledge of child guidance. They should not give large amount of packet money to their
children. They should also keep a watch on the activities and friends of their children.
      4. Parents must take preventive measures if the child’s behaviour tends to be abnormal.


Recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-66):

      According to the Commission there were 25 lac handicapped in our country. The number of
institutions for the handicapped was not adequate. Hence, Kothari Commission made the following
recommendations:

 1.      Spread of institutions at District Level: There should be at least one institution for the
handicapped in every district in the country.

 2.      Absorption: There is a immediate need for maximum number of handicapped children
should be absorbed in the normal school programmes.

 3.      Special Facilities: It is also necessary to develop special services on the experimental basis
for children who have some special educational needs i.e. with weak vision, with speech defects,
with weak mind and with retarded mental development.

 4.    Development of Programmes: Emphasis should be laid upon the training of teachers,
harmonizing the activities of various agencies engaged in this field, encouraging the necessary to
implement and develop programmes for the education of handicapped children.



Recommendations of National Policy on Education (1986)



 1.    Ordinary Schools: Children with locomotor handicaps and other mild handicaps should be
placed in ordinary schools. This will provide them to be a productive member in the main stream of
human resources development.

 2.    Special Schools: Children with serve disability should be enrolled in special schools. Special
schools should be provided with hostels as far as possible at district headquarters.

 3.    Vocational Training: Adequate vocational training should be provided to the disabled as to
make them productive members.

 4.    Teacher Training: There should be reorientation of teacher training programmes to deal
with the special difficulties of the handicapped children.

 5.    Adequate Material and Equipment: The schools should be properly equipped with adequate
material needed for such children.

 6.    Adequate Incentives: Incentives, i.e. free books and other material, free hostel facilities and
some stipends be awarded to them in special schools.

 7.    Adequate Supports: Supports should be mobilized from other establishments such as
health, sanitation, industry and public welfare department.

 8.    Removing Architectural Barrier: Architectural barriers in schools buildings should be
removed where at least 13 disabled children are enrolled.




Physically Handicapped Children
        A physically handicapped child is that child who has some physical impairment, which
hinders his participation in one way or the other. The impairment may be slight or serious. For
example hearing defects may range from complete deafness to a slight loss of hearing. Similarly
eye defects may range from complete blindness to imperfect vision of one or both the eyes or mere
eye strain.

Adjustment Problem of Physically Handicapped Children

    As a matter of fact many physically handicapped are so much motivated for work and so much
moved by their inability that they went to compensate by their better performance. More over they
want to become the useful members of the society rather than being looked upon mercifully. The
modern educational approach is to make them feel that they are capable of doing some job,
getting some training and put in their best to be a productive members of the society. It is why that
in every state a special Employment Exchange has been opened for the placement of handicaps.
Due to fast technological changes, fast way of life, the number of accidents has been increasing
thus multiplying the number of handicapped persons. On account of their physical deformity,
physically handicapped children have to face many adjustment problems. They are unable to
satisfy their interested to take to part in desirable normal activities. As a result they develop in
them emotional problems like attitude of self-pity and utility, discouragement and resentment they
develop inferiority complex which may lead them to many abnormalities.

Education for Physically Handicapped Children

    Physically handicapped individuals should be provided with all those educational activities,
which are meant for normal children, keeping in mind, their physical deformity, because in most of
the cases they possess normal intelligence. However, separate arrangement will be needed for
different type of handicapped persons.

    (i) Blind

    Some students, who have some serious defects in their eyesight, generally do not want to
make it public and show to the others that they have such impairedness. In such cases, however,
they develop inferiority feelings. It is the duty of the teachers to identify them and to treat them in
such a way that their inferiority is not further increased. In case of those who are not completely
blind but can be educated in the general education classes, should be treated in the following
ways:

    1. If need be, the proper eyeglasses can be got filled.

    2. They can be seated in the first row in the classroom.
    3. Large size books can be used.

    4. Adequate facilities of light and ventilation should be provided in the classroom.

    5. Black board of good quality be used, properly cleaned and placed at reasonable distance
        in the classroom.

    6. Good habit of reading and writing should be developed in them. Those who are totally blind
        should be sent to the special schools for blind for getting academic and vocational
        education.

    The Review Committee of National Policy-1986(1990) has laid down that for making the boys
and girls of impaired vision Bharti Braille has been developed.

    While work has been intensified for development of Braille notations for mathematics and
science, not much progress has been made towards this end. On account of the growing emphasis
on science and mathematics teaching, a comprehensive and effective code for use in the areas of
mathematics and science should be developed.

    In addition, some vocational training centres for the blinds have been established and they are
being trained to do many jobs such as typing, radio mechanics, T.V. mechanics etc. and placed in
such jobs in home industrial establishments such an effort need to be further enchanted in a
systematic way. The main idea is to bring them in the main channel of employment and to make
them useful members of the society.

    2. The Deaf and Hard of Hearing: A totally deaf individuals who has no hearing ability at all.
Such children may be born deaf or might have become deaf because of a disease or other
environment factors. We call that individual, who loses his hearing after he has acquired speech, a
'hard of hearing'.

    Education can help the deaf and hard of hearing children in the following ways:

    (i) The totally deaf children must be educated in special type of schools, with special methods
of teaching and special type of apparatus meant for them special methods are used to train such
children. Special type of schools and correspondence courses has been started for helping such
children to adjust in life. John Traily Clinic, Calif is one such institution that provides a
correspondence course for the parents of the deaf children.

    The underlying philosophy is that they should be integrated in the human resources
development, by providing them some vocational training and save them from being tripped in the
domain of inferiority complex. In order to make the boys and girls of impaired hearing economically
independent, vocational training has to be special organised. Vocational training which is to be
oriented and matched to the abilities and aptitude of the a signified diversified way confining to the
limited number of vocational training programmes like drawing, painting, tailoring, knitting,
embroidery, book binding etc. these diversified courses also relate to industrial operations such as
sheet metal works, printing, turning, fitting, welding, electricians trade, carpentry etc.

    The government has also reserved a small percentage of jobs and training's for them in order
to provide them with opportunities to live in the main streams of people. The Review Committee of
National Policy, 1986(1990) has recommended:

    "Education Package should be offered for hearing impaired children in a differentiated way.

           a) Pure orally oriented programmes for profound deaf children.

           b) Combined oral-manual programmes will be made adequate.

           c) Segregated programmes for those children for whom, such programmes are essential.

           d) Integrated programme for those whom, this modality promises better emotive,
              cognitive, social and linguistic development."

           e) The children who are hard of hearing should be allowed to study in regular class-rooms.
              They may be seated in such a way that they can watch the lips of the teacher also.

    3. The Crippled: In the modern society the number of crippled is increasing tremendously,
because of the accidents both in transportation and industrial world. Most of them are of either
normal intelligence or of somewhat superior intelligence. Many of them are provided with artificial
limbs, which provide them compensation mechanism in addition to facilitate their body function.
Many of them become crippled due to illness or abnormally poor diet or worry experienced by the
mother in pre-natal period. Most of them have an ambition to become the productive members of
the society and are conscious workers.

    A crippled child is one who suffers from a defect, a physical deformity that does not allow him
the normal use of his muscles, bones or joints. Crippling may be innate, the result of uncongenial
factors, injury or the effect of a disease. The crippled individual is just like other normal individuals
except his physical handicap.

    (i)     Education must help them to develop normal attitude towards their deformity and
            towards their relationship with other people. This will save them from all sorts of
            complexes.

    (ii)    They should be provided opportunities for their mental development, as they are
           generally not inferior to the normal children in intelligence.

    (iii) The equipment that are required to use, should be specially designed, in schools as well
           as in their homes so that they are adjusted tot heir deformity. Their chair, table etc.
           should be specially designed so that they can be comfortably seated and absorbed in
           reading and writing without any strain.

    (iv)   They need special attention for their movement. Difficulty of transportation and
           locomotive and normal limitation may interfere in their learning process. Such facilities
           of transportation, which help in moving about, should be provided by school authorities, if
           the parents are poor.

    (v)    They should be given vocational training for their adjustment to vocation. They may be
           helped to take up jobs in which their deformity does not stand in their way.

    (vi)   The teacher should contact orthopedic surgeon to consult him for the child. It is very
           common to use the artificial limbs or to set right the defective bones and limbs after
           operating upon it. If the school authorities cannot afford to spend so much on the child,
           Red Cross fund can be used for this purpose or the school authorities can guide their
           parents by giving them necessary information.

    (vii) It is the duty of the welfare state to provide all types of facilities to go in for artificial
           limbs at stage expenses.

    (viii) They are provided free travel or consessional travels facilities. Some percentage of jobs
           and admissions in higher institutions of learning are also reserved for them. Some
           stipends are also provided to them for becoming normal functioning members of the
           society.

    4. The Defective Speech: Speech defects can be of various kinds e.g. stammering, stuttering,
lisping, hoarseness etc. which can be due to physiological, anatomical or psychological reason.
Physician should be consulted for physiological and anatomical causes. Among the psychological
causes are emotional disturbance, inferiority complex, traumatic experience, and lack of proper
rest and learning of wrong speech.

    The speech defects can be improved or considerably reduced by sympathetic and affectionate
attitude, by giving proper speech training, by overcoming wrong habits, by proper nourishment, by
improvement through exercise or surgical operation of any physical mal-formation and by setting a
model for the formation of correct speech habits.

    5. Delicate Children: This is a category of persons who have no illness as such but there is
general weakness of health in them. It can be due to mal nourishment or infection of some disease
of the mother etc. however, in order to educate them and to make them healthy members of the
society, special need is provided to them in the mainstream of educational channel.

    (i)     Special arrangements should be made for their medical and psychological check up.

    (ii)    They should be provided with necessary diet and milk in the school and at home.

    (iii) They need individual attention and special care of the teacher and parents.

Institutions for the Handicapped in Jammu and Kashmir

    1. Abhedananda Home, Home for Blind and Handicapped, Modern School for Integrated
           Education, Silk factory Road Srinagar, 190001;

    2. Akhil Bhartiya Netrahin Sangh and Residential Schools for the Blind Ved Mandir, Jammu,
           180001;

    3. Blind Welfare Centre, Sopore, Kashmir.

    4. Deaf and Dumb School, Abhedananda Home, Ram Bagh, Silk Factory Road, Srinagar,
           190001.

Recommendations of Kothari Commission on the Handicapped

    According to the Commission there were 25 lakh handicapped in our country. The number of
institutions for the handicapped was not adequate. Hence, Kothari Commission made the following
recommendations:

    1. Spread of institutions at District Level: There should be atleast one institution for the
           handicapped in every district in the country.

    2. Absorption: There is a immediate need for maximum number of handicapped children
           should be absorbed in the normal school programmes.

    3. Special Facilities: It is also necessary to develop special services on the experimental basis
           for children who have some special educational needs i.e. with weak vision, with speech
           defects, with weak mind and with retarded mental development.

    4. Development of Programmes: Emphasis should be laid upon the training of teachers,
           harmonizing the activities of various agencies engaged in this field, encouraging the
           necessary to implement and develop programmes for the education of handicapped
           children.
Recommendations of National Policy on Education (1986)

    National Policy on Education, 1986 proposes to integrate the physically and mentally
handicapped with the general community as equal partners so as to enable them to face life with
courage and confidence by preparing them for normal growth. This will be beneficial both to the
individuals as well as the society. The society will be benefited from their productivity and the
individual will become a better psychologically built up person.

    1. Ordinary Schools: Children with locomotor handicaps and other mild handicaps should be
        placed in ordinary schools. This will provide them to be a productive member in the main
        stream of human resources development.

    2. Special Schools: Children with serve disability should be enrolled in special schools. Special
        schools should be provided with hostels as far as possible at district headquarters.

    3. Vocational Training: Adequate vocational training should be provided to the disabled as to
        make them productive members.

    4. Teacher Training: There should be reorientation of teacher training programmes to deal
        with the special difficulties of the handicapped children.

    5. Adequate Material and Equipment: The schools should be properly equipped with
        adequate material needed for such children.

    6. Adequate Incentives: Incentives, i.e. free books and other material, free hostel facilities
        and some stipends be awarded to them in special schools.

    7. Adequate Supports: Supports should be mobilized from other establishments such as
        health, sanitation, industry and public welfare department.

    8. Removing Architectural Barrier: Architectural barriers in schools buildings should be
        removed where at least 13 disabled children are enrolled.

Recommendation of the CABE Committee Report on Policy (1992)

    The committee felt that the recommendations of the Programme of Action were being carried
for establishment of special schools at district and sub-district level, curriculum development apart
from provision of infrastructural facilities and specific target setting for Universal Primary Education
of the Handicapped. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Integrated Education for the Disabled
children was started in 1975 by the then Ministry of School Welfare. In 1982-83, it was transferred
to the Department of Education. When the scheme was transferred only 2500 schools were
covered under the scheme. In 1987, the scheme was thoroughly reviewed and revised in pursuance
of NPE. The coverage of the scheme was extended to 22 states and 600 students and with vastly
different needs. These children required more individualised attention. The objective of special
schools is to endow the students with daily living skill and to rehabilitate them. The supervisory
infrastructure of the general education institution is not equipped to supervise special schools,
which have their own requirements and special needs.

    The committee has agreed with the report of the review committee, which has been discussed
under different categories of handicapped in this chapter. In the broader way it has advocated the
use of media in creating awareness about the problems of handicapped, providing support to every
family with handicapped through incentives, dialogue and training and adopting a flexible approach
to the education of the physically handicapped.

Axioms on Special Education

    1. Individual Differences: Exceptional students of every area insignificantly different from
        each other and thus need different treatment, so it worth while to appreciate individual
        differences.

    2. Equal Right: In the name of democracy every exceptional child has the same right to
        acceptance, understanding and education as other children.

    3. Identification and Placement: To ensure maximum progress of exceptional children in
        school and life, early screening, identification and placement special education
        programme are generally essential.

    4. Specific Goals: Special goals should be developed for all special education programmes.
        As far as possible efforts should be made to make use of the innovations which are
        coming up as result of research being carried out in the area of handicapped.

    5. Competent Teachers: Special education programmes needs experts. So it should be
        initiated and implemented when such teachers with relevant expertise are available.

    6. Individualised Handling: Exceptional children and individualized handling which should be
        based upon abilities and disabilities of pupils.

    7. Relevant Curriculum: Relevant curriculum materials and equipment are needed to handle
        the pupils depending upon his inabilities.

    8. Continuous Reassessment: Continuous reassessment of exceptional children and
        evaluation of school programmes are essential to progress.

    9. Integral Part: As far as possible education of exceptional children should be an integral
        part of total education programmes when possible.

    10. Team Approach: For proper diagnosis and placement, a team a approach to be made by
        physician, psychologists and educationists. They should not work on divergent angles.

Role of the Teacher

    In fact, in case of handicapped children, the teacher is the most important factor not only as a
knowledge giver or as a skill developer, but also as a friend, guide and model to the pupil. He is an
artist who can bring out the best in the child. Some of his important qualities are as under:

    1. Wholesome Personality: Teacher should have a pleasant and wholesome personality.

    2. Perfect Understanding: He should have a perfect understanding of the child and the
        situation and plan his activities keeping in view to the environment.

    3. Willing Worker: He should have the willingness to work.

    4. Remedial Teaching: Teacher should work out the remedial teaching programme, which
        may help the children with special educational needs.

    5. Instructional Material: He should prepare instructional Material to teach in integrated
        settings. In this regard he should have the up to-date information about the innovations of
        the area.

    6. Co-operation: He should co-operate with other faculty for giving best possible education to
        exceptional children especially the gifted and the handicapped. In this regard he should
        seek the co-operation of the parents as well as community so as to be more effective in his
        approach.

								
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