Steroids - PowerPoint

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					Steroids

What are they? Anabolic and androgenic
Anabolic steroids are drugs derived from the male hormone testosterone. They promote muscle growth and increase lean body mass. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are manmade substances “Anabolic” refers to muscle-building androgenic” refers to increased masculine characteristics.

Steroids
refers to the class of drugs These drugs are available legally only by prescription to treat conditions that occur when the body produces abnormally low amounts of testosterone, such as delayed puberty and some types of impotence, body wasting in patients with AIDS and other diseases that result in loss of lean muscle mass.

What are the different types of anabolic steroids?
1930's to the 1960's scientists modified the structure of the testosterone molecule to produce anabolic steroids to increase muscle and body protein metabolism They should not be confused with steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as cortisone, corticosteroids.

How are they used?
Orally (pills) anadrol, winstrol, dianabol winstrol, dianabol are 17 - alpha alkylated – pass through the liver and are not destroyed Because of the way the steroids work in the body, some can be taken once a day(anadrol) other need to be taken through out the day(winstrol) injected (IM)

Most injectables only have to be taken once or twice a week. three major areas where steroids are injected, they are the safest areas of the body to inject. These areas are: the glute, the shoulder, and the thigh.

What ways are they taken?
stacking - combine several different types of steroids to boost their effectiveness Cycling - users take steroids for 6 to 12 weeks or more, stop for several weeks, and then start again. Pyramiding - low doses of the steroids are taken and then gradually increase the doses, in the second half of the cycle, the doses are slowly decreased to zero.

Side effects
Water Retention: This is most common from using steroids. It is a “puffiness” or swelling in the neck and facial areas. Acne Gynecomastia: It is the formation of breasts, or abnormally large glands Aggression Hypertension: High blood pressure

Side effects
Cardiovascular Disease: Studies have shown that steroid use is a risk factor for heart disease. This is because steroids affect the cholesterol levels Palpitations: Heart palpitations have been reported by a number of athletes on steroids Impotence: Impotence occurs when a user goes on and off steroids. When steroids are first used sexual interest increases because of the heightened frequency and duration of the erections. But eventually the opposite happens and no erections can be produced.

Side effects
Jaundice: A serious liver disease which is found by an enlarged painful liver, yellowing of the eyes and skin, and flu like symptoms. This happens when athletes use high dosages of steroids. Also, people who inject steroids with shared needles run the risk of contracting or transmitting hepatitis or HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

(EPO) Erythropoietin
EPO is a glycoprotein that stimulates red blood cell production therapeutic uses of EPO - treatment of anemia believed to increase oxygen absorption, reduce fatigue and improve endurance by increasing the rate of red cell production Promoters of EPO claim that this drug increases the metabolism and the healing process of muscles because the extra red cells carry more oxygen and nutrients.

EPO side effects
causes an increase in the total number of circulating red bloods cells. This can lead to increased thickening (blood viscosity) of the blood The risk for coronary and cerebral artery blockages increases when the hematocrit (percentage of red blood cells in the blood) level exceeds 55%.

HGH Human Growth Hormone
HGH is one of the major hormones influencing growth and development in humans A major function of HGH is the maintenance of normal linear growth from birth to adulthood. The metabolic action of HGH is also important in the regulation of energy production and storage.

HGH Human Growth Hormone
Some individuals use HGH because they perceive that it is as effective as anabolic steroids with fewer side effects, and is not detectable in a drug test. Before 1985 growth hormones were obtained from cadaver pituitary extracts use HGH as a steroid substitute to prevent loss of muscle after discontinuing the use of steroids.

HGH Human Growth Hormone

According to some controlled scientific studies HGH does not increase muscle strength. Most reports on HGH efficacies are either anecdotal or based on animal studies

HGH Side effects
developing irreversible acromegaly (abnormal growth of bones of the hands and feet and face) high blood pressure heart damage premature aging and death soft tissue swelling thickening of the skin, abnormal hair growth colonic polyps liver damage and glucose intolerance muscle weakness enlargement of the internal organs arthritis impotence

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
ACTH is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce and secrete adrenocortical hormones. A student athlete might perceive that this substance would enhance muscular development. ACTH is used in non-suppurative thyroiditis and hypercalcemia associated with cancer.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) health effects
ACTH may mask signs of infection. Diabetics may have increased requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemics. ACTH can also cause fluid and electrolyte disturbances muscle weakness and loss of muscle mass ulcerative esophagitis and peptic ulcer impaired wound healing headache and vertigo increased intracranial pressure menstrual irregularities suppression of growth in children Ophthalmic metabolic and allergic reactions.

Creatine
an amino acid (amino acids are the building blocks of protein) which is made in the body by the liver and kidneys, and is derived from the diet through meat and animal products. Creatine is categorized as a food supplement by the Food and Drug Administration (like a vitamin) available over the counter at drug stores and nutrition centers.

What does creatine normally do in the body?
In the body, creatine is changed into a molecule called "phosphocreatine" which serves as a storage reservoir for quick energy. Phosphocreatine is especially important in tissues such as the voluntary muscles and the nervous system which periodically require large amounts of energy.

Why do athletes take creatine?
Studies have shown that creatine can increase the performance of athletes in activities that require quick bursts of energy such as sprinting It can help athletes to recover faster after expending bursts of energy.

Concerns
You have to take a lot of creatine to get any extra into muscle most of what you take ends up in your urine There are concerns that creatine supplementation could damage kidneys. To get rid of the extra creatine, you have to make more urine--about 25% more each day


				
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