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									Construction Safety

       PUBH 3310

   November 18, 2011


                       1
  Supplemental Resources
• The Basics of Occupational Safety (course
  text)
  – The text does not cover construction-related safety
• Selected Internet websites, as noted in this
  presentation




                                                      2
                  Objectives
• Be familiar with accident rates for
  construction
   – How fatality and injury rates compare with other
     types of work
   – Fatal injury causes
• Know about OSHA’s emphasis on
  “competent persons”
• Excavations and scaffolds will be
  addressed in the next two presentations


                                                        3
Lifetime Risk for Construction
           Workers
• Risk for a 45-year career in construction
  – Disabling injury = 75%
  – Fatality = 0.5% (1 in 200)
  – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease = 15%
  – Dust-related lung damage = 11%
  Presented at 2011 American Public Health Association annual
  meeting by the Center to Protect Workers’ Rights. Data is cross-
  sectional, since traditional occupational safety and health data
  underestimate risk.
  http://ehstoday.com/construction/news/construction-increased-
  injury-odds-1107/                                                4
 Construction Fatality Rates
 Industry                   Deaths per 100,000
 Agriculture, fishing and          26.8
 logging
 Mining                            19.8
 Transportation                    13.1
 Construction                       9.5
 All industry                       3.5

• Construction is one of the most hazardous
  occupations (2010 data)                        5
Fatalities 2010




                  6
  Construction Injury Rates
• Construction workers have a high rate of
  non-fatal injuries and illnesses
• Injuries and illnesses per 100 workers (2009
  data)
  –   Construction = 4.3
  –   Agriculture = 5.3
  –   Manufacturing = 4.3
  –   Mining = 2.4
  –   Total private industry = 3.6

                                                 7
8
Injuries and illness incidence rates 1992–2001.




      2001 average injury and illness rate
      was 5.4 per 100 workers



                                             9
Injury and illness with days away from work
         by construction trade, 2001




                                          10
What is the most likely cause of
death for construction workers?




                                   11
    Falls are the leading cause of
        death in construction
•    2001 fatality statistics for construction
    – Fall from elevation – 4.3 deaths per 100,000
      • Most fatal falls are over 30 feet, from roof or
         scaffold
    – Highway accidents – 1.7 deaths per 100,000
    – Electrical shock – 1.6 deaths per 100,000
      • Contact with overhead wires
      • Over 480 volts
    – Struck By object - 1.2 deaths per 100,000
      • Trench collapse
      • Falling objects
          – Poor rigging of loads or poor material storage
    – Struck by vehicle – 1.1 deaths per 100,000
      • Heavy construction equipment                    12
Cause of construction fatalities , 2001




                                          13
Ironworkers fell to their deaths
 more than other construction
           workers

• 2001, deaths per 100,000 workers
  – Ironworkers - 66.8
  – Roofers - 30.1
  – Construction laborers – 10.2
  – Average for construction – 4.2


                                     14
Fatal occupational fall rates by selected
        construction trade, 2001.




                                            15
        OSHA citations reflect the
         hazards of construction
•    12-month total, Sept 2003 – Oct 2004
    –  More than half of OSHA construction citations
       are for fall-related violations
      • Scaffolds, fall protection, ladders and stairway
          violations were 53% of OSHA construction
          citations
    – Excavation and electrical violations were 16% of
       construction citations
    – 1% of citations were for the general duty clause
       violations
                                                      16
Most Frequent OSHA Citations for
       Construction, 2004
      Other
      24%                         Scaffolds
General                             26%
 Duty
Clause
 1%
    PPE
    7%

  Ladders &                            Fall
  Stairways                         Protection
     7% Electrical   Excavation        19%
                                                 17
           8%           8%
  OSHA Competent Person
• OSHA standards for construction mu st be
  flexible to accommodate changing and
  situations
• OSHA construction standards require a
  “competent person” on the job to assure
  safety
  – Capable of identifying existing and predictable
    hazards
  – Authorization to take prompt corrective measures

                                                       18
  OSHA Competent Person
• OSHA regulations for construction:
  – Definition, 1926.32(f)
     • "Competent person" means one who is capable of
       identifying existing and predictable hazards in the
       surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary,
       hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has
       authorization to take prompt corrective measures to
       eliminate them.
  – General safety and health provisions, 1926.20(b)
     • Frequent and regular inspections of the job sites,
       materials, and equipment to be made by competent
       persons designated by the employers”
  – Many other construction standards specify duties
    for the competent person
                                                             19
Web References for Construction
• http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-146/ (NIOSH
  Worker Health Chartbook)
• http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/statistics/safety.htm/
  (Department of Labor)
• http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/construction/index.ht
  ml (OSHA e-tool)
• http://www.osha.gov/doc/index.html (OSHA
  contstruction)
• http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/construction/ (NIOSH)



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