19th Century Ideas

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					  19 th   Century Ideas

Foundations of Modern Political,
 Social, and Economic Thought
                   Political ideology that
                    developed in the late 18th
                   Defended established
                    social and political order of
                    Europe as natural (royalty).
                   Conservatism questioned
                    the possibilities of radical
                   British MP Edmund Burke
                    was its most vocal
Edmund Burke        advocate.
         Classical Liberalism
 Associated with ideas of social progress,
  economic development, and individualism
  that emerged in the Enlightenment.
 Closely associated with middle class values
  and concerns.
 Generally advocated political reforms, but
  also promoted an orderly society.
 In this way, it was often limited in scope and
  not concerned for the needs of the masses.
          Political Liberalism
 Political liberalism was based on the ideas
  of John Locke, Voltaire and other
  philosophes of the 18th century .
 Political liberalism called for greater
  individual rights, religious freedom, freedom
  of the press, property rights, representative
  government (at least for the middle class,
  not “democracy”)
         Economic Liberalism
 Based mostly on laissez-faire ideas of Adam
  Smith and other economists.
 Markets should be as free from government
  intervention as possible.
 Thomas Malthus
  – An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
  – Population growth would outstrip food.
 David Ricardo
  – “Iron Law of Wages”
  – labor based on supply and demand
            Adam Smith
 Smith criticized both guild and
  mercantile-based economic
  systems as restraining.
 Promoted liaise-faire (i.e.
  classical liberalism) ideology in
  The Wealth of Nations (1776).
 Free market economy based
  on division of labor and the
  fewest government restrictions
  as possible
    Utilitarianism and Socialism
 As the 19th century progressed, more and
  more politicians, economists and
  philosophers began to see that
  conservatism and liberalism were not
  serving the needs of the developing
  industrial society.
 They began to theorize about alternative
  systems that would bring about a better
 Jeremy Bentham
  – Argued that gov’t
    sometimes needed to
    intervene on behave of the
  – Every human practice
    should be valued in terms
    of its utility (happiness).
  – Individual freedom with the
    benefits for the most
    (welfare state)
      John Stuart Mill
       – Further evolution of
         liberal doctrine away
         from laissez-faire.
       – Strong advocate of
         women’s rights.
       – Supported formation of
         labor unions,
         progressive taxes,
         universal suffrage, and
         child labor restrictions.
 Utopian Socialism
  – Socialists of the early 19th century did not have
    a coherent ideology, but different ideas put
  – Common to most were the ideas of the abolition
    of private property (either owned by the state of
    by groups of workers.
  – And the need to educate workers to cooperate
    as apposed to compete.
  Robert Owen
   – Textile entrepreneur who
     advocated socialist ideas.
   – Put workers rights and wages
     into action at New Lanark,
   – Began socialist New Harmony
     community in Indiana in 1826.
   – New Harmony failed and he
     returned to England
   Louis Blanc
    – Published The Organization
      of Work (1840) calling for
      universal manhood suffrage
      and the creation of a workers
    – The worker’s would
      eventually control the
      government and establish
      socialist workshops, pushing
      private industries out of
      Karl Marx (1818-1883)
 Son of an attorney in
  western Germany
 Received his doctorate in
  philosophy in 1842.
 His radical views denied
  him a place at the
  conservative universities
  in Prussia.
 In 1844, he moved to
  Paris and began working
  with Friedrich Engels.
 In The Communist Manifesto and Das
  Kapital Marx and Engels developed the
  concepts of scientific socialism.
  – Ideas on the development of history based on
    dialectic of Hegel as well as materialism and
  – Dialectical materialism states that:
     Economic conditions provide basis for social order
     Economic conditions determine the nature of
      everything else (superstructure)
     This expresses itself in different forms throughout
 Class struggle was the basis of change
  throughout history.
 This was repeated throughout history in the
  dialectical model (thesis in conflict with
  antithesis = synthesis)
  – Aristocracy in conflict with bourgeoisie (18th and
    19th century revolutions) led to new capitalist
  – In the future, bourgeoisie would be challenged
    by proletariat (working class) and be
    overthrown in a new communist society (final
    phase of history).
        The Socialist Critique
 Utilitarian and especially socialist writers
  and thinkers began to criticize the assertions
  of liberal capitalist society, especially in
  dealing with the condition of workers.
 As the century progressed, conservatism
  became more associated with the
  aristocracy, liberalism with the bourgeoisie,
  and socialism with the working class.
 The Modern Political Continuum
                     MORE FREEDOM
                     Utilitarianism/   Classical
                     Progressivism     Liberalism
         Socialism                              Conservatism
MORE                                                           LESS
EQUAL   LEFT                                    RIGHT
                 Stalinism                 Fascism

                     LESS FREEDOM

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