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					Reading and Comprehension

Group 2
• • • • • • • Dr.N.Nataraja Pillai Dr.S.Radhakrishnan Dr.T.Parasuraman Dr.k.Pasumpon Dr.T.Muthukrishnan Dr.R.Muralidharan Dr.P.Nagaraj • • • • • • • Dr.M.Padmanabhan Mrs.T.Suriya Prabha Mrs.J.Vijayalakshmi Mrs. V.Suguna Mrs. Suja Mathew Mr. S.Muthukumaravel Mr. Radhakrishanan

1. Definition Reading is a process of using eyes and mind (with interest and positive attitude) with required competense in language in prescribed time to understand and interpret the literal as well as the hidden meanings of what the writer attempts to convey.

2. Types of reading discussed
a. Reading and comprehension The objective is to observe the reading with correct pronunciation, pauses and using exclamatory marks. Further, this will test the macro skill stipulated as finding the main idea of the text, the ideas expressed in the paragraphs, etc..

b. Reading with comprehension The objective is to test the comprehending ability of the readers focusing on the ideas and the meaning of vocabulary.

c. Reading and time management This has the objective under this reading is test reading faster and understand better.

d. Reading other materials Emphasis is given for reading and interpreting graphs, pictures in manuals, etc.

3. Barriers of Reading
(Elements of reading)

The following are the barriers taken in to consideration and some of them are considered as parameters also. • Faulty visual perception • Reading word by word • Regressions ( going back and front to understand ) • Head swinging , finger pointing • Vocalization ( Reading loudly) • Sub-vocalization (murmuring, making unnecessary sound, etc.)

3. Barriers of Reading
(Elements of reading) Continued

• • • • • • • • •

Lack of stamina Lack of interest ( motivation) Word blocking Word analysis Monotonous plodding Back tracking Rereading (l and m involves thought process) Readability ( reading ability) Lack of concentration

4. Errors in Reading
These are divided mainly into two: Interference of Mother Tongue and others

• • •

Pronunciation errors: vowels , consonants, diphthongs, etc. Faulty pausing : word, phrases, sentences, punctuations, stress, intonation, etc. Mother tongue interference. This depends of the contrastive features of the M.T. and English. Normally, one can find the following if the MT is Tamil. Voiced and voiceless consonants interchanged, voicing of the voiceless consonants after a nasal, using long vowels, unstressed vowels, hypercorrections, etc.

5. Remedial measures
• • • • Recognition of correct pronunciation using dictionary/ understanding received pronunciation Model reading – create a model by teacher himself Exercises exclusively prepared for the error correction Conscious effort – training in self correction

5. Remedial measures
Continued

•

•

•

There are two kinds of standardization available. 1. Mono-model standardization (accepting only one form : colour) and 2. Bi/multi model standardization ( accepting two or more forms : colour and color) Knowing not only the spelling system of English but also the morphological features of the word: read and read ( past form) woman – women, etc. Metathesis

6. Design a basic tool
• Anything that is not included in the examination is neglected by both the • teachers and students. But are to be developed for better performance in the light of • job seeking and for developing aptitude.

7. Technical Manual Reading
• I.I.Ts go in for reading a graph, stat diagram data, percentage, numerical data in rows and columns, reading of a graphic representation of the text and derive the meaning.

8. Factors affecting Comprehension
• • • • • Kind of text used: familiar or not (story to a legal text) Vocabulary Sentence length Paragraph formation Style of the author, etc.

Reading Comprehension

Vishwaditya, the king of Magadh, heard that a great physician who lived in the neighbouring kingdom had invented an edible magic substance, which, if eaten with sweetmeat, would give one long life. He invited the physician through his messengers. The physician arrived with four sweetmeat balls- mixed with the magic substance. The delighted king ordered his soldiers to bring a big garland made of very attractive looking and scented flowers, and himself garlanded the physician. The physician removed the precious cloth with which he had covered the plate of sweet meat balls. The king‟s joy knew no bound at the sight of the contents of the plate. While the physician was about to offer the sweetmeat balls to the king, the court jestler rushed forward, picked up a ball and began eating it. Everyone present in the court was astonished.

“Take hold of the mad chap!” shouted the king. The king‟s bodyguards did so. The half eaten sweetmeat ball fell from his hand. “How dare you touch the magic thing meant for me? Be ready to face the consequence – death!” The jestler shed tears. “No use crying”, said the king. “I am crying for you, my lord!” replied the jestler. “Why ?” asked the king .“My lord, by eating only half of the magic thing, I am going to die. What will happen to you when you eat the whole of the magic thing?” said the jester. The king saw sense in what the jestler said. He realized his mistake of believing in such magic things. He suitably honored the jestler.

1.“The king‟s bodyguards did so.” Which of the following correctly explains “did so”? • They snatched away the half-eaten ball • They arrested the physician • They snatched away the plate of balls • They took hold of the physician • None of these 2. According to the king‟s information, which of the following was the invention of the physician? • An edible substance that was very sweet • A magic substance that would give strength • A magic substance that would reduce the life span • A substance that would postpone death • A substance that would make life miserable

3. Which of the following statements is true in the context of the passage? • The king was not moved by the jestler‟s weeping • The sweetmeat balls were having wonderful power • The punishment sentenced on the jestler was implemented • The physician was one of the king‟s own subjects • The king had realized his mistake even before the jestler‟s act. 4. When the physician visited the court, the king • a. got annoyed • b. was wearing a garland • c. became very happy • d. ordered him to garland his soldiers • e. uncovered the plate of sweetmeat balls

5.According to the jestler, what was the effect of eating of ball, on him ? • a. Tears in eyes • b. Death sentence • c. Longer life • d. Being honored by the king • e. None of these 6. Which of the following surprised the country? • a. The physician‟s wonderful invention • b. The king‟s unlimited joy at the sight of the plate • c. The jostler‟s wisdom of exposing the physician • d. The king‟s reaction towards the jestler • e. The jester‟s act of picking up and eating a sweetmeat ball

7. What made the jestler weep with sorrow? • a. The death sentence passed on him by the king • b. His concern and anxiety for the life safety of the king • c. The effect of the physician‟s invention on the lives of the people • d. The destruction of the half sweetmeat ball • e. The death sentence was not passed on him by the king 8. The king offered death sentence on the jestler because the jestler had … • a. tried to teach the king a lesson • b. caught hold of the physician • c. insulted the physician by his impolite act • d. snatched away the thing which was meant for the king • e. touched the magic sweetmeat ball to remove its power

9.“He realized his mistake of believing in such magic things.” Which of the following explains “such magic things”? • a. Things which have miraculous power • b. Things which have been prepared by famous physicians • c. Things said to possess magic power but do not have such power • d. Things offered to the king to help him live longer • e. None of these 10. The king honored the jestler for his act of • a. opening the king‟s eyes • b. committing a mistake • c. realizing that he was wrong • d. believing in false things • e. eating up half a sweetmeat ball

• • • • • • • • • • • •

ANSWERS: comprehension: 1.b 2.b 3.c 4.a 5.b 6.c 7.b 8.b 9.b 10.c

Reading and punctuation
i am playing my best saina the junior world badminton champion and world no 10 saina nehwal feels that she is playing at her best at the moment and there is absolutely no pressure on her as she sets her sight high saina who has been signed by herbalife a health and nutrition product as a brand ambassador here on Wednesday said I am playing my best game now being world no 10 does not add any pressure and I am enjoying every bit of it and hope to break into the top five saina however said that while becoming a world no 1 was a big dream she has not set any time frame on that at the level I am playing there are a lot more experienced players and who are really good it is going to be a tough act but I will keep doing my best

Reading and punctuation
continued

saina also discounted the possibility of training abroad personally I don‟t thing I can do that I enjoy training here at gopichands academy I put seven to eight hours of training which is not possible if I go abroad we have all the facilities here and some of the best coaches in the world like prakashpadukone vimalkumar and of course my mentor gopichand I did have a bit of pressure when I won the Philippines open last season following which there were a lot of expectations but I can now handle it I do a lot of meditation and stay calm she said (Courtesy The Hindu, dated 29 January, 2009.)

Reading and punctuation
key
I AM PLAYING MY BEST, SAINA The junior world badminton champion and world no.10, Saina Nehwal, feels that she is playing at her best at the moment and there is absolutely no pressure on her as she sets her sight high. Saina, who has been signed by Herbalife, a health and nutrition product as a „Brand Ambassador‟ here on Wednesday, said,”I am playing my best game now. Being world no. 10 does not add any pressure and I am enjoying every bit of it and hope to break into the top five.” Saina, however, said that while becoming a world no.1 was a big dream she has not set any time frame on that. “At the level I am playing, there are a lot more experienced players and who are really good. It is going to be a tough act but I will keep doing my best.”

Reading and punctuation
key continued Saina also discounted the possibility of training abroad. “Personally, I don‟t thing I can do that. I enjoy training here. At Gopichand‟s academy, I put seven to eight hours of training, which is not possible if I go abroad. We have all the facilities here and some of the best coaches in the world like Prakash Padukone, Vimal Kumar and of course my mentor Gopichand.” “I did have a bit of pressure when I won the Philippines open last season, following which there were a lot of expectations but I can now handle it. I do a lot of meditation and stay calm,” she said. (Courtesy The Hindu, dated 29 January, 2009.)

Reading and time management
Instructions: The following passage has 185 words. You are requested to read and comprehend this passage as fast as you can. You are further requested to answer the questions selecting the appropriate answer from the options given.

Reading and time management
It is possible that you had subtle symptoms of diabetes for years and did not know that you had the disease. Weight loss, increased thirst, and fatigue may have been building up over a number of years. Because the disease has been present for a long time, you may have some complications at the time diagnosis is made. These might include hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease, vascular disease (small blood vessel disease), or kidney disease. Your physician will treat these problems along with your diabetes. It is important to treat such complications as early as possible because a combination of high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney disease is a triple threat to your health.

Reading and time management
continued Many people, however, do not have any complications and can take actions recommended by their physicians concerning diet, exercise, medication in the form of pills instead of insulin injection, and good mental health. If you have non-insulin-dependent diabetes, it is possible that your diabetes may reverse itself and that your blood sugar levels may return to normal and stay that way, particularly if you maintain good diet and exercise habits. Good diet, ideal weight, adequate exercise, adequate insulin availability, and a stable mental attitude are the keys to treatment for diabetes.

Reading and time management
continued

1.According to the passage which of the following is not a symptom of non-insulin-dependent diabetes? a) Increased thirst b) Fatigue c) Yellow skin d) Weight loss 2. Which among the following is the same as „subtle‟ in the passage? a) not obvious b) clean c) direct d) complicated 3. Which of the following statements is false according to the passage? a. A diabetic could have complications of hypertension b. Unnoticed, a diabetic could have vascular disease and heart disease c. The physician can treat diabetes along with the other complications of heart, kidneys etc. d. A combination of high blood pressure, diabetes and kidney disease is a threat to your good health.

Reading and Time Management
key
Sno Good reader marks Average reader marks Slow reader marks

1.
2.

Time 3 mins q.1 q.2 q.3
Total marks

5
1 1 1 8

Time 4mins q.1 q.2 q.3
Total marks

4
1 1 1 7

Time 5mins q.1 q.2 q.3
Total marks

3
1 1 1 6

3.

Reading with appropriate pause
My favourite book

The book,‟Autobiography of Nehru‟, is not a mere autobiography depicting the happenings of the writer‟s life. But it is record of two things, the writer‟s personality and the growth of India‟s freedom movement. The life of Nehru has made a great impression on me. It still makes me laugh when I remember the event that Panditji received beatings from his father for having stolen a fountain pen. Equally impressive is his language. The phrases such as “dying fire drove us “ etc., are worth repeating and worth remembering. Though he does not attach much importance to his private life, his description of the illness of Kamala Nehru brought me to the verge of tears.

Reading with appropriate pause
continued

He expresses his growing old in a lucid language as follows:” I was partly bald and my hairs were grey, lines and furrows crossed my face and dark shadows surrounded my eyes”. Nehru‟s strength of character is revealed throughout the book. He appears in it‟s pages as a penetrating thinker, a man of resolute determination, a lover of action and enterprise. Sentiments and weakness were not known to him. But he was a man of strong emotions, likes and dislikes. The Autobiography has won name and fame all over the world. It has proved to be the best seller and one of the most popular books. This book has placed Nehru among the greatest leaders of the world. His other two books are no comparison to the Autobiography.

Reading with appropriate pause
KEY

• The book,/”Autobiography of Nehru”,/ is not/ a mere autobiography /depicting the happenings of the writer‟s life./ But it is record of two things,/ the writer‟s personality/ and/ the growth of India‟s freedom movement./ The life of Nehru has made/ a great impression on me./ It still makes me laugh/ when I remember the event /that Panditji received beatings from his father/ for having stolen a fountain pen./ Equally impressive is/ his language./ The phrases/ such as/ “dying fire drove us “ etc.,/ are worth repeating/ and worth remembering/ Though he does not attach much importance to his private life,/ his description of the illness of Kamala Nehru/ brought me to the verge of tears./

Reading with appropriate pause
KEY

He expresses his growing old/ in a lucid language as follows:”/ I was partly bald/ and/ my hairs were grey,/ lines/ and /furrows crossed my face/ and/ dark shadows surrounded my eyes”./ Nehru‟s strength of character is/ revealed throughout the book./ He appears in it‟s pages/ as a penetrating thinker, /a man of resolute determination,/ a lover of action/ and /enterprise. Sentiments/ and/ weakness/ were not known to him/ But he was a man of strong emotions,/ likes and dislikes./ The Autobiography has won/ name and fame/ all over the world./ It has proved to be the best seller/ and /one of the most popular books./ This book has placed Nehru/ among the greatest leaders of the world./ His other two books are/ no comparison to the Autobiography./


				
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