Docstoc

Health NSW

Document Sample
Health NSW Powered By Docstoc
					                   NSW Department of Health submission to the review of the
                            Children’s Services Regulation 2004

The NSW Department of Health welcomes the opportunity to contribute to the review of the
Children’s Services Regulation 2004. The Department’s submission is made in the context of the
whole-of-government priority of addressing childhood overweight and obesity through key
behaviours such as physical activity, reduced sedentary behaviour and nutrition. The submission
primarily responds to Section Five of the discussion paper which deals with the safety, health and
development of children.

In Australia and internationally, awareness of the early childhood sector as a setting for positive
early intervention initiatives is increasing. While the NSW Department of Health has the technical
expertise to support obesity prevention, it is important to note that many of the causes and levers to
affect change in this area lie outside of health settings. Priority S3 (Obesity) of the NSW State Plan:
A New Direction for NSW 1 seeks to stop the growth in childhood overweight and obesity by holding
prevalence rates at the 2004 level of 25% until 2010 and then reducing levels to 22% by 2016. A
concerted, collaborative effort across government and across society is required if this target is to
be achieved.

The NSW Department of Community Services (DoCS) has worked collaboratively as a member of
the Priority S3 (Obesity) Senior Officer’s Group to scope and develop a range of policy and program
options. These options, which are detailed in a soon to be released cross-government action plan,
seek to capitalise on the levers and opportunities available to various government agencies and to
embed the principle of prevention and early intervention into a range of government services
including health, education, planning, transport, sport and recreation and children’s services.

The Children’s Services Regulation 2004 is considered one of the primary and most powerful levers
available to the DoCS to support and facilitate improved nutrition and physical activity policy and
practices in NSW children’s services. The regulatory review provides an opportunity for the DoCS
to acknowledge that it has a key support role to play in addressing overweight and obesity within
the children’s services sector and to demonstrate a high-level commitment to this issue through its
regulatory powers.

Strengthening and clarifying nutrition and physical activity standards and requirements for children’s
services through the Children’s Services Regulation could most likely be achieved with limited cost
to, or ongoing involvement of, the DoCS. However, the sustainable and far-reaching impact that
these regulatory changes may provide should not be overlooked. Positive impacts could include:
•   Improved policy and practices relating to nutrition and physical activity in children’s services;
•   Opportunities for children to develop basic skills and competencies to adopt healthy eating and
    physical activity behaviours which will not only support their transition to school but which will
    support improved healthy lifestyle behaviours in the long-term; and
•   A positive contribution to the immediate health and physical development of young children.

The NSW Department of Health submission to the regulatory review seeks to support positive
action in this area by providing:
•   Specific feedback on the discussion plan document;
•   An evidence-based rationale to support the inclusion of regulatory provisions for physical activity
    and nutrition; and
•   Suggested wording for key outcome areas of the revised Children’s Services Regulation.
Summary of key points and recommendations

•   Policy and practice which actively promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviours can
    and should be supported and implemented via regulation.

•   The risk of not taking steps to provide children’s services with clear and specific guidance on
    minimum standards for physical activity and nutrition is significant. It would appear contrary to
    achieving several outcomes identified as key to the Children’s Services Regulation, specifically,
    that children receive services that:
    -   Meet their individual needs and enhance their physical, emotional, cognitive, social and
        cultural development and education; and
    -   Assist them in the transition to other early childhood programs or to school.

•   All food and drinks provided to children and young people, both in children’s services and at
    home, should be consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents.

•   It is recommended that Caring for Infants 2 and Caring for Children 3 are both linked to a food
    and drink outcome area as well as the basis for prescriptive regulatory provisions due to the
    complex nature of the nutrition issues that they address.

•   The training of cooks in children’s services is of fundamental importance to the appropriate
    translation of nutrition guidelines into menus and food preparation. The intent of s54 of the
    existing Regulation on cooking staff needs to be retained. It must be noted however that the
    requirements of the training need to be clarified as there appears to be confusion about which
    courses comply with the Director-General’s guidelines.

•   The absence of specific guidance for children’s services on physical activity requirements and
    limiting sedentary behaviour by young children whilst in care is considered a significant policy
    gap.

•   The NSW Department of Health strongly recommends the inclusion of a separate and specific
    outcome area in the Regulation entitled ‘Physical activity and sedentary behaviour’. This
    outcome area would include the following key statements:

        -   All children are offered a variety of movement experiences and opportunities to develop
            both gross and fundamental movement skills that are enjoyable, safe and appropriate for
            each child’s age and development; and
        -   Small screen recreation such as TV, DVD’s and computers and activities that restrict
            movement should be limited.

•   The NSW Department of Health makes the recommendation that a requirement for all children’s
    services to have a policy which deals with physical activity and sedentary behaviour be included
    in the revised Children’s Services Regulation. The NSW Department of Health would be happy
    to offer assistance to the NSW Department of Community Services in the development of a
    framework for this policy document.
1. Strategic context for the NSW Department of Health submission

The following information is intended to frame the approach taken by the NSW Department of
Health in providing feedback on the discussion paper for the review of the Children’s Services
Regulation 2004. This strategic/contextual detail provides a rationale for the Department’s
submission and identifies how the strengthening of the Regulation with regard to physical activity
and nutrition is in line with a range of strategic initiatives at a state and national level.

   a. Background

   Children often spend a significant amount of time in child-care arrangements, including long day
   care, pre-school, family day care, mobile services and occasional care. As a considerable
   number of young children use such facilities, it is important that they provide an environment
   that encourages and actively supports participation in physical activity, specifically the
   development of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS), limited sedentary behaviours, and the
   promotion of healthy food choices.

   Key risk factors for overweight and obesity, such as participation in physical activity, limiting
   sedentary behaviours (specifically small screen recreation such as TV, DVDs and computers)
   and healthy eating, are modifiable and can be addressed from an early age. A regulatory basis
   for policy and practices to support these healthy behaviours in children’s services is considered
   imperative. In addition, children’s services provide an opportunity to educate staff, children,
   parents and families about appropriate physical activity experiences and foods at a crucial stage
   in a child’s development.

   The discussion paper cites evidence that the early years of life are the period in which the
   foundations for competence and coping skills, that affect long-term learning, behaviour and
   health are established. This statement is also true for the physical activity and nutrition
   behaviours of young children, as research shows that children who develop healthy eating and
   physical activity habits from a young age are more likely to continue these habits in the long
   term.

   The risk of not taking steps to provide children’s services with clear and specific guidance on
   minimum standards for physical activity and nutrition is significant. Further, it would appear
   contrary to achieving several of the outcomes identified as key to the Children’s Services
   Regulation, specifically, that children receive services that:
   •   Meet their individual needs and enhance their physical, emotional, cognitive, social and
       cultural development and education; and
   •   Assist them in the transition to other early childhood programs or to school.


   b. Key initiatives and future directions

   The promotion of physical activity, reduced sedentary behaviour and nutrition in early childhood
   is a government priority at both a state and national level.

   NSW initiatives

   Munch and Move
   The Munch and Move program, promotes healthy eating, physical activity and reduced small
   screen recreation for children from three to five years of age. To date the program has been
   offered to preschools across NSW, with rollout to Long Day Care scheduled from late 2009.
   Munch and Move is a key initiative within the cross-government action plan developed to meet
NSW State Plan Priority S3 (Obesity) targets. The NSW Department of Community Services is
a partner agency for the Munch and Move program.

Caring for Childreniii – Food, nutrition and fun activities
This manual is the foundation for the nutrition requirements of the current Children’s Services
Regulation 2004 for the licensing of mobile and centre-based care. Section 68 (5) of the current
Regulation defines the Caring for Children manual as the ‘dietary guide for children’ on which
policy documents for mobile and centre based care services must be developed.

Caring for Infantsii: A guide to feeding 0-12 month old infants in long day care centres
The purpose of Caring for Infants is to provide advice to Long Day Care services on how to
provide adequate nutrition for children in their care who are aged from birth to 12 months. The
manual includes information on breast milk and other drinks, bottle feeding, introducing solid
foods, vegetarian infants, food textures, allergies, intolerances and choking-risk foods. It also
provides a sample nutrition policy and advice on adapting centre menus for infants.

Caring for Infantsii is designed to complement the well known Caring for Childreniii book which
focuses on children aged 3-5 years of age in Long Day Care.

Strategic directions at a national level

The strengthening of the Children’s Services Regulation around physical activity, reduced
sedentary behaviour and nutrition for children under five years of age, would have strong
synergies with a number of strategic initiatives currently under development at a national level
such as:

Physical Activity Recommendations for Children Under Five Years
The development of specific, evidence-based, age-appropriate guidelines for physical activity
for children from birth to five years is currently being undertaken by the Australian Government.
It is likely that these recommendations will cover both physical activity and sedentary behaviour
and incorporate specific requirements for infants (birth to 12 months), toddlers (one to three) as
well as preschoolers (three to five).

National Physical Activity and Nutrition Guidelines for Early Childhood
The development of these Guidelines is currently underway at a national level. It is likely that
these Guidelines will be settings-based and will have specific advice for different early childhood
settings such as preschools, Long Day Care services, family day care, mobile services etc.

A review of core food group classifications and Nutrient Reference Values
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is currently coordinating a review
of core food group classifications and Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs). These revisions will
be incorporated into the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and the Dietary Guidelines for
Children and Adolescents. These changes will subsequently impact on the dietary provisions
outlined in the Caring for Children document.


It must be noted that the timing of these national strategies/initiatives is not in line with the
review of the Children’s Services Regulation 2004. Whilst acknowledging the difficulty of
aligning such strategies, the importance of these recommendations/guideline documents as
they relate to policy and practice in NSW children’s services must not be overlooked. Each of
these documents will function to provide comprehensive, evidence-based benchmarks on which
children’s services should base their policy and practice, to help ensure the development, health
and wellbeing of the children in their care. The submission from the NSW Department of Health
takes this into account and suggests interim measures to ensure existing provisions are
maintained.
2. Specific feedback on the discussion paper


   a) General feedback
   The discussion paper states that the early years of life are the period in which the foundations
   for competence and coping skills, that affect long-term learning, behaviour and health are
   established. In this regard, the inclusion of specific regulatory requirements supportive of both
   physical activity and nutrition is considered of paramount importance. Children who develop
   healthy eating and physical activity habits from a young age are more likely to continue these
   habits in the long term.

   Policy and practice which actively promotes these behaviours can and should be supported and
   implemented via regulation.


   b) NSW Regulatory Reform Agenda

   Principles for good regulatory practice
   Section 1.7.3 of the discussion paper refers to the work of the Better Regulation Office and
   specifically to the Guide to Better Regulation. The principles for good regulatory practice
   include the requirement that a need for government action should be clearly established.

   This principle provides a supporting rationale for the inclusion of requirements for physical
   activity and nutrition in the Children’s Services Regulation. The need for a cross-government
   action to addressing overweight and obesity, through modifiable health behaviours such as
   physical activity, reduced sedentary behaviour and good nutrition, is clearly identified in the
   NSW State Plan – Priority S3 (Obesity).

   As a member of the Priority S3 (Obesity) Senior Officers Group, the DoCS was involved in an
   interagency scoping and development process, undertaken by Elton Consulting, to develop a
   Strategic Framework on which the development of a cross-government action plan to address
   overweight and obesity in NSW is based.

   The Strategic Framework identifies existing and potential policy, program and legislative
   opportunities to address obesity as well as issues relating to service delivery and funding to
   support obesity prevention and healthy lifestyle choices. The Strategic Framework also notes
   that a long-term commitment to social change, through multiple strategies, by all tiers of
   government, a broad range of government agencies, the private and not-for-profit sectors and
   the community is required to reduce obesity.

   Overweight and obesity are generally considered as health issues, however many of the causes
   and levers to reduce and prevent these issues lie outside of health settings. A range of human
   services and infrastructure portfolios have a role to play, these include education, planning,
   transport, sport and recreation and children’s services. The review of the Children’s Services
   Regulation 2004 is considered one of the primary and most powerful levers available to support
   and facilitate improved nutrition and physical activity policy and practices in NSW children’s
   services.

   Prescriptive regulatory requirements versus an outcomes-based framework

   The discussion paper proposes a significant shift in the tone of the Children’s Services
   Regulation from prescriptive measures to an outcomes-based approach. It is noted that an
   outcomes-based approach has the potential to encourage flexibility, innovation in service
   provision and reduced administrative burden. However, it is felt that the complex issues of
   nutrition and physical activity in children’s services warrant an approach which provides specific
    guidance for the implementation of key outcomes, or, at the very least the adoption of a
    regulatory approach which includes a combination of prescriptive and outcome-focused
    measures.

    As outlined in the background and supporting information for this submission, the issues of
    physical activity and nutrition are fundamental to the healthy growth and development of young
    children. Encouraging innovation and interpretation of these complex issues by local-level staff
    in children’s services has the potential to be problematic, particularly in the area of nutrition.

    Children’s services, particularly Long Day Care, which offer care to children for a large
    proportion of their day, are often providing a significant amount of their dietary intake through
    the provision of morning tea, lunch and afternoon tea. Subjective interpretation of food and
    nutrition requirements, food safety/preparation facilities and issues such as food allergies and
    intolerances from a broad outcome area is not considered appropriate in these instances.

    The value and guidance provided to children’s services staff at a local level by a more detailed,
    prescriptive approach for complex issues such as physical activity and nutrition should not be
    overlooked in shifting the focus from prescription to an outcomes focus. For example, in its
    implementation of the Munch and Move program in preschools across the state, the NSW
    Department of Health has received positive feedback from preschool directors in relation to the
    development of a physical activity policy (also covering sedentary behaviour) for their service.
    In some Area Health Services, requests have been made to local health promotion staff seeking
    stronger, more prescriptive provisions than those proposed in the Munch and Move manual.

    Specific details of the approach to nutrition and physical activity in children’s services, preferred
    by the NSW Department of Health, are outlined in the specific comments for Section Five of the
    discussion paper – safety, health and development of children.


    c) Section Five of the discussion paper - Safety, health and development of children

    The NSW Department of Health has a strong history of health promotion in children’s services in
    NSW over the past fifteen years. This has included close involvement with the development of
    food and nutrition policies and implementation guidelines for various childcare settings including
    long day care, family day care and out of school hours (OOSH) care. The experience gained
    from working in these child care settings forms the basis of the nutrition component of this
    submission.

    Qualification must be provided for the statement on page 40 of the discussion paper that
    ‘children’s exercise habits and food preferences are mainly set at home’. It is acknowledged
    that the parental influence on diet and exercise is significant. However, as children spend
    longer periods in child care the influence that these settings can have over food and activity
    choices becomes increasingly important. Children’s food preferences are moulded to a large
    extent by familiarity with food. Children’s services which encourage greater exposure to a
    variety of foods are certainly able to contribute to the development of a varied, healthy eating
    pattern for the children in their care.


    Nutrition
•   Prescriptive advice on nutrition in association with the Caring for Childreniii resource has been
    included in the Children’s Services Regulation for nearly two decades. This has provided a vital
    authoritative context for health promotion activity in children’s services. This approach should
    be retained to support further nutrition promotion, particularly in the context of the prevention of
    overweight and obesity.
•   The nutrition manual, Caring for Childreniii is the foundation for the nutrition requirements of the
    current Children’s Services Regulation 2004 for the licensing of mobile and centre-based care.
    Section 68 (5) of the current Regulation defines the Caring for Children manual as the ‘dietary
    guide for children’ on which policy documents for both mobile and centre based care services
    must be developed and maintained.

•   In addition to the policy requirements outlined in the current Regulation, s33 (food preparation
    facilities) and s54 (cooking staff) provide a support for good nutrition practices in children’s
    services.

•      In future years a number of key resources will be very useful in providing appropriate
       prescriptive provisions for early childhood nutrition. This will include the Healthy Eating and
       Physical Activity Guidelines for Early Childhood settings, the revised National Health and
       Medical Research Council Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents as well as the
       revised Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. These documents will be available in 2010.

•      Until these new resources are released, it is strongly recommended that the NSW
       Department of Health publication Caring for Children be retained in the Regulations as the
       basis for the provision of appropriate food and drink. This is a well known, comprehensive
       and high quality manual which covers a range of situations including centres where food is
       provided by the service as well as those where food is bought from home.

       The simple validated menu planning checklists in Caring for Children enable the adequacy
       of a Long Day Care menu to be assessed within 20 minutes. These checklists should
       continue to provide a practical and enforceable nutrition outcome measure for Long Day
       Care.

       It should be noted that the most recent edition of Caring for Children is the fourth edition.
       The existing Children’s Services Regulation 2004 refers to the third edition and should be
       updated to reflect the most current resource.

•      The NSW Department of Health has just published Caring for Infants. This resource
       focuses on the nutrition needs of 0-12 month old infants in child care. It is designed to
       complement the Caring for Children manual which primarily focuses on 3-5 year old
       children. It is recommended that Caring for Infants and Caring for Children are both linked
       to a food and drink outcome area and serve as the basis for prescriptive regulatory
       provisions due to the complex nature of the issue that they address.

•      The training of cooks in child care centres is of fundamental importance to the appropriate
       translation of nutrition guidelines into menus and food preparation. The intent of s54 of the
       Regulation on cooking staff needs to be retained. It must be noted however, that the
       requirements of the training need to be clarified as there appears to be confusion about
       which courses comply with the Director-General’s guidelines.


       Physical activity and sedentary behaviour
•      The absence of specific guidance for children’s services on physical activity requirements
       and limiting sedentary behaviour by young children whilst in care is considered a significant
       policy gap.

       The current regulatory provisions for children’s services deal with indoor and outdoor play
       space and facilities (s30) and development/play equipment (s40). The part of the
       Regulation which supports the operational programming for services - s64(2) provides for:
       -   A balance of indoor and outdoor experiences;
    -   The stimulation and development of each child’s social, physical, emotional and
        cognitive language and creative potential;
    -   Activities which are appropriate to the individual needs and development of each child;
    -   Engaging the interests of children;
    -   Children to freely select their own experiences; and
    -   Activities which are appropriate to the development of children.

    These broad programming provisions are not considered an adequate measure for
    children’s services to support physical activity for the healthy growth and development of the
    children in their care.

•   The NSW Department of Health strongly recommends the inclusion of a separate and
    specific outcome area in the Regulation entitled ‘Physical activity and sedentary behaviour’.
    This outcome area would include the following key statements:

    -   All children are offered a variety of movement experiences and opportunities to develop
        both gross and fundamental movement skills that are enjoyable, safe and appropriate for
        each child’s age and development; and
    -   Small screen recreation such as TV, DVD’s and computers and activities that restrict
        movement should be limited.

•   The NSW Department of Health makes the recommendation that a requirement for all
    children’s services to have a policy which deals with physical activity and sedentary
    behaviour be included in the revised Children’s Services Regulation.

    Our experience with the rollout of the Munch and Move program is that children’s services
    would actually welcome the inclusion of such a requirement. This would provide a
    benchmark for services to consider in their daily practices and learning experiences for
    children as well as providing a basis for communication to parents about appropriate
    activities and the duration of activity required for healthy growth and development of their
    child.

•   The specific national Physical Activity Recommendations for 0-5 year olds will be
    available in early 2009. Once appropriate, it would be appropriate to integrate these into
    any policy and programming requirements for children’s services.

    It is likely that these recommendations will also prescribe age-appropriate movement
    experiences for infants (birth to 12 months of age). This will primarily consider the
    development of muscular strength through movement and daily routines as well as
    supervised floor play time to encourage reflexive activity such as reaching and grasping.

•   The promotion of active play and the development of fundamental movement skills are
    considered an important part of the healthy growth and development of children under five
    years of age. The need to limit and/or reduce children’s sedentary time (particularly
    sedentary small screen recreation) within childcare settings is also critical.
Supporting information:

a)      Prevalence and trends in childhood overweight and obesity, sedentary behaviour
        and healthy eating

Overweight and Obesity
Overweight and obesity develop over time, and once they occur are difficult to treativ. Primary
prevention of overweight among young children prior to its onset is critical to stemming the obesity
epidemicv.

In recent years, Australia has seen increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children. A
number of key dietary and physical activity behaviours have been linked to a greater risk of obesity.
These include the excessive consumption of high fat, high sugar, energy dense foods and
sweetened drinks, too frequent consumption of fast foods, and increasing amounts of time spent in
sedentary behaviours.


•    The 2004 NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Surveyvi revealed that overall, the
     prevalence of overweight and obesity combined among children in NSW has risen from 20% in
     1997 to 25% in 2004 and has reached 32% in some age groups.

•    Whilst there is limited NSW prevalence or trend data for overweight and obesity for children
     aged between 2-5 years, the Longitudinal Study on Australian Children (LSAC)vii indicates that 1
     in 5 pre-schoolers are overweight or obese (15.2% overweight and 5.5% obese).

•    By the time NSW children reach kindergarten nearly 18% are either overweight or obesevi.




Physical Activity/Sedentary Behaviour
Children and young people who stay still for long periods are likely to become overweight. Time
spent in sedentary behaviours, particularly watching television, playing video games or using
computers has the potential to displace the time available for physical activity, resulting in lower
energy expenditureiv.

Research has shown a significant positive relationship between fundamental movement skill
development and participation in vigorous physical activity in pre-school childrenviii.



•    89% of four to five year olds in Australia spend more than two hours a day watching television,
     videos or DVDs. Figures such as these strongly suggest that significant sedentary behaviour
     patterns may be present in children before they reach school agevii.



Healthy Eating

•    Less than 50% of NSW children aged two to four years eat at least two serves of vegetables
     each dayix.
•    37% of NSW children aged two to four years drink one or more cups of soft drink a week, with
     over 22% drinking six or more cups a weekx.

•    Nearly 40% of two to four year old children in NSW consume potato crisps and salty snacks
     once or more a weekx.


Good nutrition is essential for optimal growth and development, both physical and cognitive.
Children between the ages of one and five are considered to be nutritionally vulnerable and, relative
to their body weight, their nutrient needs and energy requirements are greater than those for adults.

The opportunity exists to promote and incorporate simple, positive healthy eating messages around
fruit and vegetable consumption, choosing water as a drink and replacing energy dense nutrient
poor snack foods with healthy alternatives, within the early childhood setting.


b)       Risks/consequences of overweight and obesity, poor nutrition and inactivity

•        For children, the most commonly identified consequences of overweight and obesity are
         those related to psychosocial functioning, including being stigmatised and excluded by
         peers, depression, eating disorders and a reduction in self-esteem.

•        Obesity in childhood is also associated with significant physical health effects. These
         include raised blood pressure, high cholesterol and elevated blood sugarxi. Childhood
         obesity also causes a range of other problems including an increased risk of Type II
         Diabetes and orthopaedic complications such as ankle sprains and flat feet due to excessive
         weight bearing upon joints, sleep apnoea, asthma and fatty liver diseasexi.

•        There is a high risk of the persistence of childhood obesity and its associated health risks
         into adulthood, with obese children have a 25-50% chance of progression to adult obesity
         and it may be as high as 78% in older obese adolescents. Figures such as these provide a
         rationale for the priority that must be placed on the prevention of overweight and obesity
         through addressing key risk factors such as healthy eating and physical activity in children
         from an early age.

•        There is evidence that more than two hours of small screen recreation (TV, DVDs,
         computers) during the first five years of life can result in greater adiposity (obesity) levels in
         later lifexii.

•        Excessive television viewing (more than two hours a day) is detrimental to a wide range of
         educational and health outcomesxii.

•        There is no evidence that television viewing for children under the age of two years is
         beneficialxii.


c) Importance of physical activity for young children
• Physical activity is important for all children. Infants and toddlers should be given plenty of
    opportunity to move throughout the day. They should not be inactive for prolonged periods.

     Children benefit greatly from being physically active. Physical activity can:
     •   Promote healthy growth and development
     •   Build strong bones and muscles
    •   Improve balance and develop skills
    •   Maintain and develop flexibility
    •   Help achieve and maintain a healthy weight
    •   Improve cardiovascular fitness
    •   Help relaxation
    •   Improve posture
    •   Provide opportunities to make friends
    •   Improve self-esteem
                                                                                                  xiii
    (Adapted from the Australian Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 5-12 years old)


•   Physical activity during early childhood can prevent unhealthy weight gainxii.

•   Positive physical activity habits commenced in the first five years of life track to participation in
    sport and recreation activities in later lifexii.

•   Physical activity in the first five years of life plays a significant role in the development of
    movement patterns and competencexii.

•   Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS)13 are a specific set of gross motor skills that involve
    different body parts such as feet, legs, trunk, head, arms and hands. These skills are the
    foundation movements for more complex and specialised skills required for children to
    competently play different games, sports and recreational activities offered at school and in the
    community.


•   Fundamental Movement Skills form an integral part of the primary and early secondary school
    Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) curriculum in NSW. Their
    prominent position is based upon the importance of motor development to children’s physical,
    cognitive and social growth and development.xiv


•   Whilst children from two to five years of age would not expected to ‘master’ these skills,
    teaching them the basic ‘building blocks’ from a young age can provide a degree of competence
    and confidence and make children more likely to engage in regular physical activity throughout
    their lives. The earlier these skills are introduced and practised, the more confident and
    competent children will become.



References:


1. NSW Premiers Department 2006, A New Direction for NSW: State Plan,
   www.nsw.gov.au/stateplan/pdf/State_Plan_complete.pdf
2. NSW Department of Health 2008. Caring for Infants – A guide to feeding 0- 12 month old
   infants in long day care centres.
3. Bunney C and Williams L. Caring for Children: Food, nutrition and fun activities. 4th edition NSW
   Department of Health. 2005.
4. Must A. Does overweight in children have an impact on adult health? Nutrition Reviews
   2003;61(4):139-42.
5. Gill T, King L, Webb K. Best Options for Promoting Healthy Weight and Preventing Weight Gain
   in NSW. Sydney: NSW Centre for Public Health Nutrition and NSW Department of Health; 2005.
6. Booth M, Okely AD, Denney-Wilson E, Hardy L, Yang B, Dobbins T (2006) NSW Schools
   Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) 2004
7. Australian Institute of Family Studies. Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of
   Australian Children: 2004 Annual Report. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies,
   2005.
8. Butcher, J E., and W. O. Eaton. Gross and fine motor proficiency in pre-schoolers: relationships
   with free play behaviour and activity level. J. Human Movement Studies. 16:27-36, 1989)
9. NSW Department of Health – Centre for Epidemiology and Research. 2003-2004 Report on
   Child Health from the NSW Population Health Survey. Sydney: NSW Government. 2006.
10. NSW Department of Health – Centre for Epidemiology and Research. 2005-2006 Report on
    Child Health from the NSW Population Health Survey. Sydney: NSW Government. 2008.
11. Centre for Epidemiology and Research, NSW Department of Health. New South Wales Child
    Health Survey 2001. NSW Public Health Bulletin 2002; 13 (S-3)
12. Commonwealth of Australia 2008. Discussion paper for the development of physical activity
    recommendations for children under five years.
13. Department of Health & Ageing (2004) Australia’s Physical Activity Recommendations for
    Children 5-12 years of age.
14. North Coast Area Health Service (Health Promotion Unit). Tooty Fruity Vegie for Preschools –
    yet to be published.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags: Health
Stats:
views:7
posted:4/19/2013
language:
pages:12