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					            Unit Four
   Text I: Writing Between the Lines
Text II : Handling the Knowledge Explosion
            Unit Four
 Objectives:
  Text I is intended for intensive study,
  where much attention is given to reading
  skills and writing skills. Through studying
  this text the students are supposed to
  learn more of the expository writing
  intended to inform a general audience.
  They will learn more information on taking
  notes besides learning some useful words,
  expressions and sentence patterns.
Text II is intended for extensive
 reading practice, and it takes less
 time than Text I. Through learning
 this passage the students are
 supposed to read for main idea and
 general understanding while thinking
 actively besides learning some new
 words and expressions.
 Setting the Scene

Have you heard of the phrase “read
between the lines”? What does it
mean?
Pre-reading Questions

        Could you please guess the
  meaning of write between the
  lines? Should it be taken literally
  or figuratively in this text? What
  might be the content of the text?
    Cultural Background
• Mortimer Jerome Adler
 Mortimer Jerome Adler, born 1902 in New
 York City, was an American philosopher,
 educator, and author. He began his career
 as a secretary and copywriter for the NEW
 YORK SUN and through a program of
 formal and self education was awarded a
 Phd. from Columbia
  University (1928).
Adler, who became associate professor there in
1930, continued to participate in the Honors
program, instituted by John Erskine, which
focused on the reading of the classics. His tenure
at Columbia included study with such eminent
thinkers as Erskine and John Dewey. This kind of
environment inspired not only his interest in
reading and the study of the "great" books of
"Western Civilization," but his insistence on the
establishment of an integrated philosophy of
science, literature, and religion.
Detailed Study of the Text

 The whole class discuss the text
 paragraph by paragraph; point out the
 topic sentence or summarize the main
 idea of each paragraph; notice the
 choices of words and review some
 grammatical rules learnt.
          Language Points

 Para.1:
• read between the lines: to understand from a
  situation which is not actually stated; find more
  meaning than the words appear to express

  e.g. She said she was managing all right, but
       reading between the lines I could see she was
       tired.
• c.f. write between the lines: take notes between
  lines
• get…out of: gain/ obtain… from
  e.g. I get a lot out of Professor Wang’s lectures.
       The writer gets a lot out of his experiences.
  c.f. get out: become known
  e.g. If the secret gets out there’ll be trouble.

    get out of sth/doing sth: avoid (a responsibility
 or duty)
 e.g. I wish I could get out of (going to) that meeting.
• persuade: v. induce, meaning to win someone over,
  as by reasons, advice, urging, or personal
  forcefulness
  e.g. How can we persuade him into joining us?
       His parents persuaded him out of playing on-
       line games.
       He persuaded his wife to change her mind.

  c.f. induce: v. to persuade sb to do sth usually
 that does not seem wise
 e.g. What induced you to do such a foolish thing?
• be likely to do: probably do
  e.g. It is likely to rain.
       Are you likely to be in London this year?
       An accident is likely to happen at that intersection.
       It’s highly likely that he will succeed.

 as likely as not: (spoken) very probably
 e.g. It’ll snow this afternoon, as likely as not.
      As likely as not, they have learned the news already.
 Para 2:
• contend: v. to argue, claim
  e.g. The official in the tax office contended
       that the shopkeeper was innocent.
       I contend that I did not cheat in the exam.
       to contend against/with sb for sth

• mark up: make marks in/on
  e.g. mark up goods(标出定价)
       mark up desk/wall
Para 3.
• only when: Notice that when “only” is
  at the beginning of a sentence, the
  sentence order is inverted.
  e.g. You know whether you can do it or
  not only when you have tried it.

    Only when you have tried it do you
 know whether you can do it or not.
• transfer from…to: to move (sth) from one
  place, etc. to another

  e.g. The truck transfers goods from Tsing Tao
       to Weihai everyday.

     The office was transferred from Shanghai
     to Hangzhou.
• in the most important sense: in the
  full/real/most important meaning (of the word)

 Other examples:
 I think he may be right in a sense.

  Psychologists are also aware that both language
  and learning are in some sense social phenomena.

 The word “transfer” can be used in a few senses.
 In its broad sense it is similar to “move”, but in
 its narrow/strict sense it is not.

  in the best/figurative/full/literal/proper sense
• absorb: take sth in
  e.g. This job absorbs all of my time.
       The novel absorbed his attention. (attract his
       attention)

  c.f. be absorbed in: be wholly engaged/engrossed in
  e.g. He is absorbed in his study.
       She was completely absorbed in her own affairs.
       He found his uncle absorbed in the reading of a
       workers’ newspaper.
• do sb good: benefit sb
   e.g. Eat more fruit; it will do you
  good.
        Her holiday had done her good.
        Word-by-word reading method
  doesn’t do you good to improve your
  reading speed.
 Para. 4:
• restrain: v. hold back, stop sb from doing
  sth, often by using physical force
  e.g. We had to restrain him from using
  violence.

      I can't restrain my anger when I hear
  of people being cruel to animals.

     Price rises should restrain consumer
  spending.
• dog-eared: worn with the corners of the leaves
  folded over
  e.g. A dog-eared book must be a well-read book.
  Other similar phrases:
       horse-faced (脸形长的)
       dove-eyed (眼神柔和的)

• respect for: Notice the preposition “for”. Also see
  Line 29 and Line 30
   e.g. have no respect for old people/law
• from front to back: from cover to cover.
  e.g. Some “popular papers” are not worth reading
       from front to back.

  Other similar phrases:
     from beginning to end
     from end to end
 Para. 5:
• intact: undamaged, complete
  e.g. The terra cotta warriors in the Qin tombs
       were found to be intact.
       He lived on the interest and kept his capital
       intact.
       The vase that dropped remained intact.
        keep/leave sth intact

• no more…than: See Para. 2 of Text IA, Unit 2
  e.g. I can no more play tennis than I can play golf.
• so to speak: as it is, if I may say so
  e.g. Many Korean actresses, so to speak, are
       surgically perfected beauties.
       He is, so to speak, our king.

•   be inseparable from: can’t be separated from
    e.g. Taiwan Island is inseparable from China’s
         mainland.
         Britain’s economic fortunes are inseparable
         from the world situation.
 Para. 6:
• score: n. a written copy of a piece of music
   e.g. Have you a copy of the score of this opera?
        He wrote scores for many hit musicals.
        Follow the score while listening to music.

• Other examples:
        The final score was two goals to nil.
        The score was 2-0 for the home team.
   a score: 20
   scores of: a large number of
   e.g. There were scores of people waiting.

• confuse…with…: to fail to tell the difference between
   e.g. The twins resemble each other so much that I often
        confuse the elder sister with the younger one.
• get in the way: make it difficult for sth to
  happen
  e.g. He never gets in anybody’s way.
       Don’t leave your bicycle there; it will get in
       the way of pedestrians.
       Her social life got in the way of her studies.
       My poor pronunciation gets in the way when I
       communicate in English with others.
  Other examples:
      I’m afraid your car is in the way.
      If you want to go abroad, we won’t stand in
     your way.
 Para.7:
• be indispensable to: be essential/necessary to
  e.g. Just as water is vital to fish, air is indispensable
       to man.
       Books are indispensable to a scholar.

  More examples:
    A balanced diet is indispensable for good health.
    Your help is indispensable for the success of the
    project.
• tend to do: have a tendency to do, be likely to do
  e.g. Prices tend to come down.
       People tend to get fat when they are getting old.

• think through: to consider fully
  e.g. You have to think through all the considerations
       before you make a decision.
      Think it through carefully before you give me
       your final decision.
   Para.8:
• glide: v. move in a smooth, quiet and continuous
  manner, as is characteristic of dances
  e.g. A submarine glided silently through the water.
       The years glided past.
       Swans are gliding gracefully on the lake.
       The dancers glided over the floor of the room.
• c.f. slide: v. move rapidly and easily, suggesting
  accelerated motion without loss of contact with the
  slippery surface
  e.g. The children like sliding down the stairs.
        Hearing his mother coming in, Tom slid his
        toy quickly out of sight under the pillow and
        started to read.

slip: v. move smoothly or unnoticed, suggesting
    involuntary rather than voluntary, and a loss of
    footing and a fall
    e.g. My foot slipped on a banana peel and I nearly
  fell.
         His name slipped my mind.
• come up with: think of (a plan/an answer/a reply/a
  solution/a suggestion, etc.); produce, find
  e.g. He came up with a new idea for increasing sales.
       The teacher asked a difficult question, but finally
       Ted came up with a good answer.
       Scientists will have to come up with new methods
       of increasing the world’s food supply.

  come up with an understanding: develop or produce
  an interpretation
• require: v. here, call for, the same as demand in
  Line 41

    Generally require indicates pressing need.
    e.g. require presence/patience/obedience
        /precision/greater efforts

•   c.f. demand: indicating asking for as an order
    e.g. demand passport/payment of the debt/a
         million dollars ransom
• be rich in: contain a lot
  e.g. China is rich in oil and other natural resources.
       Oranges are rich in vitamin C.
      This play is rich in humor.
       Our home is always rich in love and understanding.

  c.f. teem with: have sth in large numbers
  e.g. The river was teeming with fish.
       His mind is teeming with bright ideas.
 Para.9:
• set sth down: to write/note/jot down
  e.g. Why don’t you set your ideas down on paper?
       I will set down the story as it was told to me.
       Rules have been set down and must be obeyed.
       I’ll set down one or two points while they are
       fresh in my mind.

  set sb down: (of a vehicle) stop and allow (a
                passenger to get off)
  e.g. The bus stopped to set down an old lady.
• sharpen: to make sharp
  e.g. Please sharpen this pencil.
       Debates sharpen one’s wits.
       sharpen those questions (to make those
       questions clear in mind)
 Para.10:
• margin: n.
  a. a space near the edge of a page
     e.g. Make notes in the margin of your book.
          Draw a margin 1 inch wide down the edge of
          your paper.
  b. an amount allowed beyond what is needed
     e.g. Our plans allowed a wide margin for error.
          We allow a margin of 15 minutes in catching
          the train.
  c. (in business) the difference between the buying
     and selling price
     e.g. a business operating on a tight/small/narrow
          margin of profit
         gross margin
         win by a wide/narrow/significant margin
• pick up: take hold of
  e.g. The bird pick up a worm.
       She picked up her handbag and left.

• pick up (Line 56): start again
  e.g. They picked up the conversation after an
       interruption.
       We picked up the work where we left off.

 More collocations:
 pick up one’s courage/spirit/knowledge of/
 information/bad habits/speed/oneself(再爬起来)
 The firm is picking up.
• leave off sth /doing sth: stop doing sth
  e.g. It’s time to leave off work. (下班)
       Leave off whistling like that.
       She left off sobbing at last, and dried her eyes
       with her handkerchief.

  More examples:
    The rain has left off.
    We will start at the point where we left off.
    leave off bad habits(戒坏习惯)
    begin where one’s father left off(继承父业)
 Para.11:
• be supposed to: be expected to, be required to
  e.g. You are supposed to pay the bill by Friday.
       Every pupil is supposed to be in his classroom
       at 9 a.m.
       What is he supposed to be doing now?
• consist in: have sth as its chief element; be based on
  e.g. The beauty of the plan consists in its simplicity.
       Happiness does not consists in how many
  possessions you own.
       Education does not consist simply in learning a lot
       of facts.

• c.f. consist of: be made up/composed of
  e.g. UK consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
       A university consists of teachers, administrators
       and students.
            Our dinner consisted of three courses only.
       Assignment

    Do you think writing between the
lines is really an effective way of
reading? Please make a list of
efficient reading skills.
 Text II: Handling the Knowledge
            Explosion

 Questions to think about:
1. Instead of eliminating or disregarding the
   knowledge explosion, what can we do about it?
2. What is our greatest reading problem?
3. What is the difference between “ finding
   time to read” and “making time to read”?
4. What do you do if you make time to read? How
   can you do more hours of reading a week if you
   spend only an hour a day?
5. What are the three brakes that slow down your
   reading speed?
6. What solution to the problem of slow reading
    speed does the author suggest?

				
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